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  1. Ramli NS, Giribabu N, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    Theriogenology, 2016 Jan 15;85(2):238-46.
    PMID: 26483308 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.09.036
    Secretions of chloride (Cl(-))- and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))-rich fluid by the seminal vesicles could involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which activity can be stimulated by cAMP generated from the reaction involving adenylate cyclase (AC). In this study, we investigated levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles under testosterone influence. Orchidectomized adult male rats received 7-day treatment with 125 or 250 μg/kg/day of testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and seminal vesicles were harvested for analyses of CFTR and AC protein expression level by Western blotting. Distribution of CFTR and AC in seminal vesicles was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP and dihydrotestosterone in seminal vesicle homogenates were measured by ELISA. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, AC, and cAMP levels increased with increasing doses of testosterone (P 
  2. Abdullah RB, Liow SL, Rahman AN, Chan WK, Wan-Khadijah WE, Ng SC
    Theriogenology, 2008 Sep 15;70(5):765-71.
    PMID: 18579196 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.04.052
    The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interval between ovarian hyperstimulation and laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) on quality and developmental competence of goat oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Estrus was synchronized with an intravaginal insert containing 0.3g progesterone (CIDR) for 10d, combined with a luteolytic treatment of 125 microg cloprostenol 36 h prior to CIDR removal. Ovaries were hyperstimulated with 70 mg FSH and 500 IU hCG given im 36, 60, or 72 h prior to LOPU (n=15, 16, and 7 does, respectively). For these groups, oocyte retrieval rates (mean+/-S.E.M.) were 24.7+/-2.9, 54.5+/-4.7, and 82.8+/-4.6% (P<0.001), and the proportions of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) with more than five layers of cumulus cells were 29.7+/-8.3, 37.6+/-6.9, and 37.3+/-7.0% (P<0.001). The proportion of IVM oocytes was highest at 72 h (82.1+/-2.8%; P<0.05), with no significant difference between 36 and 60 h (57.3+/-8.9% and 69.0+/-8.4%). Cleavage rates of ICSI embryos were 4.2+/-4.2, 70.9+/-8.4, and 78.9+/-8.2% with LOPU 36, 60, and 72 h post FSH/hCG (P<0.01), with a lower proportion of Grade-A embryos (P<0.05) following LOPU at 36 h compared to 60 and 72 h (29.7+/-8.3%, 37.6+/-6.9%, and 37.3+/-7.0%). In summary, a prolonged interval from FSH/hCG to LOPU improved oocyte retrieval rate and oocyte quality. Therefore, under the present conditions, LOPU 60 or 72 h after FSH/hCG optimized yields of good-quality oocytes for IVM and embryo production in goats.
  3. Rajikin MH, Yusoff M, Abdullah RB
    Theriogenology, 1994 Nov 01;42(6):1003-16.
    PMID: 16727604
    The structure and distribution of organelles within developing goat oocytes at various stages of incubation were studied. In oocytes with 5 or more layers of cumulus cells, at 0 h of incubation, the zona pellucida had developed although zonation was not evident. Lipid bodies were present but no mitochondria were observed. At 20 h, the zona pellucida had differentiated into thicker and thinner regions. Clusters of membrane-bound electron-transparent bodies were present in the perivitelline space. The mitochondria were fully developed, distributed evenly and usually in close proximity with dilated endoplasmic reticula. Cortical granules were distributed at the periphery. At 40 h of incubation, a number of mitochondria was hooded. In oocytes of 2 to 4 layers of cumulus cells at 0 h, the zona pellucida was penetrated by cumulus cell processes, and the mitochondria were not well developed. However, in 20-h incubated oocytes, fully developed mitochondria, many of which were hooded, could be observed. Clusters of membrane-bound electron-transparent bodies were also observed, while cortical granules were at the periphery. In cumulus-free oocytes, zonation within the zona pellucida was indistinct. Very few vesicles and lipid bodies were observed. At 20 h, mitochondria were sparsely distributed and were not well developed and lacked cristae. At 40 h, the zona pellucida was less compact, and the membrane-bound electron-transparent bodies were less numerous compared with those of the other groups. Endoplasmic reticula were not dilated, and cortical granules were few and had no definite pattern of distribution.
  4. Bongso TA, Jainudeen MR, Zahrah AS
    Theriogenology, 1982 Nov;18(5):513-24.
    PMID: 16725772
    Scrotal circumference (SC) and body weight (BW) measurements were obtained from 122 crossbred (SaanenxLoca; JumnaparixLocal) bucks, ranging in age from 3 to 28 months. Spermatogenesis and semeniferous tubule diameters were studied from testicular biopsies in 24 bucks. The results showed that SC increased curvilinearly and was significantly correlated with age (P<0.05). Scrotal circumference correlated more significantly with BW (P<0.001). Spermatogenesis was completed at 6-7 months with a sudden increase in tubular diameter at the same time. Since SC is an indirect measurement of testicular size, a marked increase in testicular size indicated the onset of active spermatogenesis and, hence, the possibility of using bucks for breeding at an earlier age than normally recommended. Further, SC norms obtained in this study may become useful in the evaluation of bucks for breeding soundness.
