Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 379 in total

  1. Ritchie J
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Western
  2. AIDS Anal Afr, 1999 Jun-Jul;10(1):13.
    PMID: 12295121
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa; Africa, Eastern; Africa, Northern; Africa, Southern; Africa, Western; South Africa; Africa South of the Sahara
  3. Tayib S, Allan B, Williamson AL, Denny L
    S. Afr. Med. J., 2015 Aug;105(8):679-84.
    PMID: 26449694
    BACKGROUND: Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral disease in the world. HPV infection of the genital epithelium is associated with genital warts and malignancies of the lower genital tract.
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the distribution, phenotypic appearance and HPV type associated with genital warts in women.
    METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of all women with genital warts who attended the Colposcopy Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, during 2010 and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. One hundred and thirteen women were tested for HPV using the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping kit to determine the HPV genotypes causing genital warts.
    RESULTS: The median age of the women was 27 years (range 15 - 53); 90 (79.6%) were HIV-positive, and two-thirds were on antiretroviral treatment. Treatment involved ablation with topical agents, cauterisation or carbon dioxide laser. At 3 months' follow-up after treatment, 56.6% of the women, the majority of whom were HIV-positive, had recurrent/persistent disease. In both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, HPV was detected in over 90% of cases. However, over half the HIV-positive women as opposed to 2/18 of the HIV-negative women were infected with multiple HPV genotypes. The commonest HPV genotypes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were types 11, 6, 89, 61, 55 and 62 and types 11 and 6, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the patients were HIV-positive and had multiple HPV infections. While this did not alter the phenotypic appearance of the warts, recurrence/persistence after treatment was more common.
    Matched MeSH terms: South Africa
  4. Kara J, Molina-Acevedo IC, Zanol J, Simon C, Idris I
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e10076.
    PMID: 33150064 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10076
    A vast polychaete fauna is hidden behind complexes of cryptic and pseudo-cryptic species, which has greatly hindered our understanding of species diversity in several regions worldwide. Among the eunicids, Marphysa sanguinea Montagu, 1813 is a typical example, recorded in three oceans and with various species considered its junior synonyms. In South Africa, specimens previously misidentified as M. sanguinea are now known as Marphysa elityeni Lewis & Karageorgopoulos, 2008. Of the six Marphysa Quatrefages, 1865a species recorded from the same region, three have their distributions restricted to South Africa while the others are considered to have worldwide distributions. Here, we evaluated the taxonomic status of the indigenous M. elityeni and investigated the presence of the widespread species Marphysa macintoshi Crossland, 1903 and Marphysa depressa Schmarda, 1861 in South Africa using morphological and molecular data. Our results reveal that M. elityeni is a junior synonym of Marphysa haemasoma, a species previously described from South Africa which is herein reinstated as a valid species. Both M. macintoshi and M. depressa are not present in South Africa and their status as being distributed worldwide deserves further investigation. Marphysa durbanensis Day, 1934 and the new species described here, M. sherlockae n. sp., had been misidentified as M. macintoshi and M. depressa respectively. Thus, the number of Marphysa species with distributions restricted to South Africa increased from three to five. This study reiterates the importance of implementing an integrated taxonomic framework to unravel local biodiversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: South Africa
  5. Desgrees-du-Lou A, Pannetier J, Ravalihasy A, Le Guen M, Gosselin A, Panjo H, et al.
    AIDS, 2016 Feb 20;30(4):645-56.
    PMID: 26558722 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000957
    In Europe, sub-Saharan African migrants are a key population for HIV infection. We analyse how social hardships during settlement in France shape sexual partnerships and HIV risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Northern; Africa South of the Sahara
  6. Bull World Health Organ, 1992;70(6):801-4, 809-13.
    PMID: 1283116
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa/epidemiology
  7. Damulak PP, Ismail S, Abdul Manaf R, Mohd Said S, Agbaji O
    PMID: 33802322 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18052477
    Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the bedrock of effective therapy and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This systematic review examines the effect of interventions in improving ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which bears the largest global burden of HIV infection. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, PUBMED, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were searched for published studies on ART adherence interventions from 2010 to 2019. Thirty-one eligible studies published between 2010 to 2019 were identified, the categories of interventions were structural, behavioral, biological, cognitive, and combination. Study characteristics varied across design, intervention type, intervention setting, country, and outcome measurements. Many of the studies were behavioral interventions conducted in hospitals with more studies being randomized controlled trial (RCT) interventions. Despite the study variations, twenty-four studies recorded improvements. Notwithstanding, more quality studies such as RCTs should be conducted, especially among key affected populations (KAPs) to control transmission of resistant strains of the virus. Reliable objective measures of adherence should replace the conventional subjective self-report. Furthermore, long-term interventions with longer duration should be considered when evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology
  8. Teh JKL, Bradley DA, Chook JB, Lai KH, Ang WT, Teo KL, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0252273.
    PMID: 34048477 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252273
    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to visualize the global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic over the first 90 days, through the principal component analysis approach of dimensionality reduction.

