The diversity of monogeneans from Southeast Asia was examined using information from the literature to show their diversity at different taxonomic (subclass, family, genera, species) levels. Knowledge of monogeneans is still incomplete in Southeast Asia and the present numbers of monogeneans are likely an underestimate of what is present on/in aquatic organisms in the region, since so few hosts have been examined. An estimate of the possible numbers of monogeneans that could be present on/in fishes and turtles in Peninsular Malaysia indicates that only 8% of the monogeneans are presently known. Analysis of the available data on monogenean diversity (or species richness) at different taxonomic levels will provide useful information on their distribution patterns. There is an uneven distribution of investigations on this topic and Malayan fauna is considered to be representative of the Southeast Asian fauna. Southeast Asian (Sundaland) monogeneans are related (at the generic level) to the monogenean fauna of South China, India and Africa.
A new genus of the Monogenea, Teraplectanum n. g., is proposed for two new species of diplectanids found on the gills of Terapon theraps Cuvier collected off Carey Island, Peninsular Malaysia. The genus is based on a unique arrangement of the male reproductive system. In the new species spermatozoa stored in the seminal vesicle and secretions stored in the prostatic reservoir are transferred into, and mixed to form semen within, a special sclerotized auxiliary piece (SAP), and not within the copulatory tube as occurs in the majority of monogeneans. Teraplectanum species also possess a unique sclerotized vaginal loop through which the vaginal tube passes en route from the vaginal pore to the seminal receptacle. The two new species are Teraplectanum crassitubus n. sp. (type species) and T. angustitubus n. sp. They differ from each other mainly in the morphology of their copulatory tube: in T. crassitubus, the proximal region of this tube is thicker compared to the slender proximal region in T. angustitubus, although in both cases the tube tapers and twists distally. Of the known diplectanid species, only Diplectanum undulicirrosum Zhang et al., 2000 (currently considered incertae sedis) possesses such sclerotized hard parts, which suggests the same type of arrangement of the male reproductive system. Consequently, D. undulicirrosum is re-assigned to this new genus as Teraplectanum undulicirrosum (Zhang et al., 2000) n. comb. The copulatory tube of T. undulicirrosum is similar to the slender, undulating copulatory tube of T. angustitubus but does not taper distally as in the latter species.
Otitis media with effusion is one of the most common childhood infections, and grommet insertions are done for chronic otitis media which have failed medical therapy. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the patient profile of children needing grommet insertion and 2) to determine if grommet insertion is safe and effective. A retrospective review of 105 children with myringotomy and grommet insertions for chronic otitis media with effusion between 2006 and 2008 was performed. Seventy two percent of patients were younger than 6 years old. Male to female ratio was 4:3. Twelve percent of patients were syndromic. In children with otitis media with effusion, hearing and academic performance improved after grommet insertion. Allergic rhinitis and cleft palate are risk factors for chronic middle ear effusion.
Two new and two previously described species of diplectanid monogeneans (Heteroplectanum flabelliforme n. sp., Diplectanum sumpit n. sp., D. jaculator Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969 and D. toxotes Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969) were collected from archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix off the Island of Langkawi, Kedah and off Perak, Malaysia. The reproductive systems and squamodiscs of D. jaculator and D. toxotes are described for the first time. D. sumpit n. sp. differs from D. toxotes and D. jaculator in a having a small curved copulatory tube with a distinct accessory piece, compared to the long, tubular copulatory tube of D. jaculator and the slender tube of D. toxotes. D. sumpit n. sp. also differs from D. toxotes in having a larger ventral bar and larger squamodiscs. H. flabelliforme n. sp. differs from all known Heteroplectanum species in the shape and size of the squamodiscs, the arrangement of the sclerites in the squamodiscs, the extremely large ventral bar and the short, curved, non-spinous copulatory tube.
Four new species of Calydiscoides Young, 1969 are described from three species of nemipterids caught off Kemaman, Terengganu, on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia: C. monogrammae n. sp. from Scolopsis monogramma; C. conus n. sp. from S. magaritifer; C. scolopsidis n. sp. from S. margaritifer and S. monogramma; and C. kemamanensis n. sp. from Pentapodus setosus. The present investigation reveals that the squamodiscs (lamellodiscs) are composed of 10-12 short, complete, interlocking and concentric tubular lamellae. The innermost lamella is attached to a pair of adductor muscles.
