Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

  1. Skau JK, Nordin AB, Cheah JC, Ali R, Zainal R, Aris T, et al.
    Trials, 2016;17(1):215.
    PMID: 27117703 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-016-1345-x
    Over the past two decades, the population of Malaysia has grown rapidly and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia has dramatically increased, along with the frequency of obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Early-life influences play an important role in the development of non-communicable diseases. Indeed, maternal lifestyle and conditions such as gestational diabetes mellitus or obesity can affect the risk of diabetes in the next generation. Lifestyle changes can help to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a protocol for an unblinded, community-based, randomised controlled trial in two arms to evaluate the efficacy of a complex behavioural change intervention, combining motivational interviewing provided by a community health promoter and access to a habit formation mobile application, among young Malaysian women and their spouses prior to pregnancy.
  2. Amano S, Ludin AF, Clift R, Nakazawa M, Law TD, Rush LJ, et al.
    Trials, 2016;17:81.
    PMID: 26867541 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-016-1214-7
    Low back pain is a highly prevalent condition in the United States and has a staggeringly negative impact on society in terms of expenses and disability. It has previously been suggested that rehabilitation strategies for persons with recurrent low back pain should be directed to the medial back muscles as these muscles provide functional support of the lumbar region. However, many individuals with low back pain cannot safely and effectively induce trunk muscle adaptation using traditional high-load resistance exercise, and no viable low-load protocols to induce trunk extensor muscle adaptation exist. Herein, we present the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial that will investigate the "cross-transfer" of effects of a novel exercise modality, blood flow restricted exercise, on cross-sectional area (primary outcome), strength and endurance (secondary outcomes) of trunk extensor muscles, as well as the pain, disability, and rate of recurrence of low back pain (tertiary outcomes).
  3. Lim R, Liong ML, Leong WS, Khan NA, Yuen KH
    Trials, 2015;16:279.
    PMID: 26093910 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-015-0803-1
    There is currently a lack of randomized, sham-controlled trials that are adequately powered, using validated outcomes, to allow for firm recommendations on the use of magnetic stimulation for stress urinary incontinence. We report a protocol of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled parallel-group trial to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic stimulation for stress urinary incontinence.
  4. Flaherty K, Bath PM, Dineen R, Law Z, Scutt P, Pocock S, et al.
    Trials, 2017 Dec 20;18(1):607.
    PMID: 29262841 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-017-2341-5
    RATIONALE: Aside from blood pressure lowering, treatment options for intracerebral haemorrhage remain limited and a proportion of patients will undergo early haematoma expansion with resultant significant morbidity and mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an anti-fibrinolytic drug, has been shown to significantly reduce mortality in patients, who are bleeding following trauma, when given rapidly. TICH-2 is testing whether TXA is effective at improving outcome in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH).

    METHODS AND DESIGN: TICH-2 is a pragmatic, phase III, prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Two thousand adult (aged ≥ 18 years) patients with an acute SICH, within 8 h of stroke onset, will be randomised to receive TXA or the placebo control. The primary outcome is ordinal shift of modified Rankin Scale score at day 90. Analyses will be performed using intention-to-treat.

    RESULTS: This paper and its attached appendices describe the statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the trial and were developed and published prior to database lock and unblinding to treatment allocation. The SAP includes details of analyses to be undertaken and unpopulated tables which will be reported in the primary and key secondary publications. The database will be locked in early 2018, ready for publication of the results later in the same year.

    DISCUSSION: The SAP details the analyses that will be done to avoid bias arising from prior knowledge of the study findings. The trial will determine whether TXA can improve outcome after SICH, which currently has no definitive therapy.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ID: ISRCTN93732214 . Registered on 17 January 2013.

  5. Lee YL, Lim YMF, Law KB, Sivasampu S
    Trials, 2020 Sep 10;21(1):778.
    PMID: 32912297 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04715-2
    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
  6. Mohamad Safiai NI, Amir NA, Basri H, Inche Mat LN, Hoo FK, Yusof Khan AHK, et al.
    Trials, 2020 Nov 11;21(1):923.
    PMID: 33176870 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04832-y
    BACKGROUND: This is a phase II randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for preventive treatment of episodic migraine amongst migraine subjects.

