Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

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  1. Fathelrahman AI, Li L, Borland R, Yong HH, Omar M, Awang R, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2013 Sep 18;11(1):20.
    PMID: 24330614 DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-11-20
    BACKGROUND: We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand.

    METHODS: Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval.

    RESULTS: Multivariate predictors of "interest in quitting" were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, "cognitive reactions to warnings" (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), "forgoing a cigarette" (adjusted OR = 1.55 at wave 2 only) and "an interest in quitting" (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Warnings appear to have common mechanisms for influencing quitting regardless of warning strength. The larger and more informative Thai warnings were associated with higher levels of reactions predictive of quitting and stronger associations with subsequent quitting, demonstrating their greater potency.

  2. Awaisu A, Haniki Nik Mohamed M, Noordin NM, Muttalif AR, Aziz NA, Syed Sulaiman SA, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2012 Feb 28;10:2.
    PMID: 22373470 DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-10-2
    BACKGROUND: With evolving evidence of association between tuberculosis (TB) and tobacco smoking, recommendations for the inclusion of tobacco cessation interventions in TB care are becoming increasingly important and more widely disseminated. Connecting TB and tobacco cessation interventions has been strongly advocated as this may yield better outcomes. However, no study has documented the impact of such connection on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of this study was to document the impact of an integrated TB directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) plus smoking cessation intervention (SCI) on HRQoL.
    METHODS: This was a multi-centered non-randomized controlled study involving 120 TB patients who were current smokers at the time of TB diagnosis in Malaysia. Patients were assigned to either of two groups: the usual TB-DOTS plus SCI (SCIDOTS group) or the usual TB-DOTS only (DOTS group). The effect of the novel strategy on HRQoL was measured using EQ-5D questionnaire. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to examine the effects.
    RESULTS: When compared, participants who received the integrated intervention had a better HRQoL than those who received the usual TB care. The SCIDOTS group had a significantly greater increase in EQ-5D utility score than the DOTS group during 6 months follow-up (mean ± SD = 0.98 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.14, p = 0.006). Similarly, the mean scores for EQ-VAS showed a consistently similar trend as the EQ-5D indices, with the scores increasing over the course of TB treatment. Furthermore, for the EQ-VAS, there were significant main effects for group [F (1, 84) = 4.91, p = 0.029, η2 = 0.06], time [F (2, 168) = 139.50, p = < 0.001, η2 = 0.62] and group x time interaction [F (2, 168) = 13.89, p = < 0.001, η2 = 0.14].
    CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the evidence that an integrated TB-tobacco treatment strategy could potentially improve overall quality of life outcomes among TB patients who are smokers.
    Study site: Five chest clinics, Hospitals in Pulau Pinang, Bukit Mertajam, Seberang Jaya, Sungai Bakap, and Institut Perubatan Respirotori, Malaysia
  3. Awaisu A, Nik Mohamed MH, Abd Aziz N, Syed Sulaiman SA, Mohamad Noordin N, Muttalif AR, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2010 Jan 12;8(1):3.
    PMID: 20148105 DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-8-3
    BACKGROUND: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population.
    METHODS: Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics) located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers.
    RESULTS: Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817) and 13.95% (114/817), respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate) and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate). The mean (+/- SD) total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 +/- 2.66 (maximum possible score=11). More than half of the participants (51.3%) were moderately dependent to nicotine. A moderately large proportion of the respondents (41.2%) reported that they have ever attempted to quit smoking, while more than half (56.3%) have not. Less than half (47.5%) of the study participants had knowledge about the body system on which cigarette smoking has the greatest negative effect. The majority wrongly believed that smokeless tobacco can increase athletic performance (60%) and that it is a safe and harmless product (46.2%). An overwhelming proportion (>80%) of the patients believed that: smoking is a waste of money, tobacco use is very dangerous to health, and that smokers are more likely to die from heart disease when compared with non-smokers. The use of smokeless tobacco was moderately prevalent among the participants with 28.8% reporting ever snuffed, but the use of cigar and pipe was uncommon.
    CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence rate is high among patients with TB in Malaysia. These patients generally had deficiencies in knowledge of tobacco use and its health dangers, but had positive attitudes against tobacco use. Efforts should be geared towards reducing tobacco use among this population due to its negative impact on TB treatment outcomes.
  4. Sanip Z, Hanaffi SH, Ahmad I, Yusoff SS, Rasool AH, Yusoff HM
    Tob Induc Dis, 2015;13(1):32.
    PMID: 26346914 DOI: 10.1186/s12971-015-0052-9
    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure could impair endothelial function. However, the effect of SHS exposure specifically on microvascular endothelial function is not well understood. This study aimed to determine the effects of SHS exposure on microvascular endothelial function among non-smoking, generally healthy women.

