METHODS: Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval.
RESULTS: Multivariate predictors of "interest in quitting" were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, "cognitive reactions to warnings" (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), "forgoing a cigarette" (adjusted OR = 1.55 at wave 2 only) and "an interest in quitting" (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively).
CONCLUSION: Warnings appear to have common mechanisms for influencing quitting regardless of warning strength. The larger and more informative Thai warnings were associated with higher levels of reactions predictive of quitting and stronger associations with subsequent quitting, demonstrating their greater potency.
FINDINGS: We studied 127 women; and based on their hair nicotine levels measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 25 of them were categorized as having higher hair nicotine levels, 25 were grouped as having lower hair nicotine and 77 women were grouped into the non-detected group. The non-detected group did not have detectable levels of hair nicotine. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured accordingly. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed non-invasively using laser Doppler fluximetry and the process of iontophoresis involving acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilators respectively. The mean hair nicotine levels for higher and lower hair nicotine groups were 0.74 (1.04) and 0.05 (0.01) ng/mg respectively. There were no significant differences in anthropometry, BP, lipid profile and hsCRP between these groups. There were also no significant differences in the microvascular perfusion and endothelial function between these groups.
CONCLUSION: In this study, generally healthy non-smoking women who have higher, lower and non-detected hair nicotine levels did not show significant differences in their microvascular endothelial function. Low levels of SHS exposure among generally healthy non-smoking women may not significantly impair their microvascular endothelial function.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 346 adult males aged 18 years old to 68 years old. Socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, and shammah use history were surveyed by using a structured interview questionnaire. The clinical assessment for the presence or absence of periodontal pockets was assessed on the basis of community periodontal index. The chi-square test was used to assess significant differences in study groups in terms of the presence of periodontal pockets. Multivariable logistic regression was selected to assess potential associated factors with the development of periodontal pockets.
RESULTS: Among the 346 adult males, 248 (71.7 %), 30 (8.6 %), and 68 (19.7 %) males never used shammah, were former shammah users, and were current shammah users, respectively. The significant associated factors with the development of periodontal pocket were age group (30 years old and above) (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.03, 95 % CI: 1.13, 3.65; P = 0.018), low family income category (AOR = 2.35, 95 % CI: 1.39, 3.99; P = 0.001), former shammah user (AOR = 2.66, 95 %: CI: 1.15, 6.15; P = 0.022), and current shammah user (AOR = 6.62, 95 %: CI: 3.59, 12.21; P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that periodontal pockets were significantly associated with age group (30 years old and above), low family income category, former shammah use, and current shammah use. The findings of the current study highlighted the need to develop comprehensive shammah prevention programs and reduce periodontal disease and other shammah-associated diseases.
METHODS: A study was carried out in 2013, which involved a total of 40 secondary schools. They were randomly selected using a two-stage clustering sampling method. Subsequently, all upper secondary school students (aged 16 to 17 years) from each selected school were recruited into the study. Data was collected using a validated standardised questionnaire.
RESULTS: This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 14.6% (95% CI:13.3-15.9), and it was significantly higher among males compared to females (27.9% vs 2.4%, p
METHODS: We analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003, GYTS 2009, and the Tobacco and Electronic Cigarette Survey among Malaysia Adolescents (TECMA) 2016. The surveys employed multistage sampling to select representative samples of adolescents attending secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected using a pre-validated self-administered anonymous questionnaire adopted from the GYTS.
RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2016, major changes occurred in which there were reductions in the prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. Reductions were also observed in exposure to SHS in public places and in the home. The proportion of school-going adolescents who support a ban on smoking in public places increased between 2013 to 2016, and there was a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents that were offered 'free' cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. However, there was no difference in the proportion of adolescents who initiated smoking before the age of 10 years and current smokers seeking advice to quit smoking across the time period.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the smoking policies and measures have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence, secondhand smoke exposure, and access to cigarettes, among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. However, measures to reduce smoking initiation and increase smoking cessation need to be strengthened to reduce the burden of smoking-related diseases in Malaysia in the long-term.
METHODS: We derived the data from the TECMA study, which used a cross-sectional study design and multi-stage sampling method to obtain a representative sample of school-going adolescents aged 11-19 years in Malaysia in 2016. Data were collected through a self-administered approach using a pre-validated standard questionnaire. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the data, and results are presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).
RESULTS: SHS exposure for the past seven days was higher outside the home (51.2%; 95% CI: 49.2-53.2) compared to at home (37.8%; 95% CI: 35.8-39.9) while 27.3% (95% CI: 25.1-29.5) of school-going adolescents reported exposure to SHS inside the school in the past one month. In the regression analyses, older adolescents, those of Malay and Bumiputra Sarawak ethnicities, adolescents from rural areas and current smokers had higher likelihood of exposure to SHS at home, outside home and inside the school. Our study also found that adolescents who were current smokers had higher odds of being exposed to SHS at home (AOR=2.87; 95% CI: 2.57-3.21), outside the home (AOR=3.46; 95% CI: 3.05-3.92) and in the school (AOR=2.25; 95% CI: 2.01-2.51).
CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion measures should target parents/guardians and household members to reduce SHS exposure among adolescents. In addition, smoke-free regulation should be fully enforced in school. Furthermore, more public places should be designated non-smoking areas to reduce SHS exposure and denormalize smoking behavior.