Most invasive fungal sinusitis occurs in immunocompromised adult patients. We present the case study of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. He developed a progressive darkening discoloration over the dorsum of the nose that turned into an eschar. Nasal endoscopy revealed extensive necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity mucosa, inferior and middle turbinates, and septal cartilage that extended to the eschar of the skin over the nasal dorsum. Histopathology showed aspergillus invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.
Lethrinitrema gibbus n. g., n. sp. and L. dossenus n. sp. are described from the fish Lethrinus rubrioperculatus Sato collected off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Members of Lethrinitrema n. g. (Ancyrocephalidae) are characterised by having two pyriform haptoral reservoirs and ventral anchors with lateral grooves. The elongate tubular distal end of each reservoir bifurcates, draining into a superficial lateral groove on each side of the ventral anchors. The haptoral reservoirs are postulated to store secretory products which assist in attachment to the host. Lethrinitrema spp. also possess tandem gonads, a male copulatory organ without an accessory piece or with thinly sclerotised accessory piece, and a dextrolateral, non-sclerotised vaginal bulb. The two new species have small, poorly demarcated haptors with small haptoral armament and a crown-like piece on the tip of the inner root of the ventral anchors. They differ from each other in the shape and size of the ventral bar and male copulatory organ (40-45 μm in length in L. gibbus vs 24-30 μm in L. dossenus). Three other species, previously included in Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, are transferred to Lethrinitrema, i.e. L. chrysostomi (Young, 1968) n. comb., L. fleti (Young, 1968) n. comb. (both briefly redescribed from paratypes) and L. lethrini (Yamaguti, 1937) n. comb. All species of Lethrinitrema parasitise Lethrinus spp. (Lethrinidae), and there is evidence for the existence of further Lethrinitrema spp. on Lethrinus spp. in the Indo-Pacific region.
Four new and one unidentified species of Neohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1965 were obtained from the gills of the Indo-Pacific sergeant Abudefduf vaigensis (Quoy & Gaimard) off Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia. The five species, N. malayense n. sp., N. bombini n. sp., N. andamanense n. sp., N. parvum n. sp. and an unidentified Neohaliotrema sp. (similar to N. macracanthum Zhukov, 1976), are described and distinguished based mainly on features of the haptor. Species of this genus are divisible into two groups, the 'maomao group', with two pairs of morphometrically modified 'marginal' hooks and a fenestrated haptor, and the 'gracile group', with morphologically similar marginal hooks and an entire haptor. With the exception of N. bombini n. sp., the species described fit within the 'maomao group'. It is suggested that the more complex Neohaliotrema species of the 'maomao group' have modified hooks 1 and 2 on a haptoral 'isthmus' between two large apertures, i.e. 'windows', whereas the less complex species lacking these features are those of the 'gracile group'. Neohaliotrema spp. have only a single pair of pigmented eye-spots. A fenestrated haptor is unique to the Neohaliotrema spp. of the 'maomao group'. The generic diagnosis of Neohaliotrema is amended to include new data and a key to its known species is presented.
Sundatrema langkawiense n. g., n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) is described from the gills of the orbfish Ephippus orbis (Bloch) (Ephippidae) off the Island of Langkawi, Malaysia, in the Andaman Sea. This new genus has the ancyrocephalid characteristics of four anchors, 14 marginal hooks and two bars, but differs from other four-anchored monogenean genera, and notably from Parancylodiscoides Caballero & Bravo Hollis, 1961 (found on the ephippids Chaetodipterus spp. off Central and South America), by having a unique combination of features. These include a muscular genital sucker and a vas deferens and vagina on the same (sinistral) side of the body. It is similar to Parancylodiscoides in having four haptoral reservoirs opening at the anchoral apertures, four anchors, similar connecting bars and small marginal hooks. The new species is characterised by the above generic features and by possessing a small, short copulatory organ lacking an accessory piece. Diplectanum longiphallus MacCallum, 1915 (previously attributed to Ancyrocephalus Creplin, 1839, Tetrancistrum Goto & Kikuchi, 1917 and Pseudohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953) is transferred to Parancylodiscoides as P. longiphallus (MacCallum, 1915) n. comb.