    FINDINGS: We studied 127 women; and based on their hair nicotine levels measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 25 of them were categorized as having higher hair nicotine levels, 25 were grouped as having lower hair nicotine and 77 women were grouped into the non-detected group. The non-detected group did not have detectable levels of hair nicotine. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured accordingly. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed non-invasively using laser Doppler fluximetry and the process of iontophoresis involving acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilators respectively. The mean hair nicotine levels for higher and lower hair nicotine groups were 0.74 (1.04) and 0.05 (0.01) ng/mg respectively. There were no significant differences in anthropometry, BP, lipid profile and hsCRP between these groups. There were also no significant differences in the microvascular perfusion and endothelial function between these groups.

    CONCLUSION: In this study, generally healthy non-smoking women who have higher, lower and non-detected hair nicotine levels did not show significant differences in their microvascular endothelial function. Low levels of SHS exposure among generally healthy non-smoking women may not significantly impair their microvascular endothelial function.

  5. Al-Tayar B, Tin-Oo MM, Sinor MZ, Alakhali MS
    Tob Induc Dis, 2015;13:35.
    PMID: 26539068 DOI: 10.1186/s12971-015-0061-8
    BACKGROUND: The traditional type of smokeless tobacco used in the Arabian Peninsula, particularly common in Yemen, is called shammah. This study aims to determine the prevalence of shammah use and its association with the development of periodontal pockets. Other associated factors with the development of periodontal pocket were also determined.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 346 adult males aged 18 years old to 68 years old. Socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, and shammah use history were surveyed by using a structured interview questionnaire. The clinical assessment for the presence or absence of periodontal pockets was assessed on the basis of community periodontal index. The chi-square test was used to assess significant differences in study groups in terms of the presence of periodontal pockets. Multivariable logistic regression was selected to assess potential associated factors with the development of periodontal pockets.

    RESULTS: Among the 346 adult males, 248 (71.7 %), 30 (8.6 %), and 68 (19.7 %) males never used shammah, were former shammah users, and were current shammah users, respectively. The significant associated factors with the development of periodontal pocket were age group (30 years old and above) (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.03, 95 % CI: 1.13, 3.65; P = 0.018), low family income category (AOR = 2.35, 95 % CI: 1.39, 3.99; P = 0.001), former shammah user (AOR = 2.66, 95 %: CI: 1.15, 6.15; P = 0.022), and current shammah user (AOR = 6.62, 95 %: CI: 3.59, 12.21; P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that periodontal pockets were significantly associated with age group (30 years old and above), low family income category, former shammah use, and current shammah use. The findings of the current study highlighted the need to develop comprehensive shammah prevention programs and reduce periodontal disease and other shammah-associated diseases.

