Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Pau WS, Tan KK
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2008 Jun;27(6):569-70.
    PMID: 18449061 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318168db08
    Scrub typhus is a common cause of febrile illness among children from rural regions in tropical countries. We described 2 cases of scrub typhus with an eschar localized in the genitalia that was missed during the routine medical examination of a febrile child.
  2. Othman N, Ismail IH, Yip R, Zainuddin Z, Kasim SM, Isa R, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2007 Oct;26(10):960-1.
    PMID: 17901807 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181257234
    Two tsunami survivors from Banda Acheh, Sumatra, presented with pyrexia of unknown origin and a nonresolving left-sided empyema, respectively. Both children had mixed infections of tuberculosis and melioidosis; Salmonella typhi was also present in the second patient. Mixed infections are common late sequela complications in post-tsunami victims.
  3. Ho JJ
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2001 Jun;20(6):557-60.
    PMID: 11419494
    The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and mortality from late onset infection occurring in very low birth weight infants admitted to Malaysian nurseries.
  4. Hussain IH, Sofiah A, Ong LC, Choo KE, Musa MN, Teh KH, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 1998 Sep;17(9 Suppl):S189-90.
    PMID: 9781759
    To determine the pattern of postneonatal childhood meningitis in Malaysia.
  5. Wang S, Xu W, Li LF
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2017 Sep;36(9):912-914.
    PMID: 28338526 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001593
    Cutaneous larva migrans is a frequent dermatologic problem among travelers in tropical areas, but its association with Löffler's syndrome is an extremely rare condition, particularly in children. Here, we describe a 6-year-old boy presenting cutaneous larva migrans associated with Löffler's syndrome.
  6. Boettiger DC, Aurpibul L, Hudaya DM, Fong SM, Lumbiganon P, Saphonn V, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2016 May;35(5):e144-51.
    PMID: 26835972 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001074
    BACKGROUND: Information on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in HIV-infected children with severe malnutrition (SM) is lacking. We investigated long-term ART outcomes in this population.

    METHODS: Children enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database who had SM (weight-for-height or body mass index-for-age Z score less than -3) at ART initiation were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate poor weight recovery (weight-for-age Z score less than -3) and poor CD4% recovery (CD4% <25), and competing risk regression was used to analyze mortality and toxicity-associated treatment modification.

    RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-five (11.9%) of 2993 children starting ART had SM. Their median weight-for-age Z score increased from -5.6 at ART initiation to -2.3 after 36 months. Not using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis at baseline was associated with poor weight recovery [odds ratio: 2.49 vs. using; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-3.74; P < 0.001]. Median CD4% increased from 3.0 at ART initiation to 27.2 after 36 months, and 56 (15.3%) children died during follow-up. More profound SM was associated with poor CD4% recovery (odds ratio: 1.78 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; P = 0.023) and mortality (hazard ratio: 2.57 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.24-5.33; P = 0.011). Twenty-two toxicity-associated ART modifications occurred at a rate of 2.4 per 100 patient-years, and rates did not differ by malnutrition severity.

    CONCLUSION: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is important for the recovery of weight-for-age in severely malnourished children starting ART. The extent of SM does not impede weight-for-age recovery or antiretroviral tolerability, but CD4% response is compromised in children with a very low weight-for-height/body mass index-for-age Z score, which may contribute to their high rate of mortality.