METHODS: The data were derived from the Malaysian Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS-M), collected in 2011-2012, involving 4250 respondents. Data analyses involved 1343 respondents reported to be in the working population.
RESULTS: More than half of the respondents (58.5%) were reportedly working in smoke-free workplaces. Almost a quarter (24.8%) of those who worked in smoke-free workplaces stayed in smoke-free homes, which was more than two times higher than their counterparts who worked at non-smoke-free workplaces (24.8% vs 12.0%, p<0.001). Multivariable analyses further substantiated this finding (AOR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.11-3.61, reference group = worked at non-smoke-free workplaces).
CONCLUSIONS: This study found an association between living in smoke-free homes and working at smoke-free workplaces, which could suggest a positive impact of implementing smoke-free workplaces.
METHODS: Methadone-maintained therapy (MMT) users from three centers in Malaysia had their exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels recorded via the piCO+ and iCOTM Smokerlyzers®, their nicotine dependence assessed with the Malay version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M), and daily tobacco intake measured via the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) Tobacco Q-score. Pearson partial correlations were used to compare the eCO results of both devices, as well as the corresponding FTND-M scores.
RESULTS: Among the 146 participants (mean age 47.9 years, 92.5% male, and 73.3% Malay ethnic group) most (55.5%) were moderate smokers (6-19 cigarettes/day). Mean eCO categories were significantly correlated between both devices (r=0.861, p<0.001), and the first and second readings were significantly correlated for each device (r=0.94 for the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, p<0.001; r=0.91 for the iCOTM Smokerlyzer®, p<0.001). Exhaled CO correlated positively with FTND-M scores for both devices. The post hoc analysis revealed a significantly lower iCOTM Smokerlyzer® reading of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69-0.94, p<0.001) compared to that of the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, and a significant intercept of -0.34 (95% CI: -0.61 - -0.07, p=0.016) on linear regression analysis, suggesting that there may be a calibration error in one or more of the iCOTM Smokerlyzer® devices.
CONCLUSIONS: The iCOTM Smokerlyzer® readings are highly reproducible compared to those of the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, but calibration guidelines are required for the mobile-phone-based device. Further research is required to assess interchangeability.
METHODS: We performed secondary analysis on data from 25461 respondents of the Global School Health Survey in Malaysia. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression were performed to determine factors associated with SHS exposure.
RESULTS: Respondents were adolescents of mean age 14.84 (SD=1.45) years, 50.2% of which were male and 49.8% female. Approximately four in ten respondents were exposed to SHS in the past week (41.5%). SHS exposure was significantly higher among respondents who smoked than among non-smokers (85.8% vs 35.7%, p<0.001). The likelihood of exposure to SHS was higher among smoking adolescents (Adjusted OR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.07-2.56) and non-smoking adolescents (AOR=3.15, 95% CI: 1.48-4.71) who had at least one smoking parent/guardian regardless of their own smoking status. Male adolescents had higher risk of SHS exposure compared to their female counterparts (current smoker AOR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.07-2.56; non-smoker AOR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.12-2.00) and increased with age, regardless of their smoking status.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that prevalence of exposure to SHS among school-going adolescents in Malaysia is high. Parents should be advised to stop smoking or abstain from smoking in the presence of their children. Education programmes are recommended to increase awareness on avoidance of SHS as well as smoking cessation interventions for both adolescents and their parents.
METHODS: A multistage sampling was performed across rural primary schools in Kuala Krai, Kelantan, Malaysia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and the children aged 10-11 years (n=312) were subjected to cognitive tests including digit span, letter-number sequencing, coding, and symbol search. Cognitive performance was tested using subscales derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
RESULTS: The prevalence of SHS exposure at home was 55.8%, where 11.9% of children lived with one smoker, while 43.9% of children lived with ≥2 smokers. There was a significant difference in the mean score of the combined cognitive tests between SHS-exposed and non-exposed children after adjustment for sex, parental educational level, family income and academic performance [Pillai's Trace=0.084, F statistic (df)=6.803 (4302), p<0.001].
CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the primary school children in rural Kuala Krai were exposed to SHS from at least one smoker at home. There was a significant association between SHS exposure at home and cognitive performance.
METHODS: The current study estimated the annual spending and lifetime spending of smokers in the target Asia-Pacific countries (Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea, Singapore, and Australia) on purchasing cigarettes, as well as predicted the revenue that could be generated if smokers spent the money on investment instead of buying cigarettes. Smokers' spending on cigarettes and the potential revenue generated from investment were estimated based on the selling prices of cigarettes, Standards & Poor's 500 Index, and life expectancies of smokers. Data were extracted from reports released by the World Health Organization or government authorities.
RESULTS: The annual expenses (in US$) on purchasing one pack of cigarettes, in decreasing order, were: Australia ($5628.30), Singapore ($3777.75), Hong Kong ($2799.55), Malaysia ($1529.35), South Korea ($1467.30), and Thailand ($657.00). The lifetime spending on purchasing one pack of cigarettes each day were: Australia ($308993.67), Singapore ($207398.48), Hong Kong ($151735.61 for male and $166853.18 for female), South Korea ($80261.31), Malaysia ($72338.26), and Thailand ($31207.50).
CONCLUSIONS: The cost burden of smoking is high from a smoker's perspective. Smokers should recognize the high economic burden and quit smoking to enjoy better health and wealth.