Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

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  1. Kang WT, Vellasamy KM, Chua EG, Vadivelu J
    J. Infect. Dis., 2015 Mar 1;211(5):827-34.
    PMID: 25165162 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu492
    OBJECTIVES: The bsa locus of Burkholderia pseudomallei encodes several proteins that are components of the type III secretion system (TTSS). BipC was postulated as one of the TTSS-3 effector proteins, but its role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei infection is not well understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine its role(s) in the virulence of B. pseudomallei pathogenesis.
    METHODS: A bipC TTSS-3-deficient strain of B. pseudomallei and complemented strains were generated to assess the role of BipC as a type III translocation apparatus. Human cell lines and a mouse model of melioidosis were used for in vitro and in vivo assays, respectively.
    RESULTS: A significant 2-fold reduction was demonstrated in the percentage of adherence, invasion, intracellular survival, and phagosomal escape of the bipC mutant. Interestingly, microscopic studies have shown that BipC was capable of delayed B. pseudomallei actin-based motility. The virulence of the mutant strain in a murine model of melioidosis demonstrated that the bipC mutant was less virulent, compared with the wild type.
    CONCLUSION: The results suggested that BipC possesses virulence determinants that play significant roles in host cell invasion and immune evasion.
    KEYWORDS: BipC; Burkholderia pseudomallei; host cell invasion; type III secretion system; type III translocation apparatus; virulence
  2. Barber BE, Bird E, Wilkes CS, William T, Grigg MJ, Paramaswaran U, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2015 Apr 1;211(7):1104-10.
    PMID: 25301955 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu562
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the commonest cause of malaria in Malaysia, but little is known regarding infection during pregnancy.
    METHODS: To investigate comparative risk and consequences of knowlesi malaria during pregnancy, we reviewed (1) Sabah Health Department malaria-notification records created during 2012-2013, (2) prospectively collected data from all females with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed malaria who were admitted to a Sabah tertiary care referral hospital during 2011-2014, and (3) malaria microscopy and clinical data recorded at a Sabah tertiary care women and children's hospital during 2010-2014.
    RESULTS: During 2012-2013, 774 females with microscopy-diagnosed malaria were notified, including 252 (33%), 172 (20%), 333 (43%), and 17 (2%) with Plasmodium falciparum infection, Plasmodium vivax infection, Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium knowlesi infection, and mixed infection, respectively. Among females aged 15-45 years, pregnancy was reported in 18 of 124 (14.5%), 9 of 93 (9.7%), and 4 of 151 (2.6%) P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications respectively (P = .002). Three females with knowlesi malaria were confirmed as pregnant: 2 had moderate anemia, and 1 delivered a preterm low-birth-weight infant. There were 17, 7, and 0 pregnant women with falciparum, vivax, and knowlesi malaria, respectively, identified from the 2 referral hospitals.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although P. knowlesi is the commonest malaria species among females in Sabah, P. knowlesi infection is relatively rare during pregnancy. It may however be associated with adverse maternal and pregnancy outcomes.
    KEYWORDS: Plasmodium knowlesi; malaria; maternal anemia; pregnancy; preterm delivery
  3. Zhang C, Park JS, Grce M, Hibbitts S, Palefsky JM, Konno R, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2014 Nov 15;210(10):1600-4.
    PMID: 24879800 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu310
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype 52 is commonly found in Asian cases of cervical cancer but is rare elsewhere. Analysis of 611 isolates collected worldwide revealed a remarkable geographical distribution, with lineage B predominating in Asia (89.0% vs 0%-5.5%; P(corrected) < .001), whereas lineage A predominated in Africa, the Americas, and Europe. We propose that the name "Asian lineage" be used to denote lineage B, to signify this feature. Preliminary analysis suggested a higher disease risk for lineage B, although ethnogeographical confounders could not be excluded. Further studies are warranted to verify whether the reported high attribution of disease to HPV52 in Asia is due to the high prevalence of lineage B.
  4. Crane M, Avihingsanon A, Rajasuriar R, Velayudham P, Iser D, Solomon A, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2014 Sep 1;210(5):745-51.
    PMID: 24585898 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu119
    We investigated the relationship between microbial translocation, immune activation, and liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14, CXCL10, and CCL-2 levels were elevated in patients with HIV/HBV coinfection. Levels of LPS, soluble CD14, and CCL-2 declined following receipt of HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the CXCL10 level remained elevated. No markers were associated with liver disease severity on liver biopsy (n = 96), but CXCL10, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were all associated with elevated liver enzyme levels during receipt of HBV-active cART. Stimulation of hepatocyte cell lines in vitro with IFN-γ and LPS induced a profound synergistic increase in the production of CXCL10. LPS may contribute to liver disease via stimulating persistent production of CXCL10.