  6. Lim KH, Jasvindar K, Cheong SM, Ho BK, Lim HL, Teh CH, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2016;14:8.
    PMID: 27006650 DOI: 10.1186/s12971-016-0073-z
    BACKGROUND: The determination of smoking prevalence and its associated factors among the elderly could provide evidence-based findings to guide the planning and implementation of policy in order to will help in reducing the morbidity and mortality of smoking-related diseases, thus increase their quality of life. This paper describes the rate of smoking and identifies the factor(s) associated with smoking among the elderly in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A representative sample of 2674 respondents was obtained via a two-stage sampling method in proportion to population size. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a set of standardized validated questionnaire. Data was weighted by taking into consideration the complex sampling design and non-response rate prior to data analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine the factor/s associated with smoking.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of non-smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers among Malaysians aged 60 years and above were 36.3 % (95 % CI = 32.7-39.8), 24.4 % (95 % CI = 21.2-27.5) and 11.9 % (95 % CI = 9.5-14.3), respectively. Current smokers were significantly more prevalent in men (28.1 %) than in women (2.9 %), but the prevalence declined with advancing age, higher educational attainment, and among respondents with known diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Multivariable analysis revealed that males (aOR, 18.6, 95 % CI 10.9-31.9) and other Bumiputras (aOR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.29-5.15) were more likely to smoke. in addition, elderly with lower educational attainment (aOR, 1.70, 95 % CI 1.24-7.41) and those without/unknown hypertension also reported higher likelihood to be current smokers (aOR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.35-2.83). However, there were no significant associations between respondents with no/unknown diabetes or hypercholesterolemia with smoking.
    CONCLUSIONS: In short, smoking is common among elderly men in Malaysia. Therefore, intervention programs should integrate the present findings to reduce the smoking rate and increase the smoking cessation rate among the elderly in Malaysia and subsequently to reduce the burden of smoking-related disease.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
  7. Naing NN, Ahmad Z, Musa R, Hamid FR, Ghazali H, Bakar MH
    Tob Induc Dis, 2004 Sep 15;2(3):133-40.
    PMID: 19570279 DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-2-3-133
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.
  8. Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Kee CC, Khoo YY, Ganapathy SS, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2017;15:9.
    PMID: 28163668 DOI: 10.1186/s12971-016-0108-5
    BACKGROUND: A multitude of studies have revealed that smoking is a learned behaviour during adolescence and efforts to reduce the incidence of smoking has been identified as long-term measures to curb the smoking menace. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence as well as the intra and inter-personal factors associated with smoking among upper secondary school students in selected schools in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: A study was carried out in 2013, which involved a total of 40 secondary schools. They were randomly selected using a two-stage clustering sampling method. Subsequently, all upper secondary school students (aged 16 to 17 years) from each selected school were recruited into the study. Data was collected using a validated standardised questionnaire.

    RESULTS: This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 14.6% (95% CI:13.3-15.9), and it was significantly higher among males compared to females (27.9% vs 2.4%, p 

  9. Lim KH, Ghazali SM, Lim HL, Kee CC, Cheah YK, Singh BSGP, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2020;18:80.
    PMID: 33013276 DOI: 10.18332/tid/127231
    INTRODUCTION: Periodic surveys on tobacco use patterns and other aspects of tobacco use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia provide information on the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures implemented. However, such information is limited in Malaysia. We investigated the prevalence of smoking and other related aspects among middle-secondary school students in Malaysia from the years 2003-2016 to fill this gap.

    METHODS: We analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003, GYTS 2009, and the Tobacco and Electronic Cigarette Survey among Malaysia Adolescents (TECMA) 2016. The surveys employed multistage sampling to select representative samples of adolescents attending secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected using a pre-validated self-administered anonymous questionnaire adopted from the GYTS.

    RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2016, major changes occurred in which there were reductions in the prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. Reductions were also observed in exposure to SHS in public places and in the home. The proportion of school-going adolescents who support a ban on smoking in public places increased between 2013 to 2016, and there was a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents that were offered 'free' cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. However, there was no difference in the proportion of adolescents who initiated smoking before the age of 10 years and current smokers seeking advice to quit smoking across the time period.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the smoking policies and measures have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence, secondhand smoke exposure, and access to cigarettes, among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. However, measures to reduce smoking initiation and increase smoking cessation need to be strengthened to reduce the burden of smoking-related diseases in Malaysia in the long-term.

