Lethrinitrema gibbus n. g., n. sp. and L. dossenus n. sp. are described from the fish Lethrinus rubrioperculatus Sato collected off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Members of Lethrinitrema n. g. (Ancyrocephalidae) are characterised by having two pyriform haptoral reservoirs and ventral anchors with lateral grooves. The elongate tubular distal end of each reservoir bifurcates, draining into a superficial lateral groove on each side of the ventral anchors. The haptoral reservoirs are postulated to store secretory products which assist in attachment to the host. Lethrinitrema spp. also possess tandem gonads, a male copulatory organ without an accessory piece or with thinly sclerotised accessory piece, and a dextrolateral, non-sclerotised vaginal bulb. The two new species have small, poorly demarcated haptors with small haptoral armament and a crown-like piece on the tip of the inner root of the ventral anchors. They differ from each other in the shape and size of the ventral bar and male copulatory organ (40-45 μm in length in L. gibbus vs 24-30 μm in L. dossenus). Three other species, previously included in Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, are transferred to Lethrinitrema, i.e. L. chrysostomi (Young, 1968) n. comb., L. fleti (Young, 1968) n. comb. (both briefly redescribed from paratypes) and L. lethrini (Yamaguti, 1937) n. comb. All species of Lethrinitrema parasitise Lethrinus spp. (Lethrinidae), and there is evidence for the existence of further Lethrinitrema spp. on Lethrinus spp. in the Indo-Pacific region.
Four new and one unidentified species of Neohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1965 were obtained from the gills of the Indo-Pacific sergeant Abudefduf vaigensis (Quoy & Gaimard) off Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia. The five species, N. malayense n. sp., N. bombini n. sp., N. andamanense n. sp., N. parvum n. sp. and an unidentified Neohaliotrema sp. (similar to N. macracanthum Zhukov, 1976), are described and distinguished based mainly on features of the haptor. Species of this genus are divisible into two groups, the 'maomao group', with two pairs of morphometrically modified 'marginal' hooks and a fenestrated haptor, and the 'gracile group', with morphologically similar marginal hooks and an entire haptor. With the exception of N. bombini n. sp., the species described fit within the 'maomao group'. It is suggested that the more complex Neohaliotrema species of the 'maomao group' have modified hooks 1 and 2 on a haptoral 'isthmus' between two large apertures, i.e. 'windows', whereas the less complex species lacking these features are those of the 'gracile group'. Neohaliotrema spp. have only a single pair of pigmented eye-spots. A fenestrated haptor is unique to the Neohaliotrema spp. of the 'maomao group'. The generic diagnosis of Neohaliotrema is amended to include new data and a key to its known species is presented.
Culturing fishes in marine cages is a rapidly developing area of marine aquaculture. The Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) is a fast growing good quality fish that is readily cultured in intensive systems in the South Asian region and in Malaysia in particular. Although several papers have been published to date on viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal organisms causing diseases in the Asian seabass, the occurrence of a coccidian infection in this species has only recently been recorded. We collected sporulated and unsporulated oöcysts of a new species of Goussia Labbé, 1986, from the mucus covering the epithelium of the intestine of L. calcarifer. This paper provides a description of Goussia kuehae n. sp. Sporulated oöcysts of this species are ellipsoidal, 37-40 μm in length and 28-30 μm in width. The ellipsoidal sporocysts are relatively small, 15.2-17 × 5.7-8 μm, and located loosely in the oöcyst. There are residual bodies both in the oöcysts and the sporocysts. Goussia kuehae n. sp. differs from all known species of Goussia in the large size of the oöcysts and in having two types of oöcyst residuum.
One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided.