  5. Govindasamy G, Barber BE, Ghani SA, William T, Grigg MJ, Borooah S, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2016 May 1;213(9):1476-82.
    PMID: 26671886 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiv746
    Plasmodium knowlesicauses severe malaria, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Retinal changes provide insights into falciparum malaria pathogenesis but have not been studied in knowlesi malaria.
  6. Fornace KM, Nuin NA, Betson M, Grigg MJ, William T, Anstey NM, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2016 Mar 01;213(5):784-7.
    PMID: 26433222 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiv475
    Although asymptomatic carriage of human malaria species has been widely reported, the extent of asymptomatic, submicroscopic Plasmodium knowlesi parasitemia is unknown. In this study, samples were obtained from individuals residing in households or villages of symptomatic malaria cases with the aim of detecting submicroscopic P. knowlesi in this population. Four published molecular assays were used to confirm the presence of P. knowlesi. Latent class analysis revealed that the estimated proportion of asymptomatic individuals was 6.9% (95% confidence interval, 5.6%-8.4%). This study confirms the presence of a substantial number of asymptomatic monoinfections across all age groups; further work is needed to estimate prevalence in the wider community.
  7. Zhang R, Suwanarusk R, Malleret B, Cooke BM, Nosten F, Lau YL, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2016 Jan 1;213(1):100-4.
    PMID: 26136472 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiv358
    Recent clinical trials revealed a surprisingly rapid clearance of red blood cells (RBCs) infected with malaria parasites by the spiroindolone KAE609. Here, we show that ring-stage parasite-infected RBCs exposed to KAE609 become spherical and rigid, probably through osmotic dysregulation consequent to the disruption of the parasite's sodium efflux pump (adenosine triphosphate 4). We also show that this peculiar drug effect is likely to cause accelerated splenic clearance of the rheologically impaired Plasmodium vivax- and Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs.
  8. Griffiths MJ, Ooi MH, Wong SC, Mohan A, Podin Y, Perera D, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2012 Sep 15;206(6):881-92.
    PMID: 22829643 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jis446
    BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), with severe neurological complications and cardio-respiratory compromise, but the pathogenesis is poorly understood.

    METHODS: We measured levels of 30 chemokines and cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from Malaysian children hospitalized with EV71 infection (n = 88), comprising uncomplicated HFMD (n = 47), meningitis (n = 8), acute flaccid paralysis (n = 1), encephalitis (n = 21), and encephalitis with cardiorespiratory compromise (n = 11). Four of the latter patients died.

    RESULTS: Both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator levels were elevated, with different patterns of mediator abundance in the CSF and vascular compartments. Serum concentrations of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were raised significantly in patients who developed cardio-respiratory compromise (P = .013, P = .004, and P < .001, respectively). Serum IL-1Ra and G-CSF levels were also significantly elevated in patients who died, with a serum G-CSF to interleukin 5 ratio of >100 at admission being the most accurate prognostic marker for death (P < .001; accuracy, 85.5%; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 84.7%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Given that IL-1β has a negative inotropic action on the heart, and that both its natural antagonist, IL-1Ra, and G-CSF are being assessed as treatments for acute cardiac impairment, the findings suggest we have identified functional markers of EV71-related cardiac dysfunction and potential treatment options.

  9. Yaiw KC, Crameri G, Wang L, Chong HT, Chua KB, Tan CT, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2007 Sep 15;196(6):884-6.
    PMID: 17703419
    Tioman virus, a relatively new paramyxovirus, was isolated from fruit bats (Pteropus species) on Tioman Island, Malaysia, in 2001. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. virus in island inhabitants, by use of comparative ELISA and serum neutralization assays. Of the 169 human sera analyzed, 5 (approximately 3.0%) were positive for T. virus, by comparative ELISA. Of these 5 sera, 3 (1.8% of the total) had neutralizing antibodies against T. virus, suggesting previous infection of this study population by this virus or a similar virus.
  10. Anthony TG, Conway DJ, Cox-Singh J, Matusop A, Ratnam S, Shamsul S, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2005 May 1;191(9):1558-64.
    PMID: 15809916
    The population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum differs between endemic regions, but the characteristics of a population recently fragmented by effective malaria control have been unknown.
  11. Hsu VP, Abdul Rahman HB, Wong SL, Ibrahim LH, Yusoff AF, Chan LG, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2005 Sep 1;192 Suppl 1:S80-6.
    PMID: 16088810
    BACKGROUND: Accurate national estimates of the disease burden associated with rotavirus diarrhea are essential when considering implementation of a rotavirus vaccination program. We sought to estimate rotavirus disease-associated morbidity and mortality in Malaysia, using available sources of information.