    METHODS: Subjects age 18 to 60 years will undergo a baseline evaluation to establish the diagnosis of migraine based on the International Classification of Headache Disorder 3rd Edition (ICHD-3). Those who fulfil the ICHD-3 criteria for episodic migraine and compliant to the headache diary during a month run-in period will be enrolled. A total of 76 subjects will be randomised to receive either transcranial magnetic stimulation or sham stimulation for 5 sessions within 2 weeks duration. Follow-up sessions will be conducted monthly for three consecutive months. Prior to treatment, subjects will be required to fill up questionnaires and undergo few procedures such as electroencephalography, transcranial Doppler ultrasound and biochemical analysis for serum serotonin, serum calcitonin gene-related peptide and serum beta-endorphin. These procedures will be repeated at month 3 after receiving the last treatment. The primary outcome measure of this study is the difference in mean monthly migraine days at baseline and at months 1, 2 and 3 after treatment sessions.

    DISCUSSION: Following evidence from previous studies showing restoration of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to almost normal level, the rTMS intervention will target left DLPFC in this study. An intermediate duration of treatment sessions is selected for this study. It is set to five treatment sessions given within 2 weeks duration.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03556722 . Registered on 14 June 2018.

  7. Katiri R, Hall DA, Buggy N, Hogan N, Horobin A, van de Heyning P, et al.
    Trials, 2020 Mar 04;21(1):238.
    PMID: 32131880 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-4094-9
    BACKGROUND: Single-sided deafness (SSD) describes the presence of a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. SSD disrupts spatial hearing and understanding speech in background noise. It has functional, psychological and social consequences. Potential options for rehabilitation include hearing aids and auditory implants. Benefits and harms of these interventions are documented inconsistently in the literature, using a variety of outcomes ranging from tests of speech perception to quality of life questionnaires. It is therefore difficult to compare interventions when rehabilitating SSD. The Core Rehabilitation Outcome Set for Single Sided Deafness (CROSSSD) study is an international initiative that aims to develop a minimum set of core outcomes for use in future trials of SSD interventions.

    METHODS/DESIGN: The CROSSSD study adopts an international two-round online modified Delphi survey followed by a stakeholder consensus meeting to identify a patient-centred core outcome domain set for SSD based on what is considered critical and important for assessing whether an intervention for SSD has worked.

    DISCUSSION: The resulting core outcome domain set will act as a minimum standard for reporting in future clinical trials and could have further applications in guiding the use of outcome measures in clinical practice. Standardisation will facilitate comparison of research findings.

  8. Naqvi AA, Hassali MA, Naqvi SBS, Aftab MT
    Trials, 2019 Aug 09;20(1):488.
    PMID: 31399128 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-3540-z
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacist intervention in improving disease knowledge, adherence to treatment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and direct cost of treatment. The study also documents patient satisfaction with pharmacist counselling as a quality control measure.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized, single-blind, two-arm, controlled trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis visiting outpatient rheumatology clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. We will enroll patients with established diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis over 3 months. The patients would be randomized through a computer-generated list into the control group, i.e., usual care or into the intervention group, i.e., pharmaceutical care, in a ratio of 1:1, after providing signed written consent. The study will take place in two patient-visits over the course of 3 months. Patients in the intervention group would receive intervention from the pharmacist while those in the control group will receive usual care. Primary outcomes include change in mean score from baseline (week 0) and at follow up (week 12) in disease knowledge, adherence to medications and rehabilitation/physical therapy. The secondary outcomes include change in the mean direct cost of treatment, HRQoL and patient satisfaction with pharmacist counselling.

    DISCUSSION: This is a novel study that evaluates the role of the pharmacist in improving treatment outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The results of this trial could set the foundation for future delivery of care for this patient population in Pakistan. The results of this trial would be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03827148 . Registered on February 2019.

