Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Chong YL, Kim O, Poss M
    Virology, 2014 Aug;462-463:309-17.
    PMID: 25010480 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.06.007
    Genotype VI-paramyxovirus (GVI-PMV1) is a major cause of epidemic Newcastle-like disease in Columbiformes. This genotype of avian paramyxovirus type 1 has diversified rapidly since its introduction into the US in 1982 resulting in two extant lineages, which have different population growth properties. Although some GVI-PMV1s replicate poorly in chickens, it is possible that variants with different replicative or pathogenic potential in chickens exist among the genetically-diverse GVI-PMV1s strains. To determine if variants of Columbiform GVI-PMV1 with different phylogenetic affiliations have distinct phenotypic properties in chickens, we investigated the replicative properties of 10 naturally circulating pigeon-derived isolates representing four subgroups of GVI-PMV1 in primary chicken lung epithelial cells and in chicken embryos. Our data demonstrate that GVI-PMV1 variants have different infection phenotypes in their chicken source host and that properties reflect subgroup affiliation. These subgroup replicative properties are consistent with observed dynamics of viral population growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bird Diseases/virology*; Chickens/virology*; Epithelial Cells/virology; Columbidae/virology*
  2. Wang B, Lau KA, Ong LY, Shah M, Steain MC, Foley B, et al.
    Virology, 2007 Oct 25;367(2):288-97.
    PMID: 17604072
    The HIV protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT) (1047 bp), gp120-env (891 bp) and gp41-env (547 bp) regions from the plasma of 115 HIV-1-infected patients in Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia were sequenced. Detailed phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses were performed to determine the mosaic structure of the HIV-1 strains and their recombination breakpoint(s). Among the 50 patient samples in which all three regions could be amplified, the HIV-1 CRF01_AE subtype (46%) was predominant followed by subtypes B (10%) and B' (6%). A total of 9/50 (18%) patients were infected with a CRF01_AE/B inter-subtype recombinant, displaying a recombinant form (RF)(PR-RT), CRF01_AE(gp120-env) and CRF01_AE(gp41-env). This RF was derived from the Thai variants of CRF01_AE and B' subtype, with two distinct B' subtype segments in the backbone of CRF01_AE, similar to the newly identified CRF33_01B. In addition, one sample demonstrated a close structural relationship with the new CRF33_01B in the PR-RT region but displayed B' segment in part of the env region (RF(PR-RT), CRF01_AE/B'(gp120-env) and B'(gp41-env)) indicating continuing evolution of CRF33_01B. The remaining 18% of samples were identified as unique recombinant forms (URFs).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  3. Donato C, Hoi le T, Hoa NT, Hoa TM, Van Duyet L, Dieu Ngan TT, et al.
    Virology, 2016 08;495:1-9.
    PMID: 27148893 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.04.026
    BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 subgenogroup C4 caused the largest outbreak of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Vietnam during 2011-2012, resulting in over 200,000 hospitalisations and 207 fatalities.

    METHODS: A total of 1917 samples with adequate volume for RT-PCR analysis were collected from patients hospitalised with HFMD throughout Vietnam and 637 were positive for EV71. VP1 gene (n=87) and complete genome (n=9) sequencing was performed. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterise the B5, C4 and C5 strains detected.

    RESULTS: Sequence analyses revealed that the dominant subgenogroup associated with the 2012 outbreak was C4, with B5 and C5 strains representing a small proportion of these cases.

    CONCLUSIONS: Numerous countries in the region including Malaysia, Taiwan and China have a large influence on strain diversity in Vietnam and understanding the transmission of EV71 throughout Southeast Asia is vital to inform preventative public health measures and vaccine development efforts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enterovirus Infections/virology*; Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/virology
  4. Phan TG, Mori D, Deng X, Rajindrajith S, Ranawaka U, Fan Ng TF, et al.
    Virology, 2015 Aug;482:98-104.
