In species-habitat association studies, both the type and spatial scale of habitat covariates need to match the ecology of the focal species. We assessed the potential of high-resolution satellite imagery for generating habitat covariates using camera-trapping data from Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, within an occupancy framework. We tested the predictive power of covariates generated from satellite imagery at different resolutions and extents (focal patch sizes, 10-500 m around sample points) on estimates of occupancy patterns of six small to medium sized mammal species/species groups. High-resolution land cover information had considerably more model support for small, patchily distributed habitat features, whereas it had no advantage for large, homogeneous habitat features. A comparison of different focal patch sizes including remote sensing data and an in-situ measure showed that patches with a 50-m radius had most support for the target species. Thus, high-resolution satellite imagery proved to be particularly useful in heterogeneous landscapes, and can be used as a surrogate for certain in-situ measures, reducing field effort in logistically challenging environments. Additionally, remote sensed data provide more flexibility in defining appropriate spatial scales, which we show to impact estimates of wildlife-habitat associations.
Isolates of Fusarium were discovered in peat soil samples collected from peat swamp forest, waterlogged peat soil, and peat soil from oil palm plantations. Morphological characteristics were used to tentatively identify the isolates, and species confirmation was based on the sequence of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the closest match of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches against the GenBank and Fusarium-ID databases, five Fusarium species were identified, namely F. oxysporum (60%), F. solani (23%), F. proliferatum (14%), F. semitectum (1%), and F. verticillioides (1%). From a neighbour-joining tree of combined TEF-1α and β-tubulin sequences, isolates from the same species were clustered in the same clade, though intraspecies variations were observed from the phylogenetic analysis. The Fusarium species isolated in the present study are soil inhabitants and are widely distributed worldwide. These species can act as saprophytes and decomposers as well as plant pathogens. The presence of Fusarium species in peat soils suggested that peat soils could be a reservoir of plant pathogens, as well-known plant pathogenic species such F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides were identified. The results of the present study provide knowledge on the survival and distribution of Fusarium species.
Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices.
Two new Hoya R.Br. species from Borneo are described and illustrated. The first, Hoyaruthiae Rodda was collected in Sabah on Bukit Baturong, a limestone outcrop. It is one of the few species in the genus to have clear exudate. It is compared with the morphologically related Hoyauncinata Teijsm. and Binn. The other, Hoyabakoensis Rodda, was collected in the kerangas forests of Bako National Park. It belongs to HoyasectionAcanthostemma (Bl.) Kloppenb., a section with numerous members in the Philippines but under-represented in Borneo.
Garra robertsi is described from specimens collected from the Sungai Bongan and Tempassuk rivers in Sabah, Borneo. The species is differentiated from G. borneensis, its only congener on the island of Borneo, in having five (versus four) transverse scale rows above lateral line, the first branched dorsal-fin ray extending beyond the posterior-most extent of any other part of the dorsal fin when depressed (versus not extending posteriorly beyond last ray when depressed), breast with deeply embedded scales (versus exposed scales), fewer tubercles on snout, thin (versus thick) anteromedial fold on the lower lip, absence (versus presence) of a lateral stripe, absence (versus presence) of a stark, contrasting black stripe on lower caudal-fin rays, and other pigmentation characteristics.
We reviewed the species of genus Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae: Morimopsini) from Borneo, which included the redescriptions of two species - Dolichostyrax moultoni Aurivillius, 1911 and Dolichostyrax longipes Aurivillius, 1913, with the first female description for the latter. After the examination of the additional material previously identified as Dolichostyrax, we described three new genera - Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n., and Eurystyrax gen. n. Borneostyrax cristatus sp. n. was described based on the male and female specimens, whilst Microdolichostyrax hefferni sp. n., Microdolichostyrax minutus sp. n. and Eurystyrax nemethi sp. n. are known only from females. All studied species are distributed in the mountain regions of Sabah, with the exception of Dolichostyrax moultoni from Sarawak. An identification key to the genera of Bornean Morimopsini and species of Dolichostyrax, Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n. and Eurystyrax gen. n. is provided and their distributions and intraspecific morphological variability are discussed. The short and wide ovipositor, loss of spermatheca, and presence of large larvae without apparent eggbursters inside the female abdomens indicate the presence of (ovo)viviparity in Borneostyrax gen. n. This is the first case of this rare phenomenon within Cerambycidae.
