METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Malaysian Chinese. Clinical assessments were performed, and medical history was collected. Three regions of p53 and two of VEGFA were amplified by PCR followed by direct sequencing using saliva-extracted DNA.
RESULTS: Eighty-four participants were recruited (average age 22.2 years). In the majority (n = 62), both eyelids were affected. Facial pigmentary, demarcation lines, tear trough and eye bags were not observed. Mixed (pigmented-vascular) was the most common subtype. Thirteen SNPs were found, nine of which are new. Only three out of 13 SNPs showed significant association with periorbital hyperpigmentation presentation. TA genotype in rs1437756379 (p53) was significantly more prevalent among participants with mixed subtype (P = 0.011) while AC genotype in rs1377053612 (VEGFA) was significantly more prevalent among pigmented subtype (P = 0.028). AA genotype in rs1479430148 (VEGFA) was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis in mixed subtype (P = 0.012).
CONCLUSION: Mixed subtype was the most prevalent type of periorbital hyperpigmentation in the study population. Three polymorphisms in p53 and VEGFA genes were statistically linked with different clinical presentations of periorbital hyperpigmentation.
METHODS: A retrospective review of all cutaneous manifestations of HIV-infected patients with skin biopsy-proven histopathological confirmation, treated in the University of Malaya Medical Centre, from 2016 till 2018, was performed. Clinical characteristics and histopathological correlation of these patients were reviewed.
RESULTS: A total of 38 cases were included where the median age was 40.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 13.3). The median duration of HIV diagnosis to the development of skin disease was 3 years (IQR 7.8). Majority of our patients were male (89.5%, n = 34), and the commonest mode of transmission is men who have sex with men (36.8%, n = 14). Most patients (92.1%, n = 35) had Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome when they presented with skin diseases, predominantly non-infectious types (51.4%, n = 19). Commonest skin diseases include eczema (n = 7) and pruritic papular eruption of HIV (n = 6). Papules and plaques were the commonest morphology for both infectious and non-infectious skin diseases. Duration of HIV diagnosis (P = 0.018) and non-compliance to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (P = 0.014) were significantly associated with the development of non-infectious skin diseases. Overall, clinicopathological concordance was 84.2% in our centre.
CONCLUSION: A wide spectrum of cutaneous diseases can occur in HIV patients depending on the degree of immunosuppression. skin biopsy along with appropriate stains, and microbiological cultures are important in helping clinicians clinch the right diagnosis.
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