    PMID: 25839169 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.011
    Viruses with small circular ssDNA genomes encoding a replication initiator protein can infect a wide range of eukaryotic organisms ranging from mammals to fungi. The genomes of two such viruses, a cyclovirus (CyCV-SL) and gemycircularvirus (GemyCV-SL) were detected by deep sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluids of Sri Lankan patients with unexplained encephalitis. One and three out of 201 CSF samples (1.5%) from unexplained encephalitis patients tested by PCR were CyCV-SL and GemyCV-SL DNA positive respectively. Nucleotide similarity searches of pre-existing metagenomics datasets revealed closely related genomes in feces from unexplained cases of diarrhea from Nicaragua and Brazil and in untreated sewage from Nepal. Whether the tropism of the cyclovirus and gemycircularvirus reported here include humans or other cellular sources in or on the human body remains to be determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology; Diarrhea/virology*; Encephalitis/virology*; Feces/virology; Sewage/virology*
  5. Nandi JS, Bhavalkar-Potdar V, Tikute S, Raut CG
    Virology, 2000 Nov 10;277(1):6-13.
    PMID: 11062030
    As a simian species, the langurs are not known to harbor simian retroviruses, except for one report on a simian Type D endogenous retrovirus from the spectacled langur (Trachypithecus obscurus) from Malaysia. The present report describes for the first time natural infection of the common Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) from India by a novel simian retrovirus (SRV). The new SRV is phylogenetically related to but distinct from the three molecularly characterized serotypes, SRV 1-3, of the five known serotypes of SRVs, based on sequence analyses from the 3'orf and env regions of the viral genome. The novel SRV isolated from the Indian Hanuman langur is provisionally named SRV-6.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecidae/virology*; Retroviridae Infections/virology; Tumor Virus Infections/virology; Primate Diseases/virology*
  6. Pletnev AG
    Virology, 2001 Apr 10;282(2):288-300.
    PMID: 11289811
    Forty-five years ago a naturally attenuated tick-borne flavivirus, Langat (LGT) strain TP21, was recovered from ticks in Malaysia. Subsequently, it was tested as a live attenuated vaccine for virulent tick-borne encephalitis viruses. In a large clinical trial its attenuation was confirmed but there was evidence of a low level of residual virulence. Thirty-five years ago further attenuation of LGT TP21 was achieved by multiple passages in eggs to yield mutant E5. To study the genetic determinants of the further attenuation exhibited by E5 and to allow us to manipulate the genome of this virus for the purpose of developing a satisfactory live attenuated tick-borne flavivirus vaccine, we recovered infectious E5 virus from a full-length cDNA clone. The recombinant E5 virus (clone 651) recovered from a full-length infectious cDNA clone was more attenuated in immunodeficient mice than that of its biologically derived E5 parent. Increase in attenuation was associated with three amino acid substitutions, two located in the structural protein E and one in nonstructural protein NS4B. Subsequently an even greater degree of attenuation was achieved by creating a viable 320 nucleotide deletion in the 3'-noncoding region of infectious full-length E5 cDNA. This deletion mutant was not cytopathic in simian Vero cells and it replicated to lower titer than its E5-651 parent. In addition, the E5 3' deletion mutant was less neuroinvasive in SCID mice than its E5-651 parent. Significantly, the deletion mutant proved to be 119,750 times less neuroinvasive in SCID mice than its progenitor, LGT strain TP21. Despite its high level of attenuation, the E5 3' deletion mutant remained highly immunogenic and intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of 10 PFU induced complete protection in Swiss mice against subsequent challenge with 2000 ip LD50 of the wild-type LGT TP21.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/virology*; Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/virology
  7. Harcourt BH, Tamin A, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Anderson LJ, Bellini WJ, et al.
    Virology, 2000 Jun 5;271(2):334-49.
    PMID: 10860887
    Recently, a new paramyxovirus, now known as Nipah virus (NV), emerged in Malaysia and Singapore, causing fatal encephalitis in humans and a respiratory syndrome in pigs. Initial studies had indicated that NV is antigenically and genetically related to Hendra virus (HV). We generated the sequences of the N, P/C/V, M, F, and G genes of NV and compared these sequences with those of HV and other members of the family Paramyxoviridae. The intergenic regions of NV were identical to those of HV, and the gene start and stop sequences of NV were nearly identical to those of HV. The open reading frames (ORFs) for the V and C proteins within the P gene were found in NV, but the ORF encoding a potential short basic protein found in the P gene of HV was not conserved in NV. The N, P, C, V, M, F, and G ORFs in NV have nucleotide homologies ranging from 88% to 70% and predicted amino acid homologies ranging from 92% to 67% in comparison with HV. The predicted fusion cleavage sequence of the F protein of NV had a single amino acid substitution (K to R) in comparison with HV. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that although HV and NV are closely related, they are clearly distinct from any of the established genera within the Paramyxoviridae and should be considered a new genus.