Numerous specimens of Ancyrocephaloides triacanthi Yamaguti, 1938 and A. chauhani Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1975 were collected from two triacanthid fishes, Triacanthus biaculeatus and Tripodichthys blochii, off Peninsular Malaysia. The two monogenean species are redescribed and considered to be the only valid species of Ancyrocephaloides Yamaguti, 1938. Examinations of these worms revealed new features, e.g. the presence of exudates (both net-like and bundle-like) and superficial grooves in the anchors in both species, which necessitated re-descriptions of the two species and amendments to the generic diagnosis. Both species have relatively small anchors with two lateral superficial grooves along the shaft and point, peduncular glands and four large, pyriform secretory reservoirs in the peduncular-haptoral region, each with a single tubular extension to an associated anchor, and net-like structures (exudate) attached to the anchors. The net-like structures are one of the external manifestations of the secretion produced in the peduncular glands and stored in the pyriform secretory reservoirs. When released within the gill-tissue of the host, the exudate is in the form of bundles which extend within the gill-filament. The small anchors convey secretions from the secretory reservoirs via lateral superficial grooves into the gills as the anchors pierce the host tissue for attachment. The secretion coagulates as left and right thread-like bundles of exudate within the gill tissues and is only apparent as nets when it is released into the surrounding water. The recurved point of the anchor and position of the point of exudation allow the nets to remain attached to the anchor point, even after the detachment of the anchors from the gill tissue. This exudate possibly acts somewhat like a 'belay device' or 'safety belt', preventing the parasite from being washed away by the respiratory current during the onset of its leech-like locomotion, as well as assist the relatively small anchors in attachment.
Two known and two new species of Diplectanocotyla Yamaguti, 1953 (D. gracilis Yamaguti, 1953, D. megalopis Rakotofiringa & Oliver, 1987, D. langkawiensis n. sp. and D. parva n. sp.) were collected from Megalops cyprinoides (Megalopidae) off Langkawi, Kedah and Matang, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. All four species possess similar types of sclerotised male and female reproductive structures and similar soft anatomical features. The squamodisc sclerites of all four species have spine-like projections with varying degrees of visibility and shapes (sharp-pointed to triangular). In D. megalopis and D. langkawiensis n. sp. the spines are sharp-pointed and distinct on sclerites from rows 5-6 onwards. In D. gracilis and D. parva n. sp. the sclerite spines are triangular, lightly sclerotised and occur on almost all of the sclerites. D. parva n. sp. has comparatively the smallest set of anchors, bars, squamodiscs and squamodisc suckers. The anchors and bars of the other three species are almost similar in overall size, and the main distinguishing feature is the relative lengths of the inner and outer roots of the ventral anchors. In D. gracilis the outer root is very much smaller than the inner root and they are disposed almost at a right angle to each other. In D. megalopis the outer root is usually about half the length of the inner root and the roots are inclined at c.60 degrees to each other. In D. langkawiensis n. sp. the roots are inclined at c.40 degrees degrees and the outer root is of a similar length or only slightly shorter than the inner root. The openings of the two squamodisc suckers of all four Diplectanocotyla species are surrounded by tiny scale-like spines. Bifid tegumental spines are found in the posterior region of all four species, differing only in their extent: in D. parva n. sp. the tegumental spines are only distributed in the peduncular region and not beyond, whilst in the other three species the tegumental spines extend from the posterior level of the testis to the end of the peduncle. An amended diagnosis of Diplectanocotyla and a key to its species are appended.
Sixteen labrid species, including four Bodianus spp., were examined in New Caledonia (South Pacific) and monogeneans were found only on Bodianus perditio (Quoy et Gaimard). This species, Haliotrema banana sp. n., is the second Haliotrema species to be described from the labrids, the first being Haliotrema bodiani Yamaguti, 1968 from Bodianus albotaeniatus (Valenciennes), previously designated as B. bilunulatus (Lacépède). The new species is similar to H. bodiani in soft reproductive parts but differs from it in the morphologies of the hard haptoral parts, mainly in the shape of the dorsal bar (bar-shaped vs V-shaped in H. bodiani) and ventral bar. It is similar to Haliotrema spirale Yamaguti, 1968 and Haliotrema minutospirale Yamaguti, 1968 in the shape of the anchors and bars but differs from them in the detailed structures of the copulatory organ and vaginal system.