    METHODS: This study used data from the Global COVID-19 Index provided by PEMANDU Associates. The sample, representing 161 countries, comprised the number of confirmed cases, deaths, stringency indices, population density and GNI per capita (USD). Correlation matrices were computed to reveal the association between the variables at three time points: day-30, day-60 and day-90. Three separate principal component analyses were computed for similar time points, and several standardized plots were produced.

    RESULTS: Confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 showed positive but weak correlation with stringency and GNI per capita. Through principal component analysis, the first two principal components captured close to 70% of the variance of the data. The first component can be viewed as the severity of the COVID-19 surge in countries, whereas the second component largely corresponded to population density, followed by GNI per capita of countries. Multivariate visualization of the two dominating principal components provided a standardized comparison of the situation in the161 countries, performed on day-30, day-60 and day-90 since the first confirmed cases in countries worldwide.

    CONCLUSION: Visualization of the global spread of COVID-19 showed the unequal severity of the pandemic across continents and over time. Distinct patterns in clusters of countries, which separated many European countries from those in Africa, suggested a contrast in terms of stringency measures and wealth of a country. The African continent appeared to fare better in terms of the COVID-19 pandemic and the burden of mortality in the first 90 days. A noticeable worsening trend was observed in several countries in the same relative time frame of the disease's first 90 days, especially in the United States of America.

    Matched MeSH terms: Africa/epidemiology
  9. Dokainish H, Teo K, Zhu J, Roy A, AlHabib KF, ElSayed A, et al.
    Int J Cardiol, 2016 Feb 1;204:133-41.
    PMID: 26657608 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.11.183
    There are few data on heart failure (HF) patients from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa
  10. Kment P, Carapezza A, Jindra Z, Kondorosy E
    Zootaxa, 2017 Jan 25;4226(1):zootaxa.4226.1.2.
    PMID: 28187629 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4226.1.2
    The generic name Lanchnophorus Reuter, 1887, deemed for a long time to be unavailable as incorrect original spelling of Lachnophorus (in fact Lachnophorus Distant, 1903 is an unjustified emendation of the former), is restored as a valid name of the genus. Lachnesthus Bergroth, 1915, syn. nov. (new name for the preoccupied Lachnophorus Distant, 1903) is considered junior synonym of Lanchnophorus. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Lanchnophorus flavus (Scudder, 1971) comb. nov. = Lachnesthus chinai Scudder, nomen nudum; Lanchnophorus guttulatus Reuter, 1887, comb. restit. = Lachnophorus albidomaculatus Distant, 1913, syn. nov. = Lachnesthus rodriguezensis China, 1925, syn. nov.; Lanchnophorus leucospilus (Walker, 1872) comb. nov.; Lanchnophorus merula (Distant, 1903) comb. nov.; and Lanchnophorus singalensis (Dohrn, 1860) comb. nov. Three new species are described: Lanchnophorus gaoqingae Kment & Jindra sp. nov. from China (Yunnan), Lanchnophorus seminitens Kment & Carapezza sp. nov. from Socotra Island (Yemen), and Lanchnophorus webbi Kondorosy sp. nov. from India: Tamil Nadu. Bibliographies and known distribution of all the included species are reviewed. The following new country and state records are provided: L. flavus from Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Niger, Zambia and Zimbabwe; L. leucospilus from China (Yunnan) and Laos, L. merula from India (Kerala/Tamil Nadu) and Thailand; L. singalensis from Angola, Benin, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, China (Hainan), Iran (Sistan and Ba-luchestan), Oman, Pakistan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan), Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa
  11. Rodo Mohamud Hassan, Regidor-111 Dioso
    Background: In Africa high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in regions of East Africa (0.3%),
    West Africa (0.7%), Central Africa (0.2%), South Africa (3.8%), and North Africa (12.5%).