  9. El Hajj MS, Awaisu A, Kheir N, Mohamed MHN, Haddad RS, Saleh RA, et al.
    Trials, 2019 Jan 08;20(1):25.
    PMID: 30621772 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-018-3068-7
    BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is presently responsible for the death of over seven million people across the world. In Qatar, it is one of the main causes of premature deaths and preventable diseases. To reduce tobacco use, Qatar has ratified the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and has implemented many tobacco-control initiatives. In spite of these measures, tobacco use is still considered a public health threat in Qatar. Pharmacists practicing in retail/community pharmacy settings are often the first port of call for individuals requiring general health advice. Evidence has proven that they have a pivotal role in health promotion and disease prevention including tobacco cessation. However, pharmacists in Qatar are not actively involved in tobacco control and many have not received any education or training about smoking cessation counseling in the past. In an effort to build the capacity of pharmacists towards tobacco control in Qatar, the aim of the proposed study is to design, implement, and evaluate an intensive education program on tobacco dependence treatment for pharmacists in Qatar.

    METHODS/DESIGN: The study will be a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing an intensive tobacco-related education program versus non-tobacco-related training on pharmacists' tobacco-use-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and skills. Community pharmacists practicing in Qatar will be eligible for participation in the study. A random sample of pharmacists will be selected for participation. Consenting participants will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group will receive an intensive education program delivered by a multi-disciplinary group of educators, researchers, and clinicians with expertise in tobacco cessation. A short didactic session on a non-tobacco-related topic will be delivered to pharmacists in the control group. The study has two primary outcomes: post-intervention tobacco-related knowledge and post-intervention skills for tobacco cessation assessed using a multiple-choice-based evaluation instrument and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), respectively. The secondary study outcomes are post-intervention attitudes towards tobacco cessation and self-efficacy in tobacco-cessation interventions assessed using a survey instrument. An additional secondary study outcome is the post-intervention performance difference in relation to tobacco-cessation skills in the practice setting assessed using the simulated client approach.

    DISCUSSION: If demonstrated to be effective, this education program will be considered as a model that Qatar and the Middle East region can apply to overcome the burden of tobacco-use disorder.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03518476 . Registered on 8 May 2018. Version 1/22 June 2018.

    Matched MeSH terms: Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  10. Yusof ZYM, Anwar NH, Mohd Nor NA, Nor MM, Mustafa SE
    Trials, 2021 Feb 22;22(1):156.
    PMID: 33618735 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-021-05111-0
    BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of the preschool oral healthcare programme (POHP) for 5-6-year-old children over the past 3 decades in Malaysia, dental plaque and caries levels in this age group remain high. Among the child-level attributable factors are unhealthy self-care behaviours (poor oral hygiene and high sugary diet). In order to improve the children's oral health, an improved programme called the 'Senyuman Indah Milik Semua' Programme (SIMSP) or 'Beautiful Smile for All' programme is introduced. In this programme, a triad of dental hygienist-teacher-parent works together to improve children's oral hygiene levels compared with the existing POHP that involves dental hygienists only. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of the SIMSP versus the existing POHP on oral hygiene levels of 5-6-year-old children in the Kampar district, Perak state, Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study is a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, parallel-group, matched pair, controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment. Randomisation is performed using a computer-generated table with a 1:1 allocation comparing the SIMSP and the POHP involving 28 preschools in the Kampar district, Perak, Malaysia. The intervention consists of preschool visits by a group of dental therapists, in-class oral health lessons and daily toothbrushing conducted by class teacher, child home toothbrushing supervised by parents, and infographic oral health messages to parents. The control consists of the existing POHP that involves preschool visits by a group of dental therapists only. The trial lasts for 6 months. Primary outcome variable is the mean plaque score change after 6 months. To determine the feasibility of the SIMSP, a process evaluation will be conducted using the perspectives of dental therapists, teachers, and parents on the appropriateness, effectiveness, facilitators, and barriers to the SIMSP implementation as well as an audit trail to assess the trial intervention.

    DISCUSSION: Cluster randomisation may lead to a random effect and cluster selection bias. These factors will be accounted for when analysing the data and interpreting the outcomes. The effectiveness of the SIMSP will be evaluated by comparing the results with those of the POHP.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04339647 . Registered on 5 April 2020 - Retrospectively registered.