    METHODS: We analyzed national data from the Ministry of Health (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) to derive rates of hospitalization, clinic visits, and deaths related to acute gastroenteritis (AG) among children <5 years of age. The number of events attributable to rotavirus infection was estimated by multiplying age-stratified rates of detection of rotavirus from 2 hospital surveillance sites by national data.
    RESULTS: In 1999 and 2000, an average of 13,936 children (1 in 187 children) were hospitalized annually for AG. Surveillance of visits to outpatient clinics for AG identified an average of 60,342 such visits/year between 1998 and 2000. The AG-associated mortality rate was 2.5 deaths/100,000 children. On the basis of the finding that 50% of children were hospitalized for rotavirus diarrhea, we estimated that 1 in 61 children will be hospitalized for rotavirus disease and that 1 in 37 children will seek treatment as an outpatient.
    CONCLUSIONS: Among Malaysian children, there is a significant burden associated with AG- and rotavirus disease-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits, and this burden potentially could be prevented by the use of rotavirus vaccines.
    Data source: (1) hospital discharges, (2) clinic visits for AG, and (3) registration of deaths, together with (4) new data from hospital-based rotavirus surveillance studies
  12. Grau GE, Mackenzie CD, Carr RA, Redard M, Pizzolato G, Allasia C, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2003 Feb 1;187(3):461-6.
    PMID: 12552430
    The pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria (CM) is not well understood, in part because data from patients in whom a clinical diagnosis was established prior to death are rare. In a murine CM model, platelets accumulate in brain microvasculature, and antiplatelet therapy can improve outcome. We determined whether platelets are also found in cerebral vessels in human CM, and we performed immunohistopathology for platelet-specific glycoprotein, GPIIb-IIIa, on tissue from multiple brain sites in Malawian children whose fatal illness was severe malarial anemia, CM, or nonmalarial encephalopathy. Platelets were observed in 3 locations within microvessels: between malaria pigment and leukocytes, associated with malaria pigment, or alone. The mean surface area of platelet staining and the proportion of vessels showing platelet accumulation were significantly higher in patients with CM than in those without it. Platelet accumulation occurs in the microvasculature of patients with CM and may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
  13. Jessie K, Fong MY, Devi S, Lam SK, Wong KT
    J. Infect. Dis., 2004 Apr 15;189(8):1411-8.
    PMID: 15073678
    Dengue viral antigens have been demonstrated in several types of naturally infected human tissues, but little is known of whether these same tissues have detectable viral RNA. We studied tissue specimens from patients with serologically or virologically confirmed dengue infections by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize viral antigen and RNA, respectively. IHC was performed on specimens obtained from 5 autopsies and 24 biopsies and on 20 blood-clot samples. For ISH, antisense riboprobes to the dengue E gene were applied to tissue specimens in which IHC was positive. Viral antigens were demonstrated in Kupffer and sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver; macrophages, multinucleated cells, and reactive lymphoid cells in the spleen; macrophages and vascular endothelium in the lung; kidney tubules; and monocytes and lymphocytes in blood-clot samples. Positive-strand viral RNA was detected in the same IHC-positive cells found in the spleen and blood-clot samples. The strong, positive ISH signal in these cells indicated a high copy number of viral RNA, suggesting replication.
  14. Parashar UD, Sunn LM, Ong F, Mounts AW, Arif MT, Ksiazek TG, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2000 May;181(5):1755-9.
    PMID: 10823779
    An outbreak of encephalitis affecting 265 patients (105 fatally) occurred during 1998-1999 in Malaysia and was linked to a new paramyxovirus, Nipah, that infected pigs, humans, dogs, and cats. Most patients were pig farmers. Clinically undetected Nipah infection was noted in 10 (6%) of 166 community-farm controls (persons from farms without reported encephalitis patients) and 20 (11%) of 178 case-farm controls (persons from farms with encephalitis patients). Case patients (persons with Nipah infection) were more likely than community-farm controls to report increased numbers of sick/dying pigs on the farm (59% vs. 24%, P=.001) and were more likely than case-farm controls to perform activities requiring direct contact with pigs (86% vs. 50%, P=.005). Only 8% of case patients reported no contact with pigs. The outbreak stopped after pigs in the affected areas were slaughtered and buried. Direct, close contact with pigs was the primary source of human Nipah infection, but other sources, such as infected dogs and cats, cannot be excluded.
  15. Chew MH, Arguin PM, Shay DK, Goh KT, Rollin PE, Shieh WJ, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2000 May;181(5):1760-3.