Abstract The Murut tribe of Sabah (formerly North Borneo) numbered 30,300 in 1921, decreased to 18,700 in 1951, and increased again to 22,100 in 1960. In 1951, the tribe was a small diminishing section of a slowly growing population; in 1960 it was increasing itself, and the growth rate of the whole population had shot up. Marked variations in the age structures of the Murut and other indigenous tribes accompanied these changes. Between 1920 and 1960 several investigators attempted to explain the decline, but could not show why only one tribe was failing to hold its own among many others which were increasing. Their findings are summarized, and unpublished data from the 1960 census are given which suggest that increasing contacts with the rest of the population, earlier thought to be an important contributor to the decline, were probably the means of saving the Murut from extinction.
The higher education provider in this country has established a platform for training of biomedical scientist at the undergraduate level. The program provides a sound foundation to explore the science of biomedicine and complement the healthcare system by preparing medical laboratory professionals as a platform to apply their knowledge. Apart from
medical laboratory and healthcare service, graduates of the program can also explore and adapt in regard to employment in other interesting niche areas of academic and industry. This effort can further culminate into greater support and further strengthening of the discipline.
Keywords: Education, Practice, Niche areas, Biomedical Science
Haemadipsid leeches are among the most successful terrestrial invertebrates in Bornean rainforests. They are very common ectoparasites of vertebrates, and their abundance has facilitated the conduction of numerous projects in the fields of ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy. We undertook research on two species inhabiting lowland dipterocarp forest, Haemadipsa picta Moore, 1929 and Haemadipsa subagilis (Moore, 1929), in order to address the following questions: (a) is there a difference in leech abundance between trails and off-trails?; (b) is ambush location dependent on specimen size or is species-specific?; (c) is intra- and interspecific competition limited by differences in foraging behaviours or vertical niche partitioning? Our results clearly show that H. picta is more abundant on trails than on off-trails and is vertically dispersed within the understory; the size of a specimen is strongly correlated with plant height. Haemadipsa subagilis was found not to exhibit such patterns. We suggest a possible lowering of interspecific competition between these species as a result of: (i) size-dependent dispersion of H. picta (together with reduction of intraspecific competition); and (ii) habitat specialisation of H. subagilis. Moreover, we provide new observations on their foraging behaviour.
This article explains about the culture of Kadazandusun in the contexts of local knowledge on
agriculture. The article also explains the role, practice, taboo and local knowledge of preserving the
environment through traditional agriculture before, during and after they open new land for agriculture.
As a result, it does affecting the soil, plantation, river due the poor management of agriculture.
Although agriculture today focus on the use of technology in daily basis, agriculture based on the
through the farmer’s culture on the agriculture are also important to preserve the balance of
environment. This study had been conducted in Kampung Pulutan Keningau. It had been conducted
through the method of review of area, interview, observation and library research.
The amount of marine debris is increasing worldwide and has become a matter of serious concern. It is important to identify the nature of debris to understand the sources and to devise practically feasible methods for managing this problem. This study was carried out at Sebatik Island on the east coast of Sabah with the aim of examining the types and abundance of macro – and micro-debris. The observations covered a period of December 2015 – May 2016. Debris collected from different stations was compared. Transect line method was used to assess the stranded macro-marine debris (SMD). Evaluation of floating macro- debris (FMD) was done by surveys of the selected areas. Density separation technique was applied in order to extract the micro marine debris (MMD). Results showed 14 types of SMD and 9 types of FMD in the study areas. Three major types of SMD and FMD were discarded plastic, organic debris and plastic bottles. Four types of MMD recorded at the beach and mudflat areas were fragments, fiber, films and polystyrene. Based on the comparison between stations (S), S2 showed the highest abundance of SMD with 80 items m-2. Meanwhile, FMD at one location was as high as 94 items m-2. Station S3 has the highest of MMD with 22 items ml-1. Plastic formed (40%) of the SMD category whereas FMD constituted 42 % at the Sebatik Island. Small fragments and film were the most abundant of MMD (32 %). This study highlights the scale of the marine debris problem in Sebatik Island and calls for a comprehensive plan of action to protect the Island’s marine ecosystem services.
Malaysia has a large variety of traditional medical systems that are a direct reflection of the wide ethnic diversity of its population. These can be grouped into four basic varieties, namely, traditional bumiputra ("native"), traditional Chinese, traditional Indian and modern medicine. The Malay, lban and Kadazan traditional medical systems are briefly described. It is noted that despite the great inroads made by modern medicine, the traditional systems are firmly established. Patients move from one system to another or use several systems simultaneously.