One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided.
One new and four previously described species of Triacanthinella Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 (Monogenea) were collected from the tripodfishes Triacanthus biaculeatus and Tripodichthys blochii off Peninsular Malaysia. Triacanthinella lumutensis n. sp. from Tripodichthys blochii off Lumut, Selangor is similar to Triacanthinella principalis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 in having morphologically similar types of haptoral sclerites and copulatory organ, but differs in possessing a longer copulatory tube. Also re-described are T. principalis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968, T. gracilis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 and T. aspera Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 from both Triacanthus biaculeatus and Tripodichthys blochii, plus Triacanthinella longipenis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 from Tripodichthys blochii and Triacanthinella tripathii Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968 based on its type-material. In the new species, the filament loop of the anchors is associated with a sheath-like sclerite which envelops the anchor point. Such sclerites were also observed in the present specimens of Triacanthinella principalis, T. aspera, T. longipenis and T. gracilis but were not mentioned in the original descriptions. The generic diagnosis of Triacanthinella is amended and a key to the recognised species is presented. The specific names of two of the previously described species are emended from the neuter form to T. principalis and T. gracilis.
Numerous specimens of Ancyrocephaloides triacanthi Yamaguti, 1938 and A. chauhani Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1975 were collected from two triacanthid fishes, Triacanthus biaculeatus and Tripodichthys blochii, off Peninsular Malaysia. The two monogenean species are redescribed and considered to be the only valid species of Ancyrocephaloides Yamaguti, 1938. Examinations of these worms revealed new features, e.g. the presence of exudates (both net-like and bundle-like) and superficial grooves in the anchors in both species, which necessitated re-descriptions of the two species and amendments to the generic diagnosis. Both species have relatively small anchors with two lateral superficial grooves along the shaft and point, peduncular glands and four large, pyriform secretory reservoirs in the peduncular-haptoral region, each with a single tubular extension to an associated anchor, and net-like structures (exudate) attached to the anchors. The net-like structures are one of the external manifestations of the secretion produced in the peduncular glands and stored in the pyriform secretory reservoirs. When released within the gill-tissue of the host, the exudate is in the form of bundles which extend within the gill-filament. The small anchors convey secretions from the secretory reservoirs via lateral superficial grooves into the gills as the anchors pierce the host tissue for attachment. The secretion coagulates as left and right thread-like bundles of exudate within the gill tissues and is only apparent as nets when it is released into the surrounding water. The recurved point of the anchor and position of the point of exudation allow the nets to remain attached to the anchor point, even after the detachment of the anchors from the gill tissue. This exudate possibly acts somewhat like a 'belay device' or 'safety belt', preventing the parasite from being washed away by the respiratory current during the onset of its leech-like locomotion, as well as assist the relatively small anchors in attachment.
Two known and two new species of Diplectanocotyla Yamaguti, 1953 (D. gracilis Yamaguti, 1953, D. megalopis Rakotofiringa & Oliver, 1987, D. langkawiensis n. sp. and D. parva n. sp.) were collected from Megalops cyprinoides (Megalopidae) off Langkawi, Kedah and Matang, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. All four species possess similar types of sclerotised male and female reproductive structures and similar soft anatomical features. The squamodisc sclerites of all four species have spine-like projections with varying degrees of visibility and shapes (sharp-pointed to triangular). In D. megalopis and D. langkawiensis n. sp. the spines are sharp-pointed and distinct on sclerites from rows 5-6 onwards. In D. gracilis and D. parva n. sp. the sclerite spines are triangular, lightly sclerotised and occur on almost all of the sclerites. D. parva n. sp. has comparatively the smallest set of anchors, bars, squamodiscs and squamodisc suckers. The anchors and bars of the other three species are almost similar in overall size, and the main distinguishing feature is the relative lengths of the inner and outer roots of the ventral anchors. In D. gracilis the outer root is very much smaller than the inner root and they are disposed almost at a right angle to each other. In D. megalopis the outer root is usually about half the length of the inner root and the roots are inclined at c.60 degrees to each other. In D. langkawiensis n. sp. the roots are inclined at c.40 degrees degrees and the outer root is of a similar length or only slightly shorter than the inner root. The openings of the two squamodisc suckers of all four Diplectanocotyla species are surrounded by tiny scale-like spines. Bifid tegumental spines are found in the posterior region of all four species, differing only in their extent: in D. parva n. sp. the tegumental spines are only distributed in the peduncular region and not beyond, whilst in the other three species the tegumental spines extend from the posterior level of the testis to the end of the peduncle. An amended diagnosis of Diplectanocotyla and a key to its species are appended.