A new genus of the Monogenea, Teraplectanum n. g., is proposed for two new species of diplectanids found on the gills of Terapon theraps Cuvier collected off Carey Island, Peninsular Malaysia. The genus is based on a unique arrangement of the male reproductive system. In the new species spermatozoa stored in the seminal vesicle and secretions stored in the prostatic reservoir are transferred into, and mixed to form semen within, a special sclerotized auxiliary piece (SAP), and not within the copulatory tube as occurs in the majority of monogeneans. Teraplectanum species also possess a unique sclerotized vaginal loop through which the vaginal tube passes en route from the vaginal pore to the seminal receptacle. The two new species are Teraplectanum crassitubus n. sp. (type species) and T. angustitubus n. sp. They differ from each other mainly in the morphology of their copulatory tube: in T. crassitubus, the proximal region of this tube is thicker compared to the slender proximal region in T. angustitubus, although in both cases the tube tapers and twists distally. Of the known diplectanid species, only Diplectanum undulicirrosum Zhang et al., 2000 (currently considered incertae sedis) possesses such sclerotized hard parts, which suggests the same type of arrangement of the male reproductive system. Consequently, D. undulicirrosum is re-assigned to this new genus as Teraplectanum undulicirrosum (Zhang et al., 2000) n. comb. The copulatory tube of T. undulicirrosum is similar to the slender, undulating copulatory tube of T. angustitubus but does not taper distally as in the latter species.
The authors studied the myxosporean infection of wild gobiid fishes (Perciformes: Gobioidei) in the Merang Estuary of Terengganu, Malaysia, and described Myxobolus ophiocarae sp. n. in Ophiocara porocephala. Several myxosporean plasmodia were found intralamellarly within the gill filaments. The spores differed from those of other Myxobolus species previously recorded on gobiid fishes. They were round in valvular view and lens-shaped in sutural view, and had two equal-sized, pyriform polar capsules with polar filaments having six to seven turns. The spores measured 10.34 × 8.79 × 4.53 μm. The 18S rDNA sequence of M. ophiocarae sp. n., based on a contiguous sequence of 1,789 base pairs, differed from any other Myxobolus spp. in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA gene revealed that this species showed the closest similarity to Myxobolus nagaraensis, Myxobolus lentisuturalis, and Myxobolus cultus.
The high prevalence (80-100%) of the marine leech Zeylanicobdella arugamensis (De Silva) on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) led us to investigate the percentage of juvenile leeches hatched from deposited cocoons, survival of juvenile and adult marine leeches at different salinity and temperature. The results showed that the hatching percentage of juvenile leeches was highest at salinity of 30 ppt (32.5 ± 2.8%) followed by 20 ppt (18.0 ± 4.3%) and 10 ppt (12.1 ± 1.4%), respectively. It was found that the adult and juvenile leeches could live up to an average range of 4-7 days at salinity ranging from 10 to 40 ppt. The juvenile leeches were able to hatch at temperature ranging from 25 to 35 °C but unable to hatch at 40 °C. The survival period of adult and juvenile leeches ranged from 11 to 16 days at 25 °C, which was comparatively longer than 5-13 days and 10 h--5 days at 27-30 °C and 35-40 °C, respectively. The study provided the information on the physical parameters of salinity and temperature which are most optimal for the marine leech Z. arugamensis to propagate.
Snapper had been cultured in Malaysia since 1980 due to the fry availability and the high demand. However, details on the caligids infestation were not properly documented. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, mean intensity and site preference of Caligus rotundigenitalis (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida) a parasitic copepod on cage cultured crimson snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus from Bukit Tambun, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 70 specimens of cultured snapper were examined based on different infestation sites such as head, body as well as operculum. The specimens were separated into three groups according to the size of the fish. C. rotundigenitalis was found to be the only species infesting L. erythropterus with the prevalence and the mean intensity of 81.4% and 5.6±4.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the prevalence of site infestation of the body and inner operculum sites. The prevalence of C. rotundigenitalis was highest on inner operculum of the fish followed by the body and head. However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of C. rotundigenitalis over the different infestation sites derived from the three groups. The information obtained from this study can be used for more effective control measures of ectoparasitic copepod infestation in floating cages.
Monogeneans identified as Sinodiplectanotrema malayanum n. sp. were collected from the fish Pennahia anea (Sciaenidae) off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The new species is recognised on the basis of morphometrical differences in the anchors, marginal hooks and eggs and apparent differences in the 28S rDNA sequence data. The new species possesses features (ovary looping the intestinal caecum, body spines, a vagina and haptoral reservoirs) not noted in the original description of the type and only other species of the genus, S. argyrosomus Zhang, 2001, necessitating the re-assignment of the genus to the Diplectanidae Monticelli, 1903, a move which is supported by 28S rDNA evidence. Sinodiplectanotrema is redefined on the basis of the observation of several features not included in the original diagnosis.