  11. Daud MH, Ramli AS, Abdul-Razak S, Isa MR, Yusoff FH, Baharudin N, et al.
    Trials, 2020 Apr 05;21(1):311.
    PMID: 32248825 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04237-x
    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies conducted in various parts of the world have clearly demonstrated that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an increasing global health problem, not only in Western societies but also in Asian populations. Web-based and mobile phone-based self-management applications have been proven to be effective in improving self-management behaviour of patients with MetS components (i.e., diabetes or hypertension). However, evidence is lacking in terms of their effectiveness specifically for patients with MetS. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the EMPOWER-SUSTAIN Self-Management e-Health Intervention in improving activation and self-management behaviours among patients with MetS. This paper presents the study protocol.

    METHODS: A pilot randomised controlled trial will be conducted in a university primary care clinic. A total of 232 patients aged 18-60 years with MetS will be recruited; 116 will be randomised to receive the EMPOWER-SUSTAIN intervention for 6 months, and another 116 patients will continue with usual care. The EMPOWER-SUSTAIN intervention is a multifaceted chronic disease management strategy based on the Chronic Care Model and persuasive technology theory. It consists of training primary care physicians, nurses and patients to use the EMPOWER-SUSTAIN web-based self-management mobile app, strengthening the patient-physician relationship and reinforcing the use of relevant clinical practice guidelines to guide management and prescribing. The primary outcome is the mean change in patient activation score using the Patient Activation Measure short form Malay version (PAM-13-M) questionnaire. The secondary outcomes include the changes in waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, patient physical activity level, eating behaviour, perception of chronic illness care, satisfaction with patient-physician interaction, and perceived absolute 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. Feasibility of implementing the intervention will be evaluated. This includes acceptability of the intervention, estimating the likely rate of participant recruitment and retention, appropriateness of the outcome measures, calculation of sample size, and the intervention's potential effectiveness.

    CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study in Malaysia that aims to determine the feasibility of a multifaceted e-health intervention, as well as to indicate more useful aspects of this intervention for further exploration in a larger trial.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04120779. Registered on 9 October 2019, protocol version 1.
  12. Ho CY, Ibrahim Z, Abu Zaid Z, Mat Daud Z', Md Yusop NB
    Trials, 2020 Jun 16;21(1):533.
    PMID: 32546217 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04462-4
    INTRODUCTION: There has been growing evidence on the favourable outcomes of fast-track-recovery (FTR) surgery; to expedite recovery, minimise complications, and reduce the length of hospital stay for surgical patients. However, there is lack of evidence on the effectiveness of FTR in surgical gynaecological cancer (GC) patients. Most of the previous studies did not focus on feeding composition in the FTR surgery protocol. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of FTR feeding with a whey-protein-infused carbohydrate-loading drink pre-operatively and early oral feeding post-operatively on post-operative outcomes among surgical GC patients.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This open-labelled, randomised controlled trial (RCT) will randomly allocate patients into intervention and control groups. Ambulated Malaysian aged over 18 years and scheduled for elective surgery for (suspected) GC, will be included in this study. The intervention group will be given whey-protein-infused carbohydrate-loading drinks on the evening before their operation and 3 h before their operation as well as started on early oral feeding 4 h post-operatively. The control group will be fasted overnight pre-operation and only allowed plain water, and return to a normal diet is allowed when bowel sounds return post-operatively. The primary outcomes of study are length of post-operative hospital stay, length of clear-fluid tolerance, solid-food tolerance and bowel function. Additional outcome measures are changes in nutritional status, biochemical profile and functional status. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03667755. Retrospectively registered on 12 September 2018; Protocol version: version 3 dated 27 September 2017.

    Matched MeSH terms: Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  13. Lee YL, Lim YMF, Law KB, Sivasampu S
    Trials, 2020 Jun 16;21(1):530.
    PMID: 32546189 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04349-4
    INTRODUCTION: There are few sources of published data on intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs) amongst patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or hypertension in primary care, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. ICC values are necessary for determining the sample sizes of cluster randomized trials. Hence, we aim to report the ICC values for a range of measures from a cluster-based interventional study conducted in Malaysia.