  5. Bongso TA, Jainudeen MR, Dass S
    Theriogenology, 1981 Apr;15(4):415-25.
    PMID: 16725600
    Forty Droughtmaster bulls were evaluated for breeding soundness, using the method of examination and criteria for classifying bulls of the Society for Theriogenelogy. Eighty three percent of the bulls were classified as satisfactory, 14 percent as questionable and 3 percent as unsatisfactory breeders. Scrotal circumference for 2 to 8-year-old bulls were smaller in questionable and unsatisfactory bulls, as compared to satisfactory bulls. For bulls rated as satisfactory breeders, the scrotal circumference of 37 to 43 cms was higher than for other beef breeds. Three related bulls (2 questionable, 1 satisfactory) carried sperm defects classified as 'knobbed' (38 +/- 3%), 'Dag' (40 +/- 4%) and 'pseudo-droplets' (41 +/- 5%), which may adversely affect fertility.
  6. Bongso TA, Hassan MD, Nordin W
    Theriogenology, 1984 Aug;22(2):127-34.
    PMID: 16725943
    Scrotal circumference (SC) and testicular volume (TV) were measured in 65 swamp buffalo bulls ranging in age from 7 to 60 months and weighing 130 kg to 560 kg. Ages and body weight (BW) were recorded for each male at the time of measurement to find out if they correlated with SC and TV. SC and TV increased linearly and correlated significantly with age and BW (SC vs age: r=0.74, p<0.01; SC vs BW: r=0.88, p<0.01; TV vs BW: r=0.82, p<0.01). SC measurements ranged from 15.1+/-1.1 cm to 24.0+/-0.4 cm for ages ranging from 10.0+/-0.6 to 48.5+/-6.3 months, revealing that testicular size in swamp buffaloes was very much smaller than domestic cattle. The SC norms distributed with age would be useful in the evaluation of swamp buffalo males for breeding soundness.
  7. Chinigarzadeh A, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    Theriogenology, 2015 Oct 1;84(6):911-26.
    PMID: 26154487 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.05.029
    Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein could induce changes in uterine fluid volume and Na(+) concentration. Progesterone upregulates expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase which contributed toward these changes. However, effects of estrogen and genistein were unknown. This study therefore investigated changes in expression of these proteins in the uterus under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences to further understand mechanisms underlying sex steroids and phytoestrogen effects on uterine fluid Na(+) regulation. In this study, uteri of ovariectomized female rats receiving 7-day treatment with genistein (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen (0.8 × 10(-4) mg/kg/day), or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day) were harvested, and expression levels of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were determined by Western blotting (proteins) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRNA). Meanwhile, distribution of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase proteins in the uterus was identified by immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicated that expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were enhanced under progesterone influence. Lower expressions were noted under estrogen and genistein influences compared to progesterone. Under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences, α- and β-ENaC were distributed at apical membrane and γ-ENaC was distributed at apical and basolateral membranes of uterine luminal epithelia. Under progesterone influence, α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was highly expressed at basolateral membrane. In conclusion, high expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase under progesterone influence would contribute toward increased uterine fluid Na(+) reabsorption, whereas lesser expression of these proteins under estrogen and genistein influences would contribute toward lower reabsorption of uterine fluid Na(+).
  8. Sarsaifi K, Haron AW, Vejayan J, Yusoff R, Hani H, Omar MA, et al.
    Theriogenology, 2015 Oct 1;84(6):956-68.
    PMID: 26119476 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.05.035
    The present study evaluated the relationship between Bali bull (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and different semen quality parameters. Semen samples from 10 mature Bali bulls were evaluated for conventional semen parameters (general motility, viability, and normal morphology), sperm functionality (acrosome reaction, sperm penetration rate, sperm penetration index), sperm kinetics (computer-assisted semen analysis parameters such as sperm velocity), and sperm morphology (acrosome and membrane integrity). Frozen-thawed semen with higher sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, and membrane integrity (P < 0.05) are consistently higher in acrosome reaction and sperm penetration assay. Three bulls showed the highest, four bulls displayed the medium, and the remaining three bulls showed the lowest for all sperm parameters and SPA. The proteome maps of seminal plasma from high-quality and low-quality Bali bulls were also established. Seminal plasma of both high-quality and low-quality Bali bulls was subjected to two-dimensional SDS-PAGE with isoelectric point ranged from 3 to 10 and molecular weight from 10 to 250 kDa. Approximately 116 spots were detected with Blue Silver stain, and of these spots, 29 were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. A majority of the proteins visualized in the seminal plasma two-dimensional maps was successfully identified. An essential group of the identified spots represented binder of sperm 1 (BSP1), clusterin, spermadhesin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Other proteins found in high abundance included seminal ribonuclease, serum albumin, cationic trypsin, and peptide similar to β2 microglobulin. Thus, a reference map of Bali bull seminal plasma proteins has been generated for the very first time and can be used to relate protein pattern changes to physiopathologic events that may influence Bali bull reproductive performance.
