METHODS: Children enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database who had SM (weight-for-height or body mass index-for-age Z score less than -3) at ART initiation were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate poor weight recovery (weight-for-age Z score less than -3) and poor CD4% recovery (CD4% <25), and competing risk regression was used to analyze mortality and toxicity-associated treatment modification.
RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-five (11.9%) of 2993 children starting ART had SM. Their median weight-for-age Z score increased from -5.6 at ART initiation to -2.3 after 36 months. Not using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis at baseline was associated with poor weight recovery [odds ratio: 2.49 vs. using; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-3.74; P < 0.001]. Median CD4% increased from 3.0 at ART initiation to 27.2 after 36 months, and 56 (15.3%) children died during follow-up. More profound SM was associated with poor CD4% recovery (odds ratio: 1.78 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; P = 0.023) and mortality (hazard ratio: 2.57 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.24-5.33; P = 0.011). Twenty-two toxicity-associated ART modifications occurred at a rate of 2.4 per 100 patient-years, and rates did not differ by malnutrition severity.
CONCLUSION: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is important for the recovery of weight-for-age in severely malnourished children starting ART. The extent of SM does not impede weight-for-age recovery or antiretroviral tolerability, but CD4% response is compromised in children with a very low weight-for-height/body mass index-for-age Z score, which may contribute to their high rate of mortality.
METHODS: Data from multiple sources were used to estimate diarrheal mortality and morbidity according to health service utilization. The proportion of this burden attributable to rotavirus was estimated from a community-based study and a meta-analysis we conducted of primary hospital-based studies. Rotavirus incidence was determined by multiplying acute gastroenteritis incidence with estimates of the proportion of gastroenteritis attributable to rotavirus. The economic burden of rotavirus disease was estimated from the health systems and societal perspective.
RESULTS: Annually, rotavirus results in 27 deaths, 31,000 hospitalizations, 41,000 outpatient visits and 145,000 episodes of home-treated gastroenteritis in Malaysia. We estimate an annual rotavirus incidence of 1 death per 100,000 children and 12 hospitalizations, 16 outpatient clinic visits and 57 home-treated episodes per 1000 children under-5 years. Annually, RVGE is estimated to cost US$ 34 million to the healthcare provider and US$ 50 million to society. Productivity loss contributes almost a third of costs to society. Publicly, privately and home-treated episodes consist of 52%, 27% and 21%, respectively, of the total societal costs.
CONCLUSIONS: RVGE represents a considerable health and economic burden in Malaysia. Much of the burden lies in privately or home-treated episodes and is poorly captured in previous studies. This study provides vital information for future evaluation of cost-effectiveness, which are necessary for policy-making regarding universal vaccination.
METHODS: Data collected 2001 to 2016 from PHIVA 10-19 years of age within a regional Asian cohort were analyzed using competing risk time-to-event and Poisson regression analyses to describe the nature and incidence of morbidity events and hospitalizations and identify factors associated with disease-related, treatment-related and overall morbidity. Morbidity was defined according to World Health Organization clinical staging criteria and U.S. National Institutes of Health Division of AIDS criteria.
RESULTS: A total 3,448 PHIVA contributed 17,778 person-years. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 5.5 years, and ART initiation was 6.9 years. There were 2,562 morbidity events and 307 hospitalizations. Cumulative incidence for any morbidity was 51.7%, and hospitalization was 10.0%. Early adolescence was dominated by disease-related infectious morbidity, with a trend toward noninfectious and treatment-related morbidity in later adolescence. Higher overall morbidity rates were associated with a CD4 count <350 cells/µL, HIV viral load ≥10,000 copies/mL and experiencing prior morbidity at age <10 years. Lower overall morbidity rates were found for those 15-19 years of age compared with 10-14 years and those who initiated ART at age 5-9 years compared with <5 or ≥10 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Half of our PHIVA cohort experienced a morbidity event, with a trend from disease-related infectious events to treatment-related and noninfectious events as PHIVA age. ART initiation to prevent immune system damage, optimize virologic control and minimize childhood morbidity are key to limiting adolescent morbidity.
METHODS: Eight hundred ninety-six residual serum samples at a tertiary hospital were tested for viral capsid antigen (IgG and IgM) and EBNA IgG antibodies using Abbott Architect assays. We calculated the EBV seroprevalence using catalytic models to estimate the EBV force of infection from age-stratified seroprevalence data, both overall and by ethnic group.
RESULTS: Overall seropositivity was 68.3% (n = 612). Seropositivity was higher in Malays (81.8%) compared with both Chinese (64.2%) and Indians (58.4%). EBV FOI was consistently higher in Malays, with an estimated annual rate of seroconversion of 25% in children 1 year, of age compared with 14% among Chinese and Indians at the same age.
CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence patterns of EBV antibodies in the Chinese and Indian, but not Malay children in Singapore by 19 years of age resemble those previously reported in developed countries. Ideally, any future EBV vaccination strategy would need to target infants <1 year of age for maximum population benefit.
METHODS: Five centers participated in this retrospective study and completed a data form, which included general patients' information, clinical and laboratory data.
RESULTS: Among 236 CID patients, 127 were BCG vaccinated. 41.9% of patients with family history of CID and 17.1% who were diagnosed by screening were BCG vaccinated. Twenty-three patients (18.1%) developed BCG-VACs. The median age of VACs was 6 months and the median time from vaccination to complications was 6 months. The highest rate of BCG-VACs was recorded in patients receiving the Russian BCG strain compared to the Tokyo and Danish strains. Univariate analysis of T-lymphocyte subsets showed increased odds of BCG complications in patients with CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts of ≤250 cells/µL. Only CD8 + count ≤250 cells/µL had increased such odds on multivariate analysis. VACs were disseminated in 13 and localized in 10 patients. Localized complication occurred earlier after vaccination (median: 4 months) compared with disseminated ones (median: 7 months). There were no significant associations between sex, administered vaccine strain, serum immunoglobulins levels, lymphocyte subsets counts, and the chance of having either localized or disseminated BCG-related complications.
COCLUSIONS: Although contraindicated, many patients with CID continue to be vaccinated with BCG. Low CD8 + count is a risk factor for BCG-related complications and localized complications occurred earlier than disseminated ones. Considerations should be undertaken by health care authorities especially in countries with high incidence of CID to implement newborn screening, delay the time of BCG vaccine administration beyond 6 months of age and to use the relatively safer strains like the Danish and Tokyo ones.