METHODS: We prospectively followed 100 patients (50:50 cuffed and non-cuffed PICC) and compared CRBSI rate between these groups. Daily review and similar catheter care were performed until a PICC-related complication, completion of therapy, death or defined end-of-study date necessitate removal. CRBSI was confirmed in each case by demonstrating concordance between isolates colonizing the PICC at the time of infection and from peripheral blood cultures.
RESULTS: A total of 50 cuffed PICC were placed for 1864 catheter-days. Of these, 12 patients (24%) developed infection, for which 5 patients (10%) had a CRBSI for a rate of 2.7 per 1000 catheter-days. Another 50 tunnelled non-cuffed PICCs were placed for 2057 catheter-days. Of these, 7 patients (14%) developed infection, for which 3 patients (6%) had a CRBSI. for a rate of 1.5 per 1000 catheter-days. The mean time to development of infection is 24 days in cuffed and 19 days in non-cuffed groups. The mean duration of utilization was significantly longer in non-cuffed than in cuffed group (43 days in non-cuffed vs 37 days in cuffed group, p = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: Cuffed PICC does not further reduce the rate of local or bloodstream infection. Tunnelled non-cuffed PICC is shown to be as effective if not better at reducing risk of CRBSI and providing longer catheter dwell time compared to cuffed PICC.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 34 chronic renal disease patients (stage 3 and 4) were recruited in a randomized controlled trial. Handgrip exercise was performed for 8 weeks in the intervention group. Handgrip-strength measurement and distal forearm cephalic vein diameter of a non-dominant hand with and without tourniquet was recorded (measurement is taken 1 cm proximal to the radial styloid).
RESULTS: After 8 weeks, the mean cephalic vein diameter in the intervention group increased from 1.77 and 1.97 mm to 2.15 and 2.43 mm, without and with a tourniquet, respectively (p < 0.05). There is also a significant change in the mean diameter of distal forearm cephalic vein (p < 0.05) in the intervention group when measured in both the absence (mean change 0.39 ± 0.06 mm vs 0.01 ± 0.02 mm) and the presence of tourniquet (mean change 0.47 ± 0.07 mm vs 0.01 ± 0.01 mm).
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that non-invasive handgrip exercise can increase in the diameter of the distal forearm cephalic vein, thereby increasing the rate of successful arteriovenous fistula creation.
METHODS: Prospective, surveillance study on peripheral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections conducted from 1 September 2013 to 31 May 2019 in 262 intensive care units, members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium, from 78 hospitals in 32 cities of 8 countries in the South-East Asia Region: China, India, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
RESULTS: We followed 83,295 intensive care unit patients for 369,371 bed-days and 376,492 peripheral venous catheter-days. We identified 999 peripheral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections, amounting to a rate of 2.65/1000 peripheral venous catheter-days. Mortality in patients with peripheral venous catheter but without peripheral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections was 4.53% and 12.21% in patients with peripheral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections. The mean length of stay in patients with peripheral venous catheter but without peripheral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections was 4.40 days and 7.11 days in patients with peripheral venous catheter and peripheral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections. The microorganism profile showed 67.1% were Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (22.9%), Klebsiella spp (10.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.3%), Enterobacter spp. (4.5%), and others (23.7%). The predominant Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (11.4%).
CONCLUSIONS: Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of peripheral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections.
METHODS: Both patients had features of difficult airway, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class III and central venous occlusive disease. The common approach, i.e., ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block was technically difficult with inherent risk of vascular puncture due to dilated venous collaterals at the supraclavicular area possibly compromising block quality. The risk of general anesthesia (GA) was significant as patients were morbidly obese with possible risk of obstructive sleep apnea postoperatively. As an alternative, we performed the ultrasound-guided costoclavicular approach infraclavicular brachial plexus block with 20 mL local anesthetic (LA) ropivacaine 0.5% delivered at the identified costoclavicular space using in-plane needling technique. Another 10 mL of LA was infiltrated along the subcutaneous fascia of the proximal medial aspect of arm.
RESULTS: Both surgeries of >2 hours' duration were successful, without the need of further local infiltration at surgical site or conversion to GA.
CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided costoclavicular approach can be an alternative way of providing effective analgesia and safe anesthesia for vascular access surgery of the upper limb.
METHOD: In total, 138 participants with stage IV and V chronic kidney disease were included in this prospective observational study. Preoperative vascular mapping using ultrasound was performed to evaluate the condition and size of the vessels to fulfil the inclusion criteria. Intraoperatively, the vessel size was measured prior to anastomosis under magnified view. A specimen from the arterial wall of 5 mm in diameter was obtained from the arterotomy for histopathology assessment. Arteriovenous maturation was assessed at 6 weeks with the guidance of the ultrasound criteria of rule of sixes.