  9. Kwong PJ, Abdullah RB, Wan Khadijah WE
    Theriogenology, 2012 Sep 1;78(4):921-9.
    PMID: 22704387 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.04.009
    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of potassium simplex optimization medium with amino acids (KSOMaa) as a basal culture medium for caprine intraspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and caprine-bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. The effect of increased glucose as an energy substrate for late stage development of cloned caprine embryos in vitro was also evaluated. Enucleated caprine and bovine in vitro matured oocytes at metaphase II were reconstructed with caprine ear skin fibroblast cells for the SCNT and iSCNT studies. The cloned caprine and parthenogenetic embryos were cultured in either KSOMaa with 0.2 mM glucose for 8 days (Treatment 1) or KSOMaa for 2 days followed by KSOMaa with additional glucose at a final concentration of 2.78 mM for the last 6 days (Treatment 2). There were no significant differences in the cleavage rates of SCNT (80.7%) and iSCNT (78.0%) embryos cultured in KSOMaa medium. Both Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 could support in vitro development of SCNT and iSCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage. However, the blastocyst development rate of SCNT embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Treatment 2 compared to Treatment 1. Increasing glucose for later stage embryo development (8-cell stage onwards) during in vitro culture (IVC) in Treatment 2 also improved both caprine SCNT and iSCNT embryo development to the hatched blastocyst stage. In conclusion, this study shows that cloned caprine embryos derived from SCNT and iSCNT could develop to the blastocyst stage in KSOMaa medium supplemented with additional glucose (2.78 mM, final concentration) and this medium also supported hatching of caprine cloned blastocysts.
  10. Khadijah Ramli NS, Giribabu N, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    Theriogenology, 2018 Mar 01;108:354-361.
    PMID: 29294437 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.12.035
    Precise regulation of vas deferens fluid pH is essential for sperm. However, the mechanisms underlying effect of testosterone on vas deferens fluid pH have never been identified, which could involve changes in expression and functional activity of vacoular (V)-ATPase.

    METHODS: Orchidectomized, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated subcutaneously with 125 μg/kg/day and 250 μg/kg/day testosterone with or without flutamide (androgen receptor blocker) and finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor) for seven (7) days. Following treatment completion, in vivo perfusion of vas deferens lumen was performed and changes in fluid secretion rate, pH and HCO3- content were measured with and without bafilomycin, a V-ATPase inhibitor. Rats were then sacrificed and vas deferens were harvested and subjected for V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 protein expression and distribution analysis by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively.

    RESULTS: In sham-operated and testosterone-treated orchidectomized rats, higher fluid secretion rate, which was not antagonized by bafilomycin but lower HCO3- content and pH which were antagonized by bafilomycin were observed when compared to orchidectomized-only and orchidectomized, testosterone-treated rats receiving flutamide or finasteride, respectively. Bafilomycin had no effect on fluid secretion rate, HCO3- content and pH in orchidectomized and testosterone-treated orchidectomized rats receiving flutamide and finasteride. V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins were expressed at high levels in vas deferens and were highly distributed at the apical membrane of luminal epithelium and in muscle layer of this organ, mainly in sham and testosterone-treated orchidectomized rats.

    CONCLUSIONS: V-ATPase is involved in acidification of vas deferens fluid under testosterone influence.

  11. Albishtue AA, Yimer N, Zakaria MZA, Haron AW, Babji AS, Abubakar AA, et al.
    Theriogenology, 2019 Mar 01;126:310-319.
    PMID: 30605790 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.12.026
    This study was conducted to determine the effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) supplement on uterine function and embryo-implantation rate. A total of 24 adult female rats, divided equally into four groups, were treated with different doses of EBN for 8 weeks. In the last week of treatment, intact fertile male rats were introduced into each group (three per group) for overnight for mating. On day 7 post-mating (post-implantation), blood samples were collected from the hearts of anaesthetised rats that were later sacrificed. The uteri were removed for assessment of embryo implantation rate, histological and electron microscopic examination, and immunohistochemical analyses. Results showed that as the concentration of EBN supplemented increased, the pregnancy and embryo implantation rates were also increased in the treated groups; significantly at G3 and G4. Although histological evaluation did not show much difference among the groups, scanning electron microscopic examination showed enhanced development of elongated microvilli and pinopods in G4. Results also revealed up-regulated expressions of epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nulear antigen (PCNA), and progesterone and estrogen receptors (P4R, E2R) in the uteri of treated groups. Moreover, plasma E2, P4, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (P) levels were higher (p 
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