    PMID: 10823780
    During 10-19 March 1999, 11 workers in 1 of 2 Singaporean abattoirs developed Nipah-virus associated encephalitis or pneumonia, resulting in 1 fatality. A case-control study was conducted to determine occupational risk factors for infection. Case patients were abattoir A workers who had anti-Nipah IgM antibodies; control subjects were randomly selected abattoir A workers who tested negative for anti-Nipah IgM. All 13 case patients versus 26 (63%) of 41 control subjects reported contact with live pigs (P=.01). Swine importation from Malaysian states concurrently experiencing a Nipah virus outbreak was banned on 3 March 1999; on 19 March 1999, importation of Malaysian pigs was banned, and abattoirs were closed. No unusual illnesses among pigs processed during February-March were reported. Contact with live pigs appeared to be the most important risk factor for human Nipah virus infection. Direct contact with live, potentially infected pigs should be minimized to prevent transmission of this potentially fatal zoonosis to humans.
  16. Mounts AW, Kaur H, Parashar UD, Ksiazek TG, Cannon D, Arokiasamy JT, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2001 Mar 1;183(5):810-3.
    PMID: 11181159 DOI: 10.1086/318822
    During 1998-1999, an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis occurred in Malaysia. To assess the possibility of nosocomial transmission, 338 health care workers (HCWs) exposed and 288 HCWs unexposed to outbreak-related patients were surveyed, and their serum samples were tested for anti-Nipah virus antibody. Needlestick injuries were reported by 12 (3%) HCWs, mucosal surface exposure to body fluids by 39 (11%), and skin exposure to body fluids by 89 (25%). No encephalitis occurred in either group. Three exposed and no unexposed HCWs tested positive by EIA for IgG antibodies. It is likely that these 3 were false positives; no IgM response occurred, and the serum samples were negative for anti-Nipah virus neutralizing antibodies. The risk of nosocomial transmission of Nipah virus appears to be low; however, given the high case-fatality rate and the presence of virus in respiratory secretions and urine of some patients, standard and droplet infection-control practices should be maintained with these patients.
  17. Xu X, Smith CB, Mungall BA, Lindstrom SE, Hall HE, Subbarao K, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2002 Nov 15;186(10):1490-3.
    PMID: 12404167
    Reassortant influenza A viruses bearing the H1 subtype of hemagglutinin (HA) and the N2 subtype of neuraminidase (NA) were isolated from humans in the United States, Canada, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Oman, Egypt, and several countries in Europe during the 2001-2002 influenza season. The HAs of these H1N2 viruses were similar to that of the A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) vaccine strain both antigenically and genetically, and the NAs were antigenically and genetically related to those of recent human H3N2 reference strains, such as A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2). All 6 internal genes of the H1N2 reassortants examined originated from an H3N2 virus. This article documents the first widespread circulation of H1N2 reassortants on 4 continents. The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide good protection against H1N2 viruses, because it contains the A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) and A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like viruses, which have H1 and N2 antigens that are similar to those of recent H1N2 viruses.
  18. Mulders MN, Lipskaya GY, van der Avoort HG, Koopmans MP, Kew OM, van Loon AM
    J. Infect. Dis., 1995 Jun;171(6):1399-405.
    PMID: 7769273
    The genomic relationships of wild poliovirus type 1 strains recently isolated in Europe, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent was analyzed by automated amplicon sequencing of the VP1/2A junction region of the genome. Four major genotypes of poliovirus type 1 were found to circulate. Two genotypes were found predominantly in Eastern Europe, one of these in the Caucasian Region and the other in countries bordering the Black Sea. A third genotype circulated mainly in Egypt. The fourth and largest genotype circulated in the largest geographic area. Strains belonging to this genotype could be found in countries as far apart as Malaysia and Ukraine. Considerable genetic variation was observed among strains isolated in Egypt, Pakistan, and India, where poliovirus is endemic. Strains belonging to all four genotypes circulated in Pakistan. Data confirm the extent of poliovirus circulation in certain regions, stressing the need for intensification of vaccination in these regions.
  19. Rapmund G
    J. Infect. Dis., 1984 Mar;149(3):330-8.
    PMID: 6425420
    The rickettsial disease of man found only in Asia is mite-borne (scrub) typhus, caused by Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Unique to southern Japan is a little-known human mononucleosis-like disease caused by Rickettsia sennetsu. In 1981 and 1982, there was a remarkable resurgence in the number of reported cases of mite-borne typhus in Japan after some years of virtual absence. Recent studies of R sennetsu have resulted in its reclassification to the genus Ehrlichia, members of which until now have been exclusively pathogens of animals. The historical background of ecologic investigations, in Malaysia and elsewhere, of these two developments suggest directions for future research.
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