  8. Harcourt BH, Tamin A, Halpin K, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Bellini WJ, et al.
    Virology, 2001 Aug 15;287(1):192-201.
    PMID: 11504554
    In 1998, Nipah virus (NV) emerged in peninsular Malaysia, causing fatal encephalitis in humans and a respiratory disease in swine. NV is most closely related to Hendra virus (HV), a paramyxovirus that was identified in Australia in 1994, and it has been proposed that HV and NV represent a new genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. This report describes the analysis of the sequences of the polymerase gene (L) and genomic termini of NV as well as a comparison of the full-length, genomic sequences of HV and NV. The L gene of NV is predicted to be 2244 amino acids in size and contains the six domains found within the L proteins of all nonsegmented, negative-stranded (NNS) RNA viruses. However, the GDNQ motif found in most NNS RNA viruses was replaced by GDNE in both NV and HV. The 3' and 5' termini of the NV genome are nearly identical to the genomic termini of HV and share sequence homology with the genomic termini of other members of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. At 18,246 nucleotides, the genome of NV is 12 nucleotides longer than the genome of HV and they have the largest genomes within the family Paramyxoviridae. The comparison of the structures of the genomes of HV and NV is now complete and this information will help to establish the taxonomic position of these novel viruses within the family Paramyxoviridae.
  9. Chua KB, Wang LF, Lam SK, Crameri G, Yu M, Wise T, et al.
    Virology, 2001 May 10;283(2):215-29.
    PMID: 11336547
    A search for the natural host of Nipah virus has led to the isolation of a previously unknown member of the family Paramyxoviridae. Tioman virus (TiV) was isolated from the urine of fruit bats (Pteropus hypomelanus) found on the island of the same name off the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia. An electron microscopic study of TiV-infected cells revealed spherical and pleomorphic-enveloped viral particles (100--500 nm in size) with a single fringe of embedded peplomers. Virus morphogenesis occurred at the plasma membrane of infected cells and morphological features of negative-stained ribonucleoprotein complexes were compatible with that of viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae. Serological studies revealed no cross-reactivity with antibodies against a number of known Paramyxoviridae members except for the newly described Menangle virus (MenV), isolated in Australia in 1997. Failure of PCR amplification using MenV-specific primers suggested that this new virus is related to but different from MenV. For molecular characterization of the virus, a cDNA subtraction strategy was employed to isolate virus-specific cDNA from virus-infected cells. Complete gene sequences for the nucleocapsid protein (N) and phosphoprotein (P/V) have been determined and recombinant N and V proteins produced in baculovirus. The recombinant N and V proteins reacted with porcine anti-MenV sera in Western blot, confirming the serological cross-reactivity observed during initial virus characterization. The lack of a C protein-coding region in the P/V gene, the creation of P mRNA by insertion of 2-G residues, and the results of phylogenetic analyses all indicated that TiV is a novel member of the genus Rubulavirus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chiroptera/virology*; Respirovirus Infections/virology; Urine/virology
  10. Adams SC, Broom AK, Sammels LM, Hartnett AC, Howard MJ, Coelen RJ, et al.
    Virology, 1995 Jan 10;206(1):49-56.