Sixteen labrid species, including four Bodianus spp., were examined in New Caledonia (South Pacific) and monogeneans were found only on Bodianus perditio (Quoy et Gaimard). This species, Haliotrema banana sp. n., is the second Haliotrema species to be described from the labrids, the first being Haliotrema bodiani Yamaguti, 1968 from Bodianus albotaeniatus (Valenciennes), previously designated as B. bilunulatus (Lacépède). The new species is similar to H. bodiani in soft reproductive parts but differs from it in the morphologies of the hard haptoral parts, mainly in the shape of the dorsal bar (bar-shaped vs V-shaped in H. bodiani) and ventral bar. It is similar to Haliotrema spirale Yamaguti, 1968 and Haliotrema minutospirale Yamaguti, 1968 in the shape of the anchors and bars but differs from them in the detailed structures of the copulatory organ and vaginal system.
Sundapolystoma chalconotae. n. g., n. sp. (Polystomatidae, Polystomatinae) is proposed for a new polystomatid from the urinary bladder of Rana chalconota (Schlegel) in Peninsular Malaysia. This is the first species of polystomatid to be described from the amphibians of Peninsular Malaysia and the second for the Southeast Asian region. This new genus, as exemplified by S. chalconotae, differs from other polystomatids, and in particular Parapolystoma Ozaki, 1935 (P. bulliense (Johnston, 1912) Ozaki, 1935 and P. johnstoni Pichelin, 1995), in having a tubular uterus and a single diffuse testis. P. crooki Vande Vusse, 1976 is similar to S. chalconotae in having a similar type of uterus and testis, and is re-assigned as Sundapolystoma crooki (Vande Vusse, 1976) n. comb. S. chalconotae differs from S. crooki in having anchors with a longer outer root rather than a longer inner root and 7-8 genital spines compared to 9-13 in S. crooki.
Neopolystoma liewi sp. n. is described from the conjunctival cavity of the Malayan box turtle Cuora amboinensis (Daudin, 1802), in Peninsular Malaysia. This is the first record of Neopolystoma in Malaysia and the fourth polystomatid species described from C. amboinensis. Of the 27 Malayan box turtles examined, 8 were found to be infected. A maximum of 2 parasites per eye and 4 individuals per host was recorded. N. liewi sp. n. differs from all other members of the genus by possessing few and short genital spines and small marginal hooks. The oncomiracidium has 64 ciliated cells arranged symmetrically about the sagittal axis.
Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. and Ligophorus kederai n. sp. are described from Liza subviridis Valenciennes, 1836 and Valamugil buchanani Bleeker, 1854, respectively. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. has fenestrated ventral anchors, while in L. belanaki n. sp. the ventral anchor is not fenestrated. Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. is similar to L. careyensis, one of its coexisting congeners, in the overall shape and size of hard parts, but differs in having a flat median piece in the structure of the AMP (antero-median protuberance of the ventral bar), copulatory organ with non-ornamented initial part and longer vaginal tube, compared to raised median piece in the AMP, ornamented initial part and comparatively shorter vaginal tube in L. careyensis. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. is similar to L. fenestrum, a coexisting congener, in having fenestrated ventral anchors, but differs in having longer points and narrower base. Ligophorus fenestrum, unlike L. kederai n. sp., also possesses fenestrated dorsal anchors. The principal component analysis (PCA) scatterplots indicate that the two new and eight known Ligophorus species from Malaysian mugilids can be differentiated based on the morphometries of their anchors, ventral bars and copulatory organ separately and when combined together. Numerical taxonomy (NT) analyses based on Jaccard's Index of Similarity and neighbour-joining clustering, is used to facilitate comparison of these two new species with the 50 known Ligophorus based on morphological and metric characters. The two new species are different from each other and the other 50 species in the overall shapes and sizes of hard parts, as indicated by the NT analyses.