Freshwater snails, Stenomelania denisoniensis (Brot) from Tinaroo Dam, North Queensland, Australia were found to be infected with a heterophyid cercaria identified as Procerovum sp. The tail of the cercaria has finfolds which are bilateral anteriorly and dorso-ventral posteriorly, features which separate it from other genera in the Haplorchis-group. This group is differentiated from the cercariae of all the other heterophyid genera by the presence of the penetration glands that extend to the posterior end of the body lateral to the excretory bladder. This paper presents a full description of the cercaria, together with comparisons with other known species of Procerovum.
Three-dimensional (3D) models of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal modelling method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the modelled 3D structures. Appropriately orientated 3D haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent 3D outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete 3D haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing 3D models from 2D illustrations for 3D visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms.
Sundatrema langkawiense n. g., n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) is described from the gills of the orbfish Ephippus orbis (Bloch) (Ephippidae) off the Island of Langkawi, Malaysia, in the Andaman Sea. This new genus has the ancyrocephalid characteristics of four anchors, 14 marginal hooks and two bars, but differs from other four-anchored monogenean genera, and notably from Parancylodiscoides Caballero & Bravo Hollis, 1961 (found on the ephippids Chaetodipterus spp. off Central and South America), by having a unique combination of features. These include a muscular genital sucker and a vas deferens and vagina on the same (sinistral) side of the body. It is similar to Parancylodiscoides in having four haptoral reservoirs opening at the anchoral apertures, four anchors, similar connecting bars and small marginal hooks. The new species is characterised by the above generic features and by possessing a small, short copulatory organ lacking an accessory piece. Diplectanum longiphallus MacCallum, 1915 (previously attributed to Ancyrocephalus Creplin, 1839, Tetrancistrum Goto & Kikuchi, 1917 and Pseudohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953) is transferred to Parancylodiscoides as P. longiphallus (MacCallum, 1915) n. comb.
Neopolystoma liewi sp. n. is described from the conjunctival cavity of the Malayan box turtle Cuora amboinensis (Daudin, 1802), in Peninsular Malaysia. This is the first record of Neopolystoma in Malaysia and the fourth polystomatid species described from C. amboinensis. Of the 27 Malayan box turtles examined, 8 were found to be infected. A maximum of 2 parasites per eye and 4 individuals per host was recorded. N. liewi sp. n. differs from all other members of the genus by possessing few and short genital spines and small marginal hooks. The oncomiracidium has 64 ciliated cells arranged symmetrically about the sagittal axis.
A new digenean, Allassogonoporus callosciuri n. sp. from the plantain squirrel Callosciurus notatus from the Malaysian state of Sarawak, Borneo, is described. The new species differs from: A. amphoraeformis by the size of the ventral sucker and the position of the vitellarium and uterus; and from A. marginalis by the smaller oral sucker, the position of the testes and vitellarium; from A. vespertilionis by the position of the vitellarium, testes and ovary; from A. asymmetrica by the position of the testes and uterus. Gilford's (1955) and Dubois' (1963) opinions on the synonymy of Allassogonoporus and Myotitrema is supported. No representatives of the family Allassogonoporidae have been reported previously from sciurids or South-East Asia.
Parapleurogonius brevicecum gen. et sp. n. is described from the freshwater turtle, Kachuga trivittata, in Selangor, Malaysia. Parapleurogonius is most closely related to Pleurogonius Looss, 1901, but from which it can be distinguished by the termination of the ceca at or just overlapping the anterior border of the testes and the pretesticular position of the excretory pore. Additionally, Parapleurogonius is described from a freshwater turtle, whereas Pleurogonius is only known from marine hosts.
Stunkardia minuta sp. n. was recovered from the small intestine and rectum of 5 box-tortoises (Cuora amboinensis) in Malaysia. The average body size (L X W) is 11-42 X 2-35 mm; oral sucker 1-51 X 1.02; oral pouches 0-21 X 0.18; ventral sucker 1-67 X 1-43; oesophageal bulb 0-54 X 0-54; ant. testis 0-95 X 0-98; post. testis 0-94 X 0.94; seminal vesicle 0-82 X 0-24; ootype 0-21 X 0-41; ovary 0-41 X 0-34; and egg 121 X 83 micrometer. Although morphologically similar to S. dilymphosa, S. minuta is distinct from any other reported member of the Paramphistomidae.