    PMID: 7530394
    Previous studies have found Kunjin (KUN) virus isolates from within Australia to be genetically homogenous and that the envelope protein of the type strain (MRM61C) was unglycosylated and lacked a potential glycosylation site. We investigated the extent of antigenic variation between KUN virus isolates from Australia and Sarawak using an immunoperoxidase assay and a panel of six monoclonal antibodies. The glycosylation status of the E protein of each virus was also determined by N glycosidase F (PNGase F) digestion and limited sequence analysis. The results showed that KUN viruses isolated within Australia oscillated between three antigenic types defined by two epitopes whose expression was influenced by passage history and host cell type. In contrast an isolate from Sarawak formed a stable antigenic type that was not influenced by passage history and was distinct from all Australian isolates. PNGase F digestions of KUN isolates indicated that 19 of the 33 viruses possessed a glycosylated E protein. Nucleotide sequence of the 5' third of the E gene of selected KUN isolates revealed that a single base change in PNGase F sensitive strains changed the tripeptide N-Y-F (amino acids 154-156 of the published sequence) to the potential glycosylation site N-Y-S. Further analysis revealed that passage history also had a significant influence on glycosylation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/virology
  11. Marmey P, Bothner B, Jacquot E, de Kochko A, Ong CA, Yot P, et al.
    Virology, 1999 Jan 20;253(2):319-26.
    PMID: 9918890
    Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) is a plant pararetrovirus and a member of the Caulimoviridae family and closely related to viruses in the Badnavirus genus. The coat protein of RTBV is part of the large polyprotein encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF3). ORF3 of an RTBV isolate from Malaysia was sequenced (accession no. AF076470) and compared with published sequences for the region that encodes the coat protein or proteins. Molecular mass of virion proteins was determined by mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF) performed on purified virus particles from three RTBV isolates from Malaysia. The N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of the coat protein were deduced from the mass spectral analysis, leading to the conclusion that purified virions contain a single coat protein of 37 kDa. The location of the coat protein domain in ORF3 was reinforced as a result of immunodetection reactions using antibodies raised against six different segments of ORF3 using Western immunoblots after SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing of proteins purified from RTBV particles. These studies demonstrate that RTBV coat protein is released from the polyprotein as a single coat protein of 37 kDa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/virology
  12. Poidinger M, Hall RA, Mackenzie JS
    Virology, 1996 Apr 15;218(2):417-21.
    PMID: 8610471
    The Japanese encephalitis (JE) serocomplex of flaviviruses comprises 10 members, 9 of which: Alfuy (ALF); Koutango (KOU); Kokobera (KOK); Kunjin (KUN); Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE); JE; Stratford (STR); Usutu (USU); and West Nile (WN) have been isolated from Africa, southern Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australia. The tenth member, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, is confined to North, Central, and South America. For ALF, KOK, KOU, STR, and USU, no sequence data have as yet been reported, and little molecular phylogeny has been determined for this complex as a whole. Using a rapid, one-step RT-PCR and universal primers, we have amplified and sequenced a 450-600 base pair region of the virus genome encompassing the N terminus of the nonstructural protein NS5 and the 5' end of the 3' noncoding region, for several strains of all of these viruses, except USU and SLE viruses. These data, as well as published sequence data for other flaviviruses, were analyzed with the ClustalW and Phylip computer packages. The resultant phylogenetic data were consistent with some of the current flavivirus serological classification, showing a close relationship between ALF and MVE viruses and between KOK and STR viruses, but suggested that KOK and STR are distantly related to the other viruses and should perhaps be reclassified in their own serocomplex. The data also confirmed the close relationship between KUN and WN viruses and showed that an isolate of KUN virus from Sarawak may represent a "link" between these two virus species. In addition, the primary sequence data revealed a polymorphic region just downstream of the stop codon in the 3' end of the viral genomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Arbovirus/virology
  13. Cecilia D, Gould EA
    Virology, 1991 Mar;181(1):70-7.
    PMID: 1704661
    The Sarawak strain of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE-Sar) is virulent in 3-week-old mice when inoculated intraperitoneally. The nucleotide sequence for the envelope glycoprotein (E) of this virus was determined and compared with the published sequences of four other strains. There were several silent nucleotide differences and five codon changes. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the E protein of JE-Sar virus were prepared and characterized. MAb-resistant mutants of JE-Sar were selected to determine if mutations in the E protein gene could affect its virulence for mice. Eight mutants were isolated using five different MAbs that identified virus-specific or group-reactive epitopes on the E protein. The mutants lost either complete or partial reactivity with selecting MAb. Several showed decreased virulence in 3-week-old mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Two (r27 and r30) also showed reduced virulence in 2-week-old mice. JE-Sar and the derived mutants were comparable in their virulence for mice, when inoculated intracranially. Mutant r30 but not r27 induced protective immunity in adult mice against intracranial challenge with parent virus. However, r27-2 did induce protective immunity against itself. Nucleotide sequencing of the E coding region for the mutants revealed single base changes in both r30 and r27 resulting in a predicted change from isoleucine to serine at position 270 in r30 and from glycine to aspartic acid at position 333 in r27. The altered capacity of the mutants to induce protective immunity is consistent with the immunogenicity changes predicted by computer analysis using the Protean II program.