    METHOD: Baseline data from a large study entitled Evaluation of Enhanced Primary Health Care interventions in public health clinics (EnPHC-EVA: Facility) were used in this analysis. Data from 40 public primary care clinics were collected through retrospective chart reviews and a patient exit survey. We calculated the ICCs for processes of care, clinical outcomes and patient experiences in patients with T2D and/or hypertension using the analysis of variance approach.

    RESULTS: Patient experience had the highest ICC values compared to processes of care and clinical outcomes. The ICC values ranged from 0.01 to 0.48 for processes of care. Generally, the ICC values for processes of care for patients with hypertension only are higher than those for T2D patients, with or without hypertension. However, both groups of patients have similar ICCs for antihypertensive medications use. In addition, similar ICC values were observed for clinical outcomes, ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. For patient experience, the ICCs were between 0.03 (proportion of patients who are willing to recommend the clinic to their friends and family) and 0.25 (for Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care item 9, Given a copy of my treatment plan).

    CONCLUSION: The reported ICCs and their respective 95% confidence intervals for T2D and hypertension will be useful for estimating sample sizes and improving efficiency of cluster trials conducted in the primary care setting, particularly for low- and middle-income countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Saadatian-Elahi M, Alexander N, Möhlmann T, Langlois-Jacques C, Suer R, Ahmad NW, et al.
    Trials, 2021 May 30;22(1):374.
    PMID: 34053466 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-021-05298-2
    BACKGROUND: In common with many South East Asian countries, Malaysia is endemic for dengue. Dengue control in Malaysia is currently based on reactive vector management within 24 h of a dengue case being reported. Preventive rather than reactive vector control approaches, with combined interventions, are expected to improve the cost-effectiveness of dengue control programs. The principal objective of this cluster randomized controlled trial is to quantify the effectiveness of a preventive integrated vector management (IVM) strategy on the incidence of dengue as compared to routine vector control efforts.

    METHODS: The trial is conducted in randomly allocated clusters of low- and medium-cost housing located in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. The IVM approach combines: targeted outdoor residual spraying with K-Othrine Polyzone, deployment of mosquito traps as auto-dissemination devices, and community engagement activities. The trial includes 300 clusters randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio. The clusters receive either the preventive IVM in addition to the routine vector control activities or the routine vector control activities only. Epidemiological data from monthly confirmed dengue cases during the study period will be obtained from the Vector Borne Disease Sector, Malaysian Ministry of Health e-Dengue surveillance system. Entomological surveillance data will be collected in 12 clusters randomly selected from each arm. To measure the effectiveness of the IVM approach on dengue incidence, a negative binomial regression model will be used to compare the incidence between control and intervention clusters. To quantify the effect of the interventions on the main entomological outcome, ovitrap index, a modified ordinary least squares regression model using a robust standard error estimator will be used.

    DISCUSSION: Considering the ongoing expansion of dengue burden in Malaysia, setting up proactive control strategies is critical. Despite some limitations of the trial such as the use of passive surveillance to identify cases, the results will be informative for a better understanding of effectiveness of proactive IVM approach in the control of dengue. Evidence from this trial may help justify investment in preventive IVM approaches as preferred to reactive case management strategies.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN81915073 . Retrospectively registered on 17 April 2020.

  15. Ashraf S, Ashraf S, Akmal R, Ashraf M, Kalsoom L, Maqsood A, et al.
    Trials, 2021 Sep 15;22(1):618.
    PMID: 34526081 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-021-05510-3
    OBJECTIVES: Considering the therapeutic potential of honey and Nigella sativa (HNS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the objective of the study is defined to evaluate the prophylactic role of HNS.

    TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial with parallel group design, superiority framework with an allocation ratio of 1:1 among experimental (HNS) and placebo group. An interim analysis will be done when half of the patients have been recruited to evaluate the need to adapt sample size, efficacy, and futility of the trial.