  10. Ling MYJ, Lim KH, Hasani WSR, Rifin HM, Majid NLA, Lourdes TGR, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2020;18:96.
    PMID: 33262682 DOI: 10.18332/tid/128622
    INTRODUCTION: Many studies have revealed that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) substantially increases the risk of smoking related diseases especially among the vulnerable groups, yet data on the location of SHS exposure among youth in Malaysia are still lacking. The study aims to describe the prevalence and factors associated with SHS exposure at home, outside the home, and inside the school among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: We derived the data from the TECMA study, which used a cross-sectional study design and multi-stage sampling method to obtain a representative sample of school-going adolescents aged 11-19 years in Malaysia in 2016. Data were collected through a self-administered approach using a pre-validated standard questionnaire. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the data, and results are presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

    RESULTS: SHS exposure for the past seven days was higher outside the home (51.2%; 95% CI: 49.2-53.2) compared to at home (37.8%; 95% CI: 35.8-39.9) while 27.3% (95% CI: 25.1-29.5) of school-going adolescents reported exposure to SHS inside the school in the past one month. In the regression analyses, older adolescents, those of Malay and Bumiputra Sarawak ethnicities, adolescents from rural areas and current smokers had higher likelihood of exposure to SHS at home, outside home and inside the school. Our study also found that adolescents who were current smokers had higher odds of being exposed to SHS at home (AOR=2.87; 95% CI: 2.57-3.21), outside the home (AOR=3.46; 95% CI: 3.05-3.92) and in the school (AOR=2.25; 95% CI: 2.01-2.51).

    CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion measures should target parents/guardians and household members to reduce SHS exposure among adolescents. In addition, smoke-free regulation should be fully enforced in school. Furthermore, more public places should be designated non-smoking areas to reduce SHS exposure and denormalize smoking behavior.

  11. Lim KH, Teh CH, Heng PP, Pan S, Ling MY, Yusoff MFM, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16:51.
    PMID: 31516448 DOI: 10.18332/tid/96297
    INTRODUCTION: Understanding how and where youth obtain tobacco products are major factors in the development of suitable intervention programs to reduce youth smoking. This study aimed to determine the source of cigarettes and the associated factors among Malaysian school adolescent smokers.

    METHODS: Our sample consisted of 1348 youth aged 10-17 years who were current smokers (having smoked at least once in the last 30 days). The source of cigarettes (commercial, over-the-counter purchases; or social, borrowing or obtaining from someone else) was the dependent variable, and multivariable logistic regression was employed to determine its association with independent variables (i.e. sociodemographics, smoking behavior, and knowledge of laws prohibiting sales of cigarettes to youth).

    RESULTS: Over half (54.3%) of current smokers obtained cigarettes from commercial sources, with a proportion nearly two times higher (84.2% vs 43.7%) among frequent smokers (i.e. those smoking more than 20 days per month) compared to less-frequent smokers, and among young males (56.5% vs 32.0%) compared young females. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that in urban areas, young females (AOR=12.5, 95% CI: 1.38-99.8) frequent smokers (AOR=4.41, 95% CI: 2.05-9.46), and those studying in lower (AOR=3.76, 95% CI: 1.41-10.02) and upper secondary (AOR=4.74, 95% CI: 1.72-13.06) school students were more likely to obtain cigarettes from a commercial source. On the other hand, in rural areas, only frequent smokers were more likely to get their cigarettes from commercial sources, whilst other variables were not significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of youth smokers who obtained cigarettes from commercial sources appeared to be high, suggesting that law enforcement and health promotion activities should be enhanced to reduce the rate of smoking among Malaysian youth.
  12. Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Ghazali SM, Kee CC, Heng PP, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2019;17:51.
    PMID: 31516494 DOI: 10.18332/tid/100692
    INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that the implementation of smoke-free policies at workplaces have shifted the social norms towards secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home. This study aimed to investigate whether working in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home (SFH).

    METHODS: The data were derived from the Malaysian Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS-M), collected in 2011-2012, involving 4250 respondents. Data analyses involved 1343 respondents reported to be in the working population.

    RESULTS: More than half of the respondents (58.5%) were reportedly working in smoke-free workplaces. Almost a quarter (24.8%) of those who worked in smoke-free workplaces stayed in smoke-free homes, which was more than two times higher than their counterparts who worked at non-smoke-free workplaces (24.8% vs 12.0%, p<0.001). Multivariable analyses further substantiated this finding (AOR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.11-3.61, reference group = worked at non-smoke-free workplaces).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found an association between living in smoke-free homes and working at smoke-free workplaces, which could suggest a positive impact of implementing smoke-free workplaces.

