METHODS: A search was conducted using the PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review databases from January 1, 1997 until September 9, 2017. The search strategy was constructed using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome framework with keywords related to nasal fracture and its treatment. Two sets of independent researchers performed the analysis. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies and National Institute for Clinical Excellence methodology for randomized controlled trial checklists.
RESULTS: The 4276 titles were obtained from PubMed database alone. Exclusion was made based on the title, abstract and full-text analysis. Finally, 23 papers were included and analyzed. Of the 23 papers, 13 (56.5%) were retrospective record review, 2 (8.7%) were randomized clinical trial or a randomized study and 8 case series (34.8%). 16 (69.6%) studies addressed closed reduction, 3 studies (13%) on open reduction and 4 studies (17.4%) addressed both open and closed reduction. The main focus in the outcome in all studies was accuracy of the anatomical reduction of the nasal bones. Three studies (13.0%) reported restoration of function such as breathing comfort or release in respiratory obstruction and another 3 (13.0%) addressed both cosmetic and breathing outcomes. Residual deformity was the most described complications in the studies (30.4%). In general, most of the studies were not of high quality as they lacked in some key elements in the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies checklist.
CONCLUSION: Both closed and open reduction provided good outcomes in cosmetic and breathing. Septoplasty is recommended to be performed simultaneously with fracture reduction.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ICV in primary craniosynostosis patients after the cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA and to compare between syndromic and nonsyndromic synostosis group, to determine factors that associated with significant changes in the ICV postoperative, and to evaluate the resolution of copper beaten sign and improvement in neurodevelopmental delay after the surgery.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all primary craniosynostosis patients who underwent operation cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA in Hospital Kuala Lumpur from January 2017 until Jun 2018. The ICV preoperative and postoperative was measured using the 3D computed tomography (CT) imaging and analyzed. The demographic data, clinical and radiological findings were identified and analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 14 cases (6 males and 8 females) with 28 3D CT scans were identified. The mean age of patients was 23 months. Seven patients were having syndromic synostosis (4 Crouzon syndromes and 3 Apert syndromes) and 7 nonsyndromic synostosis. The mean preoperative ICV was 880 mL (range, 641-1234 mL), whereas the mean postoperative ICV was 1081 mL (range, 811-1385 mL). The difference was 201 mL which was statistically significant (P 1.0). However, there was 100% (n = 13) improvement of this copper beaten sign. However, the neurodevelopmental delay showed no improvement which was statistically not significant (P > 1.0).
CONCLUSION: Surgery in craniosynostosis patient increases the ICV besides it improves the shape of the head. From this study, the syndromic synostosis had better increment of ICV compared to nonsyndromic synostosis.
METHODS: Sixteen computed tomography scan of SC patients (8 months-6 years old) were imported to Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System (MIMICS) and Materialise 3-matics software. Three-dimensional (3D) OC models were fabricated, and linear measurements were obtained. Mathematical formulas were used for calculation of OC volume and surface area from the 3D model. The same measurements were obtained from the software and used as ground truth. Data normality was investigated before statistical analyses were performed. Wilcoxon test was used to validate differences of OC volume and surface area between 3D model and software.
RESULTS: The mean values for OC surface area for 3D model and MIMICS software were 103.19 mm2 and 31.27 mm2, respectively, whereas the mean for OC volume for 3D model and MIMICS software were 184.37 mm2 and 147.07 mm2, respectively. Significant difference was found between OC volume (P = 0.0681) and surface area (P = 0.0002) between 3D model and software.
CONCLUSION: Optic canal in SC is not a perfect conical frustum thus making 3D model measurement and mathematical formula for surface area and volume estimation not ideal. Computer software remains the best modality to gauge dimensional parameter and is useful to elucidates the relationship of OC and eye function as well as aiding intervention in SC patients.
METHODS: This descriptive study comprised 5 patients of KCOT associated with NBCCS and 8 patients of nonsyndromic type treated in the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre between years 1998 and 2011. The clinical features (site, size, treatment, and recurrence), demographic characteristics, and immunohistochemistry results using antibodies of bcl-2, cyclin D1, p53, and PCNA were examined. The association of the antibody expression and the type of KCOT was analyzed using Fisher exact test.
RESULTS: Altogether there were 13 patients, 5 with syndromic KCOT (1 patient met 3 major criteria of NBCCS) and 8 with sporadic KCOT. The age range for syndromic KCT was 11 to 21 years (mean 16.00 years, SD 4.36) and 10 to 54 years (median 24.50 years, interquartile range 19.00) for the nonsyndromic KCOT. Tumor recurrence occurred in 3 patients (7.7%); 1 patient from the syndromic and 2 patients from the nonsyndromic. The most positive expression was observed in PCNA for both the syndromic and nonsyndromic samples and the least positive expression involved the p53.
CONCLUSION: PCNA, bcl-2 protein, and cyclin D1 expressions could be useful in evaluating the proliferative activity of the tumor and the aggressiveness of the clinical presentation; however, the authors would propose for larger sample size research for more definitive results.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the depth and distances from various points of the orbital rim to the fissures and foramina of the orbital apex between genders in the local population.
METHODOLOGY: Linear measurements were conducted on 60 orbits from 30 patients who had undergone head computed tomography scan. These measurements were done utilizing the multiplanar reconstruction modes on computed tomography images with minimum slice thickness of 1 mm.
RESULTS: Males have statistically significant larger orbits than females with higher mean measurements in all parameters, except for the distance from posterior ethmoidal foramen to the optic canal which was the same. However, there were no significant differences in all parameters between the right and left orbits.
CONCLUSION: This study provides the absolute limit of safe internal orbital dissection in respect to the local population. Despite males having larger orbits than females, it is clinically negligible.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis has been performed on patients with dento-skeletal class III deformity who had undergone orthognathic 2-jaw surgery with segmentations, presenting both pre- and post-surgical cone-beam computed tomographys. Three-dimensional skeletal movements, pharyngeal airway changes and hyoid bone position were measured and correlated.
RESULTS: The mean short term postsurgical review period for all included 47 patients was 5.8 ± 2.2 months. Thirteen patients among them provided a mean long term period of 26.4 ± 3.4 months. The mean postsurgical maxillary movement was 2.29 ± 2.49 mm in vertical, 2.02 ± 3.45 mm in horizontal direction, respectively, while the mandibular movement was 6.49 ± 4.58 mm in vertical, and -5.85 ± 6.13 mm in horizontal direction. In short-term, the vertical length of nasopharynx was found to be reduced (P = 0.005) but increased for the oropharynx (P 0.05) detected between patients with and without genioplasty advancement.
CONCLUSION: Two-jaw orthognathic surgery in dento-skeletal class III patients led to a statistically non-significant reduction of the post-surgical airway volume in both short- and long-term. Although the post-surgical oropharyneal minimum cross-sectional area was decreased significantly in the short term, this finding did not persist in the long term.