METHODS: A total of 222 blood samples were collected from healthy, unrelated Malay, Chinese and Indian individuals. Their HNA-1, -3 and -4 and HNA-5 loci were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays.
RESULTS: All HNA loci are polymorphic, except for HNA -4. Geneotypes HNA-1a/1b, -3a/3b and -4a/4a were observed most frequently at these three loci in all three ethnic groups. In contrast, HNA-5a/5b and -5a/5a were observed as the predominant genotypes in Malays vs. Chinese and Indians, respectively. The Malays, Chinese and Indians shared HNA -3a (0.505-0.527), HNA -4a (1.000) and -5a (0.676-0.854) as the most frequent alleles. However, HNA-1a was found to be the most common in Malays (0.506) and Chinese (0.504) and HNA-1b for Indians (0.525).
CONCLUSION: Combined with HNA data that have been published for Malay subethnic and Orang Asli groups, this study provides the first fully comprehensive HNA dataset for populations to be found in Peninsular Malaysia. Overall, our findings provide further evidence of genetic complexity in the region. This now publicly available HNA dataset can be used as a reliable reference source for improving medical outcomes.