  13. Wan Puteh SE, Manap RA, Hassan TM, Ahmad IS, Idris IB, Sham FM, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16:57.
    PMID: 31516454 DOI: 10.18332/tid/99539
    INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use is an emerging phenomenon with increasing recognition and acceptance globally. This study aims to create a profile of e-cigarette users among university students in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The study was conducted using a cross-sectional research involving six universities in Malaysia. A semi-structured questionnaire was distributed to 1302 randomly selected students, who either smoked cigarettes and/or e-cigarettes. The 2011 version of Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (GATS) tool was used to record the respondents' sociodemographic data.

    RESULTS: The study revealed that 74.9% of the respondents smoked e-cigarettes; 40.3% used both cigarettes and e-cigarettes (dual users), and 34.5% were exclusive e-cigarette users. The exclusive use of e-cigarettes was related to gender (OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.09-0.39). Also, male respondents were the majority users (95%). Of the respondents, 75.2 % were Malays, 98.0% single and most believed they have no health problems (92.1%). Further findings revealed the occurrence of adverse effects, dizziness 14.4%, cough 14.1%, and headaches 12.4%. Overall, 57.8% of the respondents used e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool, while others consider e-cigarettes a self-image enhancing tool or as part of social activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the use of e-cigarettes should be conducted on a large number of respondents in other settings to augment the findings of this study, and also guide policy making on and prevention practice of e-cigarette use, among the general student population in Malaysia.
  14. Perialathan K, Rahman AB, Lim KH, Adon Y, Ahmad A, Juatan N, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16:55.
    PMID: 31516452 DOI: 10.18332/tid/99258
    INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new smoking devices that have gained popularity recently. However, there is limited evidence on e-cigarette consumption in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the prevalence, risk factors and perception associated with e-cigarette use among those attending government hospitals and health clinics in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in seven public hospitals and health clinics in Malaysia, which were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling. A validated questionnaire was used to obtain data from the selected participants. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to determine the association between sociodemographics and perceptions of e-cigarette use.

    RESULTS: Almost three-quarters (73.6%; n=923/1254) of participants were aware of e-cigarettes and 13.2% (n=122/923) reported having ever used e-cigarettes. The prevalence was significantly higher among males (18.1%), smokers (21.4%), and younger age group 18-34 years (30.2%). Ever users showed favourable perceptions towards e-cigarettes compared to non-users (23.3% vs 30.14%, p<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that current smokers, younger age group and those possessing a positive perception towards e-cigarettes were likely to be ever users of e-cigarettes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the awareness level of e-cigarettes was high amongst the population but the prevalence of ever e-cigarette user was moderate. Most of the ever e-cigarette users were male, current smokers, young adults and those with favourable perceptions towards e-cigarettes. Therefore, effective health educational activities regarding safe usage of e-cigarettes targeting those group identified in this study are warranted to reduce the negative outcomes from the use of this product.
  15. Wong HY, Subramaniyan M, Bullen C, Amer Siddiq AN, Danaee M, Yee A
    Tob Induc Dis, 2019;17:65.
    PMID: 31582954 DOI: 10.18332/tid/111355
    INTRODUCTION: The mobile-phone-based Bedfont iCOTM Smokerlyzer® is of unknown validity and reproducibility compared to the widely-used piCO+ Smokerlyzer®. We aimed to compare the validity and reproducibility of the iCOTM Smokerlyzer® with the piCO+ Smokerlyzer® among patients reducing or quitting tobacco smoking.

    METHODS: Methadone-maintained therapy (MMT) users from three centers in Malaysia had their exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels recorded via the piCO+ and iCOTM Smokerlyzers®, their nicotine dependence assessed with the Malay version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M), and daily tobacco intake measured via the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) Tobacco Q-score. Pearson partial correlations were used to compare the eCO results of both devices, as well as the corresponding FTND-M scores.