The presently reported study provides a detailed morphological description of the female and the male of a new species of the genus Parabrachiella-Parabrachiella jarai sp. nov. The parasites were sampled from marine fish, silver sillago, Sillago sihama (Perciformes: Sillaginidae), captured in Malaysia in 1994 and Hong Kong in 1995. The new species bears some resemblance to Parabrachiella lata (Song et Chen, 1976) but differs from it in details of second antenna, mandible, and maxilliped. The genus Parabrachiella currently covers 67 species including those recently transferred from Neobrachiella Kabata, 1979. An amended generic diagnosis is proposed for Parabrachiella and Thysanote. Some members of Parabrachiella are herewith transferred to Thysanote and some Thysanote are now placed in Parabrachiella.
A new nematode species, Paraphilometroides nemipteri sp. n. is described from the female specimens collected from the dorsal fin and operculum of the marine perciforme fish, Nemipterus peronii off Kuala Terengganu coastal waters in Malaysia. It considerably differs from all other species in Philometridae in the structure of the head end (presence of wide dorsal and ventral cephalic cuticular alae supported by special inner transverse muscular formations) and, therefore, a new genus Paraphilometroides gen. n. has been erected to accommodate it. Additional characteristic features of P. nemipteri are the presence of cuticular bosses on the body, eight cephalic papillae in the outer circle and four small papillae in the inner circle, and the absence of caudal protrusions.
Three species of Opisthomonorcheides Parukhin, 1966 are reported for the first time from Indonesian waters: O. pampi (Wang, 1982) Liu, Peng, Gao, Fu, Wu, Lu, Gao & Xiao, 2010 and O. ovacutus (Mamaev, 1970) Machida, 2011 from Parastromateus niger (Bloch), and O. decapteri Parukhin, 1966 from Atule mate (Cuvier). Both O. pampi and O. ovacutus can now be considered widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, with earlier records of these species being from Fujian Province, China and Penang, Malaysia, respectively. We redescribe O. decapteri from one of its original hosts, Atule mate, off New Caledonia, and report this species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, extending its range throughout the Indian Ocean into the south-western Pacific. All three species possess a genital atrium that is long, sometimes very long, and a genital pore that is located in the forebody. This validates the interpretation that the original description was erroneous in reporting the genital pore in the hindbody, well posterior to the ventral sucker. These observations verify the synonymy of Retractomonorchis Madhavi, 1977 with Opisthomonorcheides. A major discrepancy between the species of Opisthomonorcheides is that some are described with the uterus entering the terminal organ laterally and some with it entering terminally; this feature needs further analysis. Based on the length of the genital atrium and the posterior extent of the vitellarium, the 27 species of Opisthomonorcheides considered valid can be divided into four groups. Among the 53 host records analysed, the families Carangidae (53% of records), Stromateidae (17%) and Serranidae (5.7%) are the most common; the reports are overwhelmingly from members of the Perciformes (91%), with further records in the Clupeiformes (5.7%), Gadiformes (1.9%) and Pleuronectiformes (1.9%). Two fish genera (Parastromateus Bleeker and Pampus Bonaparte) dominate the recorded hosts, with the black pomfret Parastromateus niger harbouring six species, the silver pomfret Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen) harbouring six, and the Chinese silver pomfret P. chinensis (Euphrasen) two. A host-parasite checklist is presented. We discuss the host-specificity of members of the genus, questioning some records such as that of O. decapteri in a deep-sea macrourid. We also comment on the morphological similarity, but phylogenetic distance, between the various Pomfret species, advancing the possibility that a series of host misidentifications has occurred. Sequences of the ITS2 rDNA gene generated for O. pampi and O. ovacutus are briefly discussed and molecular data are lodged in the GenBank database.
Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.