    PARTICIPANTS: All asymptomatic patients with hospital or community based COVID-19 exposure will be screened if they have had 4 days exposure to a confirmed case. Non-pregnant adults with significant exposure level will be enrolled in the study High-risk exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min without face protection) Moderate exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min with face protection) Subjects with acute or chronic infection, COVID-19 vaccinated, and allergy to HNS will be excluded from the study. Recruitment will be done at Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan).

    INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this clinical study, patients will receive either raw natural honey (0.5 g) and encapsulated organic Nigella sativa seeds (40 mg) per kg body weight per day or empty capsule with and 30 ml of 5% dextrose water as a placebo for 14 days. Both the natural products will be certified for standardization by Government College University (Botany department). Furthermore, each patient will be given standard care therapy according to version 3.0 of the COVID-19 clinical management guidelines by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan.

    MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome will be Incidence of COVID-19 cases within 14 days of randomisation. Secondary endpoints include incidence of COVID-19-related symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths along with the severity of COVID-19-related symptoms till 14th day of randomization.

    RANDOMISATION: Participants will be randomized into experimental and control groups (1:1 allocation ratio) via the lottery method. There will be stratification based on high risk and moderate risk exposure.

    BLINDING (MASKING): Quadruple blinding will be ensured for the participants, care providers and outcome accessors. Data analysts will also be blinded to avoid conflict of interest. Site principal investigator will be responsible for ensuring masking.

    NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 1000 participants will be enrolled in the study with 1:1 allocation.

    TRIAL STATUS: The final protocol version 1.4 was approved by institutional review board of Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex on February 15, 2021. The trial recruitment was started on March 05, 2021, with a trial completion date of February 15, 2022.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial was registered on February 23, 2021, www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04767087 .

    FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  16. Cooper DJ, Plewes K, Grigg MJ, Rajahram GS, Piera KA, William T, et al.
    Trials, 2018 Apr 24;19(1):250.
    PMID: 29690924 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-018-2600-0
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of human malaria in Malaysia. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication. AKI of any cause can have long-term consequences, including increased risk of chronic kidney disease, adverse cardiovascular events and increased mortality. Additional management strategies are therefore needed to reduce the frequency and severity of AKI in malaria. In falciparum malaria, cell-free haemoglobin (CFHb)-mediated oxidative damage contributes to AKI. The inexpensive and widely available drug paracetamol inhibits CFHb-induced lipid peroxidation via reduction of ferryl haem to the less toxic Fe3+ state, and has been shown to reduce oxidative damage and improve renal function in patients with sepsis complicated by haemolysis as well as in falciparum malaria. This study aims to assess the ability of regularly dosed paracetamol to reduce the incidence and severity of AKI in knowlesi malaria by attenuating haemolysis-induced oxidative damage.

    METHODS: PACKNOW is a two-arm, open-label randomised controlled trial of adjunctive paracetamol versus no paracetamol in patients aged ≥ 5 years with knowlesi malaria, conducted over a 2-year period at four hospital sites in Sabah, Malaysia. The primary endpoint of change in creatinine from enrolment to 72 h will be evaluated by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using enrolment creatinine as a covariate. Secondary endpoints include longitudinal changes in markers of oxidative stress (plasma F2-isoprostanes and isofurans) and markers of endothelial activation/Weibel-Palade body release (angiopoietin-2, von Willebrand Factor, P-selectin, osteoprotegerin) over 72 h, as well as blood and urine biomarkers of AKI. This study will be powered to detect a difference between the two treatment arms in a clinically relevant population including adults and children with knowlesi malaria of any severity.

    DISCUSSION: Paracetamol is widely available and has an excellent safety profile; if a renoprotective effect is demonstrated, this trial will support the administration of regularly dosed paracetamol to all patients with knowlesi malaria. The secondary outcomes in this study will provide further insights into the pathophysiology of haemolysis-induced oxidative damage and acute kidney injury in knowlesi malaria and other haemolytic diseases.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03056391 . Registered on 12 October 2016.