    RESULTS: Among the 146 participants (mean age 47.9 years, 92.5% male, and 73.3% Malay ethnic group) most (55.5%) were moderate smokers (6-19 cigarettes/day). Mean eCO categories were significantly correlated between both devices (r=0.861, p<0.001), and the first and second readings were significantly correlated for each device (r=0.94 for the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, p<0.001; r=0.91 for the iCOTM Smokerlyzer®, p<0.001). Exhaled CO correlated positively with FTND-M scores for both devices. The post hoc analysis revealed a significantly lower iCOTM Smokerlyzer® reading of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69-0.94, p<0.001) compared to that of the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, and a significant intercept of -0.34 (95% CI: -0.61 - -0.07, p=0.016) on linear regression analysis, suggesting that there may be a calibration error in one or more of the iCOTM Smokerlyzer® devices.

    CONCLUSIONS: The iCOTM Smokerlyzer® readings are highly reproducible compared to those of the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, but calibration guidelines are required for the mobile-phone-based device. Further research is required to assess interchangeability.

  16. Ghazali SM, Huey TC, Cheong KC, Li LH, Fadhli M, Yusoff M, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2019;17:22.
    PMID: 31582933 DOI: 10.18332/tid/102728
    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been proven to be detrimental to health. However, there is little information on SHS exposure among Malaysian adolescents. This study aims to assess the magnitude of and factors associated with SHS exposure among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: We performed secondary analysis on data from 25461 respondents of the Global School Health Survey in Malaysia. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression were performed to determine factors associated with SHS exposure.

    RESULTS: Respondents were adolescents of mean age 14.84 (SD=1.45) years, 50.2% of which were male and 49.8% female. Approximately four in ten respondents were exposed to SHS in the past week (41.5%). SHS exposure was significantly higher among respondents who smoked than among non-smokers (85.8% vs 35.7%, p<0.001). The likelihood of exposure to SHS was higher among smoking adolescents (Adjusted OR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.07-2.56) and non-smoking adolescents (AOR=3.15, 95% CI: 1.48-4.71) who had at least one smoking parent/guardian regardless of their own smoking status. Male adolescents had higher risk of SHS exposure compared to their female counterparts (current smoker AOR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.07-2.56; non-smoker AOR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.12-2.00) and increased with age, regardless of their smoking status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that prevalence of exposure to SHS among school-going adolescents in Malaysia is high. Parents should be advised to stop smoking or abstain from smoking in the presence of their children. Education programmes are recommended to increase awareness on avoidance of SHS as well as smoking cessation interventions for both adolescents and their parents.

  17. Ellis-Suriani Z, Norsa'adah B, Othman A, Siti-Azrin AH
    Tob Induc Dis, 2021;19:27.
    PMID: 33867904 DOI: 10.18332/tid/133638
    INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is linked to a series of serious health problems. Children may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of SHS exposure at home. This study aimed to determine the association between SHS exposure at home and cognitive performance in school children.

    METHODS: A multistage sampling was performed across rural primary schools in Kuala Krai, Kelantan, Malaysia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and the children aged 10-11 years (n=312) were subjected to cognitive tests including digit span, letter-number sequencing, coding, and symbol search. Cognitive performance was tested using subscales derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of SHS exposure at home was 55.8%, where 11.9% of children lived with one smoker, while 43.9% of children lived with ≥2 smokers. There was a significant difference in the mean score of the combined cognitive tests between SHS-exposed and non-exposed children after adjustment for sex, parental educational level, family income and academic performance [Pillai's Trace=0.084, F statistic (df)=6.803 (4302), p<0.001].

    CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the primary school children in rural Kuala Krai were exposed to SHS from at least one smoker at home. There was a significant association between SHS exposure at home and cognitive performance.

  18. Lee VWY, Li A, Li JTS
    Tob Induc Dis, 2021;19:28.
    PMID: 33867905 DOI: 10.18332/tid/133633
    INTRODUCTION: Smoking is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. The public should recognize the impact of smoking on their health and their wealth. The current study aimed to evaluate the cost burden of smoking to target Asia-Pacific countries.