  14. Yee PTI, Laa Poh C
    Virology, 2017 06;506:121-129.
    PMID: 28384566 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2017.03.017
    Enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71) is an etiological agent of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 infection produces high fever and ulcers in children. Some EV-A71 strains produce severe infections leading to pulmonary edema and death. Although the protective efficacy of the inactivated vaccine (IV) was ≥90% against mild HFMD, there was approximately 80% protection against severe HFMD. The monovalent EV-A71 IV elicits humoral immunity but lacks long-term immunogenicity. Spontaneous mutations of the EV-A71 genome could lead to antigenicity changes and the virus may not be neutralized by antibodies elicited by the IV. A better alternative would be the live attenuated vaccine (LAV) that elicits cellular and humoral immunity. The LAV induces excellent antigenicity and chances of reversion is reduced by presence of multiple mutations which could reduce pathogenicity. Besides CV-A16, outbreaks have been caused by CV-A6 and CV-A10, hence the development of bivalent and trivalent vaccines is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterovirus Infections/virology
  15. Tan CW, Sam IC, Lee VS, Wong HV, Chan YF
    Virology, 2017 01 15;501:79-87.
    PMID: 27875780 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.11.009
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic enterovirus that uses heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor. The molecular determinants of EV-A71-heparan sulfate interaction are unknown. With In silico heparin docking and mutagenesis of all possible lysine residues in VP1, we identified that K162, K242 and K244 are responsible for heparin interaction and inhibition. EV-A71 mutants with K242A and K244A rapidly acquired compensatory mutations, T100K or E98A, and Q145R-T237N respectively, which restored the heparin-binding phenotype. Both VP1-98 and VP1-145 modulates heparin binding. Heparin-binding phenotype was completely abolished with VP1-E98-E145, but was restored by an E98K or E145Q substitution. During cell culture adaptation, EV-A71 rapidly acquired K98 or Q/G145 to restore the heparin-binding phenotype. Together with next-generation sequencing analysis, our results implied that EV-A71 has high genetic plasticity by modulating positively-charged residues at the five-fold axis during in vitro heparin adaptation. Our finding has impact on EV-A71 vaccine production, evolutionary studies and pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterovirus Infections/virology
  16. Yu SP, Ong KC, Perera D, Wong KT
    Virology, 2019 01 15;527:107-115.
    PMID: 30481615 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.10.015
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes central nervous system neuronal injury and inflammation. A clear understanding of neuronal responses to JEV infection remains elusive. Using the Affymetrix array to investigate the transcriptome of infected SK-N-MC cells, 1316 and 2737 dysregulated genes (≥ 2/-2 fold change, P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Japanese/virology*; Neurons/virology*
  17. Chia SL, Lei J, Ferguson DJP, Dyer A, Fisher KD, Seymour LW
    Virology, 2017 05;505:162-171.
    PMID: 28260622 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2017.02.011
    Enadenotucirev (EnAd) is a group B oncolytic adenovirus developed for systemic delivery and currently undergoing clinical evaluation for advanced cancer therapy. For differentiated carcinomas, systemic delivery would likely expose virus particles to the basolateral surface of cancer cells rather than the apical surface encountered during natural infection. Here, we compare the ability of EnAd and adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) to infect polarised colorectal carcinoma cells from the apical or basolateral surfaces. Whereas Ad5 infection was more efficient via the apical than basolateral surface, EnAd readily infected cells from either surface. Progeny particles from EnAd were released preferentially via the apical surface for all cell lines and routes of infection. These data further support the utility of group B adenoviruses for systemic delivery and suggest that progeny virus are more likely to be released into the tumour rather than back through the basolateral surface into the blood stream.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/virology
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