A description of sensory receptors of Trichobilharzia brevis is given. They are compared with the five Schistosomatidae described by Richard (1971), namely, Trichobilharzia ocellata, schistosoma mansoni, S. bovis, S; haematobium and S. rodhaini. All these species display very similar chaetotaxic characters. In the study of the cercaria of Haplorchis pumilio, comparison with the few Opisthorchioidea cercarial sensory organs already known has enabled the authors to characterise the chaetotaxy for this superfamily.
Neodiplostomum (Conodiplostomum) ramachandrani sp. n. is described from Rattus muelleri in Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia. It is characterised by having symmetrical dumbell-shaped testes, and vitellaria as a single ventral band in the hindbody. The taxonomic relations of Neodiplostomum, Conodiplostomum and Fibricola are discussed and possible significance of the fluke as an ecological indicator noted.
Mesocoelium malayanum sp. n. is described from the frog Rana macrodon, in Malaysia. Elongate body, broader anteriorly, measuring 1.900 (1.679-2.070) mm long by 0.404 (0.380-0.437) wide, tegument aspinose oral sucker 0.212 (0.200-0.228) by 0.202 (9.191-0.205), acetabulum 0.141 (0.132-0.150) by 0.139 (0.123-0.146), prepharynx present, oesophagus 0.115 (0.096-0.137), caeca reaching posterior 1/3 of body, anterior testis 0.097 (0.087-0.110) by 0.091 (0.087-0.100) dorsal to acetabulum, posterior testis 0.094 (0.087-0.101) by 0.092 (0.091-0.100), cirrus pouch 0.121 (0.111-0.130) by 0.047 (0.041-0.055), genital pore at left of midline of oesophagus just anterior to intestinal bifurcation, ovary 0.110 (0.091-0.127) by 0.089 (0.085-0.096) on left of body and posterior to acetabulum, vitelline glands with single follicles extending from intestinal bifurcation to ends of caeca, excretory vesicle I-shaped and eggs 0.040 (0.037-0.046) by 0.023 (0.022-0.024). Although morphologically related to M. maroccanum and M. meggitti, M. malayanum is considered to be a new species.
One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided.
Numerous specimens of Ancyrocephaloides triacanthi Yamaguti, 1938 and A. chauhani Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1975 were collected from two triacanthid fishes, Triacanthus biaculeatus and Tripodichthys blochii, off Peninsular Malaysia. The two monogenean species are redescribed and considered to be the only valid species of Ancyrocephaloides Yamaguti, 1938. Examinations of these worms revealed new features, e.g. the presence of exudates (both net-like and bundle-like) and superficial grooves in the anchors in both species, which necessitated re-descriptions of the two species and amendments to the generic diagnosis. Both species have relatively small anchors with two lateral superficial grooves along the shaft and point, peduncular glands and four large, pyriform secretory reservoirs in the peduncular-haptoral region, each with a single tubular extension to an associated anchor, and net-like structures (exudate) attached to the anchors. The net-like structures are one of the external manifestations of the secretion produced in the peduncular glands and stored in the pyriform secretory reservoirs. When released within the gill-tissue of the host, the exudate is in the form of bundles which extend within the gill-filament. The small anchors convey secretions from the secretory reservoirs via lateral superficial grooves into the gills as the anchors pierce the host tissue for attachment. The secretion coagulates as left and right thread-like bundles of exudate within the gill tissues and is only apparent as nets when it is released into the surrounding water. The recurved point of the anchor and position of the point of exudation allow the nets to remain attached to the anchor point, even after the detachment of the anchors from the gill tissue. This exudate possibly acts somewhat like a 'belay device' or 'safety belt', preventing the parasite from being washed away by the respiratory current during the onset of its leech-like locomotion, as well as assist the relatively small anchors in attachment.