RESULTS: From the total of 138 participants, 110 participants (79.7%) had matured arteriovenous fistula in 6 weeks. The mean size of the artery measured intraoperatively was 3.82 ± 1.33 mm and the vein was 4.05 ± 1.20 mm. Microcalcification in the arterial media which was hypothesised to be the cause of the arteriovenous fistula failure was insignificant, with a p value of 0.115. Despite having atherosclerosis in the artery, 83.3% of the arteriovenous fistula matured.
CONCLUSION: Microcalcification and atherosclerosis are frequently seen in the arteries of chronic kidney disease patients, but they do not explain arteriovenous fistula non-maturation.
METHODS: A prospective randomized study was conducted in a single-center adult intensive care unit. In total, 100 patients were randomized into two groups. These patients underwent internal jugular vein central venous catheter cannulation with ultrasound guidance (short-axis scan, out-of-plane needling approach) in which one group adopted conventional method, while the other group was aided with the guided positioning system. Outcomes were measured by procedural efficacy (success rate, number of attempts, time to successful cannulation), complications, level of operators' experience, and their satisfaction.
RESULTS: All patients had successful cannulation on the first attempt except for one case in the conventional group. The median performance time for the guided positioning system method was longer (25.5 vs 15.5 s; p = 0.01). And 86% of the operators had more than 3-year experience in anesthesia. One post-insertion hematoma occurred in the conventional group. Only 88% of the operators using the guided positioning system method were satisfied compared to 100% in the conventional group.
CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion via internal jugular vein was a safe procedure in both conventional and guided positioning system methods. The guided positioning system did not confer additional benefit but was associated with slower performance time and lower satisfaction level among the experienced operators.
METHODS: From October 2015 to September 2016, 202 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), stages 4 and 5, underwent arteriovenous fistula creation at the Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia. Nine patients, with severe atherosclerosis of the distal artery, but with satisfactory veins, underwent forearm loop arteriovenous fistula creation. Maturation of the fistula was based on the classification by the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI).
RESULTS: All nine patients who underwent forearm loop arteriovenous fistula have had diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years. Only one fistula failed to mature within 6 weeks. Two arteriovenous fistulas thrombosed at 3 and 5 months, respectively, after the commencement of haemodialysis. However, the other six matured fistulas are still functioning well after a year of regular usage.
CONCLUSIONS: Distal forearm arteries in diabetics may be severely atherosclerotic. Forearm loop arteriovenous fistula can be considered as the primary access for cases decided as inconvenient for fistula creation due to severe occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the forearm arteries; in order to preserve upper arm veins for future access procedures.
METHODS: This is an investigator-initiated, prospective, international, multicenter, open-label, randomized control clinical trial that plans to recruit 80 patients, who require fistuloplasty from dysfunctional arteriovenous fistula (AVF) from CAS. Eligible participants are randomly assigned to receive treatment with SG and PCB or PCB alone in a 1:1 ratio post-angioplasty (n = 40 in each arm). Randomization is stratified by de novo or recurrent lesion, and the participants are followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoints of the study are target lesion primary patency (TLPP) and access circuit primary patency (ACPP) rates at 6-months. The secondary endpoints are TLPP and ACPP at 3- and 12-month; target lesion and access circuit assisted primary and secondary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12-months and the total number of interventions; complication rate; and cost-effectiveness.
DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of combination SG and PCB implantation compared to PCB alone in the treatment of CAS for hemodialysis patients.
METHODS: Prospective follow-up of 25 patients who presented to a tertiary institution with recurrent AV access thrombosis and treated with anticoagulation according to SEP following successful thrombectomy. Patency and safety outcomes of SEP were studied.
RESULTS: The participants were 66.4 ± 10.2 years old and predominantly male (60%) and of Chinese ethnicity (72%). The AV accesses had a median age of 1.4 (0.6, 5.6) years with 60% being non-autogenous arteriovenous access while 40% were autogenous arteriovenous access. Thrombolytic agents (urokinase (72%) or alteplase (28%)) were used in all procedures while adjunct thrombectomy device was used in only four procedures. The mean dose of enoxaparin was 36.0 ± 8.2 mg or 0.64 ± 0.1 mg/kg/day for a mean duration 30.0 days (Interquartile range: 27.5, 31.0). One patient developed minor bleeding episode. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the mean thrombosis-free survival pre- versus post-SEP adoption was 27.3 (95% CI 17.9-36.7) versus 183.5 (95% CI 100.1-266.9) days (p