Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Abbas MA, Al-Saigh NN, Saqallah FG
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2023 Apr;24(2):297-316.
    PMID: 36692804 DOI: 10.1007/s11154-023-09788-3
    Milk is a rich source of miRNA packaged in exosomes. Evidence for the systemic uptake and tissue distribution of milk exosomes was reported in newborn and adult humans and animals. Breastfeeding in infants was associated with a reduced risk of obesity. Numerous adipogenesis-related miRNAs have been detected in human milk exosomes. It has been demonstrated that ingested exosomal milk miRNAs may alter gene expression in offspring to regulate their metabolism and growth. In humans, consumption of other species' milk, such as cows and goats, is continued through adulthood. Since miRNAs are conserved, the concern of cross-species transfer of adipogenic miRNA has been raised in recent years, and the increase in obesity worldwide was attributed partially to dairy milk consumption by humans. However, evidence is still weak. Research emphasizes the need for an adequate number of exosomal milk's miRNAs to reach the target cell for biological action to be achieved. It was reported that obese women's milk had less miRNA-148a and miRNA-30b, which may affect the fat acquisition of their babies. Some exosomal milk miRNAs, such as miRNA-29, miRNA-148, miRNA-30b and miRNA-125b, may have epigenetic effects on milk recipients. Moreover, the ability of milk exosomes to cross the gastrointestinal barrier makes them a promising oral drug delivery tool. Yet, exosomes may also be tagged with specific ligands which target certain tissues. Thus, milk exosomes can be engineered and loaded with certain miRNAs responsible for adipocyte differentiation, conversion, or browning. Modifications in the miRNA cargo of exosomes can benefit human health and be an alternative to traditional drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics
  2. Vohra MS, Ahmad B, Serpell CJ, Parhar IS, Wong EH
    Differentiation, 2020 08 23;115:62-84.
    PMID: 32891960 DOI: 10.1016/j.diff.2020.08.003
    Adipogenesis has been extensively studied using in vitro models of cellular differentiation, enabling long-term regulation of fat cell metabolism in human adipose tissue (AT) material. Many studies promote the idea that manipulation of this process could potentially reduce the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases. It has now become essential to understand the molecular basis of fat cell development to tackle this pandemic disease, by identifying therapeutic targets and new biomarkers. This review explores murine cell models and their applications for study of the adipogenic differentiation process in vitro. We focus on the benefits and limitations of different cell line models to aid in interpreting data and selecting a good cell line model for successful understanding of adipose biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics*
  3. Nematbakhsh S, Pei Pei C, Selamat J, Nordin N, Idris LH, Abdull Razis AF
    Genes (Basel), 2021 03 13;12(3).
    PMID: 33805667 DOI: 10.3390/genes12030414
    In the poultry industry, excessive fat deposition is considered an undesirable factor, affecting feed efficiency, meat production cost, meat quality, and consumer's health. Efforts to reduce fat deposition in economically important animals, such as chicken, can be made through different strategies; including genetic selection, feeding strategies, housing, and environmental strategies, as well as hormone supplementation. Recent investigations at the molecular level have revealed the significant role of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks and their interaction on modulating fat metabolism in chickens. At the transcriptional level, different transcription factors are known to regulate the expression of lipogenic and adipogenic genes through various signaling pathways, affecting chicken fat metabolism. Alternatively, at the post-transcriptional level, the regulatory mechanism of microRNAs (miRNAs) on lipid metabolism and deposition has added a promising dimension to understand the structural and functional regulatory mechanism of lipid metabolism in chicken. Therefore, this review focuses on the progress made in unraveling the molecular function of genes, transcription factors, and more notably significant miRNAs responsible for regulating adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and fat deposition in chicken. Moreover, a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism will give researchers novel insights to use functional molecular markers, such as miRNAs, for selection against excessive fat deposition to improve chicken production efficiency and meat quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics*
  4. Wan Safwani WK, Makpol S, Sathapan S, Chua KH
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2011 Jul-Aug;58(4):261-70.
    PMID: 21838801 DOI: 10.1002/bab.38
    One of the advantages of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine is that they can be harvested in abundance. However, the stemness biomarkers, which marked the safety and efficacy of ASCs in accordance with the good manufacturing practice guidelines, is not yet well established. This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term culture on the stemness properties of ASCs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Results showed the growth rate of ASCs was at its peak when they reached P10 (population doubling; PD = 26) but started to decrease when they were expanded to P15 (PD = 36) and P20 (PD = 46). The ASCs can be culture expanded with minimal alteration in the stemness genes and cluster of differentiation (CD) markers expression up to P10. Expression level of Sox2, Nestin, and Nanog3 was significantly decreased at later passage. CD31, CD45, CD117, and human leukocyte antigen DR, DQ, and DP were lowly expressed at P5 and P10 but their expressions increased significantly at P15 or P20. The differentiation ability of ASCs (adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and neurogenesis) also decreased in long-term culture. Our findings suggested that P10 (PD = 26) should be the "cutoff point" for clinical usage because ASCs at passage 15 onward showed significant changes in the stemness genes, CD markers expression, and differentiation capability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics
  5. Boon Yin K, Najimudin N, Muhammad TS
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008 Jun 27;371(2):177-9.