  7. Bunupuradah T, Kariminia A, Aurpibul L, Chokephaibulkit K, Hansudewechakul R, Lumbiganon P, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2016 Feb;35(2):201-4.
    PMID: 26484429 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000961
    We analyzed final height of 273 perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents older than 18 years at their last clinic visit. By the World Health Organization child growth reference, 30% were stunted, but by the Thai child growth reference, 19% were stunted. Half of those who were stunted at antiretroviral therapy initiation remained stunted over time. Being male and having a low baseline height-for-age Z score of less than -1.0 were associated with low final height Z score.
  8. Osowicki J, Wang S, McKenzie C, Marshall C, Gard J, Ke Juin W, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2016 Jan;35(1):108-10.
    PMID: 26398869 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000932
    We present the case of a male infant with congenital tuberculosis in a nonendemic setting complicated by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, who was treated successfully with antituberculous therapy and corticosteroids. We review the pediatric literature concerning the unusual association of these 2 rare conditions.
  9. Aurpibul L, Bunupuradah T, Sophan S, Boettiger D, Wati DK, Nguyen LV, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2015 Jun;34(6):e153-8.
    PMID: 25970117 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000693
    We determined the prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction before and after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.
  10. Fong CY, Hlaing CS, Tay CG, Ong LC
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2014 Oct;33(10):1092-4.
    PMID: 24776518 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000382
    Parkinsonism as a neurologic manifestation of dengue infection is rare with only 1 reported case in an adult patient. We report a case of a 6-year-old child with self-limiting post-dengue encephalopathy and Parkinsonism. This is the first reported pediatric case of post-dengue Parkinsonism and expands the neurologic manifestations associated with dengue infection in children. Clinicians should consider the possibility of post-dengue Parkinsonism in children with a history of pyrexia from endemic areas of dengue.
  11. Fong CY, Aye AM, Peyman M, Nor NK, Visvaraja S, Tajunisah I, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2014 Apr;33(4):424-6.
    PMID: 24378951 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000137
    We report a case of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 central nervous system disease with bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN). An infant was presented at 17 days of age with focal seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-1 and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebritis. While receiving intravenous acyclovir therapy, the infant developed ARN with vitreous fluid polymerase chain reaction positive for HSV-1 necessitating intravitreal foscarnet therapy. This is the first reported neonatal ARN secondary to HSV-1 and the first ARN case presenting without external ocular or cutaneous signs. Our report highlights that infants with neonatal HSV central nervous system disease should undergo a thorough ophthalmological evaluation to facilitate prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment of this rapidly progressive sight-threatening disease.
  12. Prasitsuebsai W, Kariminia A, Puthanakit T, Lumbiganon P, Hansudewechakul R, Siew Moy F, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2014 Jul;33(7):747-52.
    PMID: 24378942 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000226
    There are limited data on opportunistic infections (OIs) and factors associated with their occurrence after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Asian children. The use of HAART in Asia started much later than in developed countries and therefore reported findings may not be fully applicable to the pediatric HIV epidemic in Asia.
  13. Chokephaibulkit K, Kariminia A, Oberdorfer P, Nallusamy R, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2014 Mar;33(3):291-4.
    PMID: 23942457 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a18223
    More perinatally HIV-infected children in Asia are reaching adolescence.
  14. Hojsak I, Avitzur Y, Mor E, Shamir R, Haimi-Cohen Y, Zakay-Rones Z, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2011 Jun;30(6):491-4.
    PMID: 21248658 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31820b7c22
    Data on the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine in children after liver transplantation are sparse. Our study aims to evaluate the response of such patients to the trivalent influenza vaccine, administered by different protocols in 2 influenza seasons.
  15. Loganathan T, Ng CW, Lee WS, Jit M
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2016 06;35(6):601-6.
    PMID: 27008464 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001129
    BACKGROUND: Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) results in substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, an accurate estimation of the health and economic burden of RVGE in Malaysia covering public, private and home treatment is lacking.

    METHODS: Data from multiple sources were used to estimate diarrheal mortality and morbidity according to health service utilization. The proportion of this burden attributable to rotavirus was estimated from a community-based study and a meta-analysis we conducted of primary hospital-based studies. Rotavirus incidence was determined by multiplying acute gastroenteritis incidence with estimates of the proportion of gastroenteritis attributable to rotavirus. The economic burden of rotavirus disease was estimated from the health systems and societal perspective.

    RESULTS: Annually, rotavirus results in 27 deaths, 31,000 hospitalizations, 41,000 outpatient visits and 145,000 episodes of home-treated gastroenteritis in Malaysia. We estimate an annual rotavirus incidence of 1 death per 100,000 children and 12 hospitalizations, 16 outpatient clinic visits and 57 home-treated episodes per 1000 children under-5 years. Annually, RVGE is estimated to cost US$ 34 million to the healthcare provider and US$ 50 million to society. Productivity loss contributes almost a third of costs to society. Publicly, privately and home-treated episodes consist of 52%, 27% and 21%, respectively, of the total societal costs.

    CONCLUSIONS: RVGE represents a considerable health and economic burden in Malaysia. Much of the burden lies in privately or home-treated episodes and is poorly captured in previous studies. This study provides vital information for future evaluation of cost-effectiveness, which are necessary for policy-making regarding universal vaccination.

  16. Bartlett AW, Mohamed TJ, Sudjaritruk T, Kurniati N, Nallusamy R, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2019 03;38(3):287-292.
    PMID: 30281549 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002208
    BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are exposed to a chronic systemic infection and long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), leaving them susceptible to morbidities associated with inflammation, immunodeficiency and drug toxicity.