    Matched MeSH terms: Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  17. Ting CY, Ahmad Zaidi Adruce S, Hassali MA, Ting H, Lim CJ, Ting RS, et al.
    Trials, 2018 Jun 05;19(1):310.
    PMID: 29871651 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-018-2649-9
    BACKGROUND: Amidst the high disease burden, non-adherence to medications among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported to be common and devastating. Sarawak Pharmaceutical Services Division has formulated a pharmacist-led, multiple-theoretical-grounding, culturally sensitive and structured group-based program, namely "Know Your Medicine - Take if for Health" (MEDIHEALTH), to improve medication adherence among Malay patients with T2DM. However, to date, little is known about the effectiveness and sustainability of the Program.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, parallel-design, two-treatment-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of MEDIHEALTH in improving medication adherence. Malay patients who have underlying T2DM, who obtain medication therapy at Petra Jaya Health Clinic and Kota Samarahan Health Clinic, and who have a moderate to low adherence level (8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Malaysian specific, score <6) were randomly assigned to the treatment group (MEDIHEALTH) or the control group. The primary outcome of this study is medication adherence level at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The secondary outcomes are attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, intention and knowledge related to medication adherence measured at baseline and 1, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The effectiveness and sustainability of the Program will be triangulated by findings from semi-structured interviews with five selected participants conducted 1 month after the intervention and in-depth interviews with two main facilitators and two managerial officers in charge of the Program 12 months after the intervention. Statistical analyses of quantitative data were conducted using SPSS version 22 and Stata version 14. Thematic analysis for qualitative data were conducted with the assistance of ATLAS.ti 8.

    DISCUSSION: This study provides evidence on the effectiveness and sustainability of a structured group-based educational program that employs multiple theoretical grounding and a culturally sensitive approach in promoting medication adherence among Malays with underlying T2DM. Both the quantitative and qualitative findings of this study could assist in the future development of the Program.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Medical Research Register, NMRR-17-925-35875 (IIR). Registered on 19 May 2017. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03228706 . Registered on 25 July 2017.

    Matched MeSH terms: Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  18. Ting CY, Adruce SAZ, Hassali MA, Ting H, Lim CJ, Ting RS, et al.
    Trials, 2019 05 10;20(1):267.
    PMID: 31077233 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-3348-x
    After publication of the original article [1], the authors have notified us that there are changes to the primary outcome of the study, instrument, subject's inclusion criteria, the funding and acknowledgements. These changes were made during the recruitment of participants and after approved by the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), National Institutes of Health Malaysia, on 16th November 2018.
  19. Kim KT, Morton S, Howe S, Chiew YS, Knopp JL, Docherty P, et al.
    Trials, 2020 Feb 01;21(1):130.
    PMID: 32007099 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-4035-7
    BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at minimum respiratory elastance during mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may improve patient care and outcome. The Clinical utilisation of respiratory elastance (CURE) trial is a two-arm, randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the performance of PEEP selected at an objective, model-based minimal respiratory system elastance in patients with ARDS.

    METHODS AND DESIGN: The CURE RCT compares two groups of patients requiring invasive MV with a partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio ≤ 200; one criterion of the Berlin consensus definition of moderate (≤ 200) or severe (≤ 100) ARDS. All patients are ventilated using pressure controlled (bi-level) ventilation with tidal volume = 6-8 ml/kg. Patients randomised to the control group will have PEEP selected per standard practice (SPV). Patients randomised to the intervention will have PEEP selected based on a minimal elastance using a model-based computerised method. The CURE RCT is a single-centre trial in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Christchurch hospital, New Zealand, with a target sample size of 320 patients over a maximum of 3 years. The primary outcome is the area under the curve (AUC) ratio of arterial blood oxygenation to the fraction of inspired oxygen over time. Secondary outcomes include length of time of MV, ventilator-free days (VFD) up to 28 days, ICU and hospital length of stay, AUC of oxygen saturation (SpO2)/FiO2 during MV, number of desaturation events (SpO2 

    Matched MeSH terms: Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
  20. Katiri R, Hall DA, Buggy N, Hogan N, Horobin A, van de Heyning P, et al.
    Trials, 2020 03 17;21(1):272.
    PMID: 32183858 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04240-2
    Following the publication of our article [1], the authors have notified us of a typo in the third bullet point of the Consensus Criteria section.
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