To examine the phylogeographical pattern of Tetrancistrum nebulosi (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) in the South China Sea, fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes were obtained for 220 individuals collected from 8 localities along the southeast coast of China and 1 locality in Terengganu, Malaysia. Based on these two genes, two and three distinct clades with geographic signals were revealed on the phylogenetic trees respectively. The divergence between these clades was estimated to occur in the late Pleistocene. Analysis of molecular variance and pairwise FSTsuggested a high rate of gene flow among individuals sampled from the Chinese coast, but with obvious genetic differentiation from the Malaysian population. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated that the T. nebulosi population experienced expansion in Pleistocene low sea level periods. Vicariance was considered to account for the genetic divergence between Chinese and Malaysian populations, while sea level fluctuations and mainland-island connections during glacial cycles were associated with the slight genetic divergence between the populations along the mainland coast of China and those off Sanya. On the contrary, oceanographic circulations and host migration could lead to genetic homogeneity of populations distributed along the mainland coast of China.
In February 2013, forty-seven Notched threadfin bream, the Nemipterus peronii, were sampled from the eastern coastal waters of the South China Sea. The concentration of various elements, namely cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed in the liver, muscle, and kidney organs of the host, as well as in their parasites Hysterothalycium reliquens (nematode) and the Paraphilometroides nemipteri (nematode), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The former group of parasites showed highest accumulation capacity for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Ni, and Zn while the latter group had high accumulation potential of As, Hg, Cd, Al, Pb, and Sr. The divergence in heavy-metal accumulation profiles of both nematodes is linked with the specificity of microhabitats, cuticle morphology, and interspecific competition. The outcome of this study indicates that both parasite models can be used for biomonitoring of metal pollution in marine ecosystems.
Cryptocaryoniasis (also known as marine white spot disease) is mediated by Cryptocaryon irritans. This obligate ectoparasitic protozoan infects virtually all marine teleosts, which includes Lates calcarifer, a highly valuable aquaculture species. Little is known about L. calcarifer-C. irritans interactions. This study was undertaken to gain an informative snapshot of the L. calcarifer transcriptomic response over the course of C. irritans infection. An in-house fabricated cDNA microarray slides containing 3872 probes from L. calcarifer liver and spleen cDNA libraries were used as a tool to investigate the response of L. calcarifer to C. irritans infection. Juvenile fish were infected with parasites for four days, and total RNA was extracted from liver tissue, which was harvested daily. We compared the transcriptomes of C. irritans-infected liver to uninfected liver over an infection period of four days; the comparison was used to identify the genes with altered expression levels in response to C. irritans infection. The greatest number of infection-modulated genes was recorded at 2 and 3 days post-infection. These genes were mainly associated with the immune response and were associated in particular with the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins such as hepcidin, C-type lectin and serum amyloid A are among the highly modulated genes. Our results indicate that an induced acute phase response in L. calcarifer toward C. irritans infection is similar to the responses observed in bacterial infections of teleosts. This response demonstrates the importance of first line defenses in teleost innate immune responses against ectoparasite infection.
A study of the anterior adhesive apparatus (head organs) of Bravohollisia gussevi Lim, 1995 was carried out using light and electron microscopy. The anterior adhesive apparatus or head organs in B. gussevi comprise 6 circular openings or apertures in the antero-lateral region, associated pits lined with specialized microvillous tegument that differ from the general body tegument, a bundle of ducts, and uninucleate gland cells located lateral to the pharynx. The uninucleate glands of the anterior adhesive apparatus (head organs) comprise 2 types of cells, one kind of cell producing rod-like bodies (S1) and the other oval bodies (S2). The S1 bodies are filled with numerous, less electron-dense vesicles in an electron-dense matrix, while S2 bodies have no vesicles but contain a more homogeneous electron-dense matrix. Interlinking band-like structures were observed between S1 bodies. Similar band-like structures were found between S2 bodies. The formation of S1 bodies was followed by transmission electron microscopy. However, the formation of S2 bodies was unclear and could not be resolved. Uniciliated structures were also observed around the openings of the anterior adhesive apparatus. Each uniciliated structure is usually associated with an opening of a gland cell producing granular, electron-dense, secretory bodies, which differ from the secretions produced by the lateral gland cells of the anterior adhesive apparatus.