    METHODS: Data collected 2001 to 2016 from PHIVA 10-19 years of age within a regional Asian cohort were analyzed using competing risk time-to-event and Poisson regression analyses to describe the nature and incidence of morbidity events and hospitalizations and identify factors associated with disease-related, treatment-related and overall morbidity. Morbidity was defined according to World Health Organization clinical staging criteria and U.S. National Institutes of Health Division of AIDS criteria.

    RESULTS: A total 3,448 PHIVA contributed 17,778 person-years. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 5.5 years, and ART initiation was 6.9 years. There were 2,562 morbidity events and 307 hospitalizations. Cumulative incidence for any morbidity was 51.7%, and hospitalization was 10.0%. Early adolescence was dominated by disease-related infectious morbidity, with a trend toward noninfectious and treatment-related morbidity in later adolescence. Higher overall morbidity rates were associated with a CD4 count <350 cells/µL, HIV viral load ≥10,000 copies/mL and experiencing prior morbidity at age <10 years. Lower overall morbidity rates were found for those 15-19 years of age compared with 10-14 years and those who initiated ART at age 5-9 years compared with <5 or ≥10 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our PHIVA cohort experienced a morbidity event, with a trend from disease-related infectious events to treatment-related and noninfectious events as PHIVA age. ART initiation to prevent immune system damage, optimize virologic control and minimize childhood morbidity are key to limiting adolescent morbidity.

  17. Setoh JWS, Ho CKM, Yung CF, Tam C, Yelen, Tee NWS
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2019 12;38(12):1173-1176.
    PMID: 31738332 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002484
    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) spreads through bodily fluids, especially saliva, and can cause infectious mononucleosis. EBV immunity and infection status can be assessed by testing EBV viral capsid antigen and nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibodies in blood. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence and force of infection (FOI) of EBV antibodies among children and young people in 3 ethnic groups in Singapore.

    METHODS: Eight hundred ninety-six residual serum samples at a tertiary hospital were tested for viral capsid antigen (IgG and IgM) and EBNA IgG antibodies using Abbott Architect assays. We calculated the EBV seroprevalence using catalytic models to estimate the EBV force of infection from age-stratified seroprevalence data, both overall and by ethnic group.

    RESULTS: Overall seropositivity was 68.3% (n = 612). Seropositivity was higher in Malays (81.8%) compared with both Chinese (64.2%) and Indians (58.4%). EBV FOI was consistently higher in Malays, with an estimated annual rate of seroconversion of 25% in children 1 year, of age compared with 14% among Chinese and Indians at the same age.

    CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence patterns of EBV antibodies in the Chinese and Indian, but not Malay children in Singapore by 19 years of age resemble those previously reported in developed countries. Ideally, any future EBV vaccination strategy would need to target infants <1 year of age for maximum population benefit.

  18. Al-Herz W, Husain EH, Adeli M, Al Farsi T, Al-Hammadi S, Al Kuwaiti AA, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2022 11 01;41(11):933-937.
    PMID: 36102730 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003678
    AIMS: To present the details of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccine associated complications (VACs) in combined immunodeficiencies (CID) patients.

    METHODS: Five centers participated in this retrospective study and completed a data form, which included general patients' information, clinical and laboratory data.

    RESULTS: Among 236 CID patients, 127 were BCG vaccinated. 41.9% of patients with family history of CID and 17.1% who were diagnosed by screening were BCG vaccinated. Twenty-three patients (18.1%) developed BCG-VACs. The median age of VACs was 6 months and the median time from vaccination to complications was 6 months. The highest rate of BCG-VACs was recorded in patients receiving the Russian BCG strain compared to the Tokyo and Danish strains. Univariate analysis of T-lymphocyte subsets showed increased odds of BCG complications in patients with CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts of ≤250 cells/µL. Only CD8 + count ≤250 cells/µL had increased such odds on multivariate analysis. VACs were disseminated in 13 and localized in 10 patients. Localized complication occurred earlier after vaccination (median: 4 months) compared with disseminated ones (median: 7 months). There were no significant associations between sex, administered vaccine strain, serum immunoglobulins levels, lymphocyte subsets counts, and the chance of having either localized or disseminated BCG-related complications.

    COCLUSIONS: Although contraindicated, many patients with CID continue to be vaccinated with BCG. Low CD8 + count is a risk factor for BCG-related complications and localized complications occurred earlier than disseminated ones. Considerations should be undertaken by health care authorities especially in countries with high incidence of CID to implement newborn screening, delay the time of BCG vaccine administration beyond 6 months of age and to use the relatively safer strains like the Danish and Tokyo ones.

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