    METHODS: The current study estimated the annual spending and lifetime spending of smokers in the target Asia-Pacific countries (Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea, Singapore, and Australia) on purchasing cigarettes, as well as predicted the revenue that could be generated if smokers spent the money on investment instead of buying cigarettes. Smokers' spending on cigarettes and the potential revenue generated from investment were estimated based on the selling prices of cigarettes, Standards & Poor's 500 Index, and life expectancies of smokers. Data were extracted from reports released by the World Health Organization or government authorities.

    RESULTS: The annual expenses (in US$) on purchasing one pack of cigarettes, in decreasing order, were: Australia ($5628.30), Singapore ($3777.75), Hong Kong ($2799.55), Malaysia ($1529.35), South Korea ($1467.30), and Thailand ($657.00). The lifetime spending on purchasing one pack of cigarettes each day were: Australia ($308993.67), Singapore ($207398.48), Hong Kong ($151735.61 for male and $166853.18 for female), South Korea ($80261.31), Malaysia ($72338.26), and Thailand ($31207.50).

    CONCLUSIONS: The cost burden of smoking is high from a smoker's perspective. Smokers should recognize the high economic burden and quit smoking to enjoy better health and wealth.

  19. Lim KH, Teh CH, Pan S, Ling MY, Yusoff MFM, Ghazali SM, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16.
    DOI: 10.18332/tid/82190
    INTRODUCTION The continuous monitoring of smoking prevalence and its associated factors is an integral part of anti-smoking programmes and valuable for the evaluation of the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures and policies. This study aimed at determining prevalence of smoking and identifying socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia aged 15 years and over.
    METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 21 445 adults in Malaysia, aged 15 years and over, selected via a stratified, two-stage proportionate-to-size sampling method. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews by trained research assistants, using a standard validated questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among Malaysians.
    RESULTS The overall prevalence of smoking was 22.8% (95% CI: 21.9–23.8%), with males having a significantly higher prevalence compared to females (43.0%, 95% CI: 41.1–44.6 vs 1.4%, 95% CI: 1.1–1.7). The highest smoking prevalence was observed among other ethnicities (35.7%), those aged 25–44 years (59.3%), and low educational attainment (25.2%). Males, those with lower educational attainment and Malays were significantly associated with smoking.
    CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of smoking among Malaysians, aged 15 years and over, remains high despite the implementation of several anti-smoking measures over the past decades. Specially tailored anti-smoking policies or measures, particularly targeting males, the Malays, younger adults and those with lower educational attainment, are greatly warranted to reduce the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2015)
  20. Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Kee CC, Heng PP, Cheah YK, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16.
    DOI: 10.18332/tid/95188
    Introduction: Understanding the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the associated factors is beneficial for the formulation of effective measures to reduce exposure to SHS. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure at home and workplace, and its associated factors among non-smoker Malaysian adults. Methods: Data were extracted from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-Malaysia (GATS-M) that involved a representative sample of 5112 Malaysian adults. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between SHS exposure, sociodemographic factors, knowledge on the danger of SHS, and smoking restrictions at home and at work among non-smokers. Results: Among non-smoker Malaysians, age ≥15 years, 27.9% (equivalent to approximately 4.21 million non-smokers) and 33.9% (equivalent to approximately 1.37 million non-smokers) reported that they were exposed to SHS at home and the workplace, at least once a month, respectively. Women (AOR=2.12, 95% CI: 1.61.2.78), young individuals (AOR=3.06, 95% CI: 1.48.6.33), Malays (AOR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.56.3.64) or other Bumiputra ethnic groups (AOR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.39.4.19) and those who worked as other than government employees were more likely to report SHS exposure at home (non-government employee: AOR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.06.3.36). Respondents with a total smoking restriction at home did not report any SHS exposure at home. Similarly, those whose workplace had smoking restrictions were less likely to report SHS exposure at the work compared to their counterparts whose workplace had partial (AOR=3.08, 95% CI: 1.84.5.15) or no smoking restrictions (AOR=15.33, 95% CI: 6.75.34.86). Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Malaysian adults were exposed to SHS at home and at work. The findings emphasize the need for policies on smoking restrictions at work and the need to promote the adoption of a completely smoke-free home, among the Malaysian population.
    Study name: Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS-2011)
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