    PMID: 18413145 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.04.013
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand activated transcription factor, plays many essential roles of biological function in higher organisms. The PPARgamma is mainly expressed in adipose tissue. It regulates the transcriptional activity of genes by binding with other transcription factor. The PPARgamma coding region has been found to be closest to that of monkey in ours and other research groups. Thus, monkey is a more suitable animal model for future PPARgamma studying, although mice and rat are frequently being used. The PPARgamma is involved in regulating alterations of adipose tissue masses result from changes in mature adipocyte size and/or number through a complex interplay process called adipogenesis. However, the role of PPARgamma in negatively regulating the process of adipogenesis remains unclear. This review may help we investigate the differential expression of key transcription factor in adipose tissue in response to visceral obesity-induced diet in vivo. The study may also provide valuable information to define a more appropriate physiological condition in adipogenesis which may help to prevent diseases cause by negative regulation of the transcription factors in adipose tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics*
  6. Zahari W, Hashim SN, Yusof MF, Osman ZF, Kannan TP, Mokhtar KI, et al.
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017;12(3):197-206.
    PMID: 27306400 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X11666160614103404
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal origin cells with multilineage differentiation capacity. The immunoregulatory properties of MSCs can be interfered effectively by cytokines. Cytokines, produced by a broad range of cells, act at the systemic level to influence biological phenomena such as inflammation, wound healing, organogenesis and oncogenesis. Cytokines also play vital roles in the differentiation of MSCs into several cell lineages. This review summarizes on how cytokines can affect MSCs differentiation and their relative signaling pathways, which may serve to understand the possible underlying mechanisms. Also, this review reveals the potential clinical use of MSCs as promising therapeutic agents due to their special characteristics such as multipotent differentiation, immunomodulatory properties, and selfrestoration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics
  7. Hamid AA, Idrus RB, Saim AB, Sathappan S, Chua KH
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012;67(2):99-106.
    PMID: 22358233
    OBJECTIVES: Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction.

    RESULTS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN) was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction.

    CONCLUSION: Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics
  8. Mamidi MK, Pal R, Mori NA, Arumugam G, Thrichelvam ST, Noor PJ, et al.
    J Cell Biochem, 2011 May;112(5):1353-63.
    PMID: 21337383 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.23052
    Among the different parameters governing the successful derivation and expansion of human embryonic stem cells (hESC), feeder layers play the most important role. Human feeders in form of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) lay the foundation for eradication of animal-derived hESC culture system. In this study we explored the potential of human foreskin derived mesenchymal like stromal cells (HF-MSCs) to support self renewal and pluripotency of hESC. The MSCs isolated from human foreskin were found to be resistant to standard concentrations and duration of mitomycin-C treatment. Growth pattern, gene profiling (Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, Rex-1), cytoskeletal protein expression (vimentin, nestin) and tri-lineage differentiation potential into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes confirmed their mesenchymal stromal cell status. Further, the HF-MSCs were positive for CD105, CD166, CD73, CD44, CD90, SSEA-4, and negative for CD34, CD45, HLA-DR cell-surface markers and were found to exhibit BM-MSC-like characteristics. hESC lines co-cultured with HF-MSC feeders showed expression of expected pluripotent transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, GDF-3, Rex-1, STELLAR, ABCG2, Dppa5, hTERT; surface markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-81 and maintained their cytogenetic stability during long term passaging. These novel feeders also improved the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) from hESC which produced cell types representing three germ layers. This culture system has the potential to aid the development of clinical-grade hESCs for regenerative medicine and drug screening. Further, we envisage foreskin can serve as a valuable source of alternative MSCs for specific therapeutic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics
  9. Guru A, Issac PK, Velayutham M, Saraswathi NT, Arshad A, Arockiaraj J
    Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Jan;48(1):743-761.
    PMID: 33275195 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-06036-8
    Obesity is growing at an alarming rate, which is characterized by increased adipose tissue. It increases the probability of many health complications, such as diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disease, and cancer. In modern society, with a growing population of obese patients, several individuals have increased insulin resistance. Herbal medicines are known as the oldest method of health care treatment for obesity-related secondary health issues. Several traditional medicinal plants and their effective phytoconstituents have shown anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic activity. Adipose tissue is a major site for lipid accumulation as well as the whole-body insulin sensitivity region. 3T3-L1 cell line model can achieve adipogenesis. Adipocyte characteristics features such as expression of adipocyte markers and aggregation of lipids are chemically induced in the 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell line. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 is an efficient and convenient way to obtain adipocyte like cells in experimental studies. Peroxisome proliferation activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and Cytosine-Cytosine-Adenosine-Adenosine-Thymidine/Enhancer-binding protein α (CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein α or C/EBPα) are considered to be regulating adipogenesis at the early stage, while adiponectin and fatty acid synthase (FAS) is responsible for the mature adipocyte formation. Excess accumulation of these adipose tissues and lipids leads to obesity. Thus, investigating adipose tissue development and the underlying molecular mechanism is important in the therapeutical approach. This review describes the cellular mechanism of 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells on potential anti-adipogenic herbal bioactive compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipogenesis/genetics
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