    Aims: This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the prevalence of obesity among young adults, aged 18-25 years
    from five African countries.

    Methods: The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were applied to
    search published studies. of the 100 studies published as found in scientific databases from 2010 to 2017, only
    five were selected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
    checklist was used to eliminate other studies.

    Outcomes: A total of 22,320 obese young adults were analyzed to be prevalent. The obesity among adults in
    SouthAfrica was found to be correlated with less physical activities. In Uganda, the prevalence of obesity is
    683 which relates with their sedentary lifestyle and socio-demography. Among 371 young adults in Nigeria, the
    prevalence of obesity was 5.1% among male and 10% among female related to diet and other consumptions.
    Among 646 adults in Ghana, the prevalence of general obesity was observed to be related to genetics.

    Conclusion: Prevalence of the male gender was 9,509 having a p=0.284 (at 95% C.I.±4,440.87845-
    8,788.87845) with a mean score of 1,251, and a SD= 61,066. While the prevalence of obesity on females was
    10,874 having a p= 0.00019, (at 95% C.I.±3,592.07-6,094.07) with a mean score of 2,174, and SD= 3,375.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa
  12. Yousuf A, Arifin SRM, Musa R, Isa MLM
    One Health, 2020 Dec 20;11:100181.
    PMID: 33072837 DOI: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100181
    The vast majority of its population being a pastoralist community, the Somali region in Ethiopia shares the longest border with its neighboring east African countries. These communities face a high risk for transmission of imported COVID-19 cases and remain vulnerable due to lack of access to health delivery and low utilisation of services. Valuable lessons from other countries, has placed the One Health Approach as an appropriate, feasible and applicable preventive and control measure for COVID-19. This paper discusses the epidemiological and social susceptibility of pastoral communities in the transmission of COVID-19 and the introduction of One Health Approach as an effective inter-disciplinary response and management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Eastern
  13. Solarin SA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Mar;26(9):8552-8574.
    PMID: 30706273 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04225-y
    This paper examines the pattern of convergence in electricity intensity in a sample of 79 countries. We apply the residual augmented least squares regression to the convergence of energy intensity. This method has been used in the convergence of per capita energy consumption but not convergence of energy intensity. Furthermore, in contrast to the previous studies which mainly used the conventional beta convergence approach to examine conditional convergence, we use a beta convergence method that is capable of identifying the actual number of countries that contribute to conditional convergence. The sigma and gamma convergences of electricity intensity are also examined. In addition to the full sample of countries, we also examine convergence in African countries, Asian and Oceanic countries, American countries and European countries, separately. Convergences in OECD and non-OECD countries are also examined, separately. In the full sample, the results show convergence exists in 54% of the countries in the total sample. There is convergence in 65% of the African countries, 61% of the American countries, 43% of the Asian and Oceanic countries and 33% of the European countries. In terms of the regional classification, it is also observed that convergence exists for 58% of the non-OECD countries and 31% of the OECD countries. There is evidence for sigma convergence in all the blocs with the exception of European and non-OECD countries. With the exception of African countries, there is evidence for gamma convergence in all the countries and the various blocs. The policy implications of the results are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa
  14. Peñaloza C, Robledo D, Barría A, Trịnh TQ, Mahmuddin M, Wiener P, et al.
    G3 (Bethesda), 2020 08 05;10(8):2777-2785.
    PMID: 32532799 DOI: 10.1534/g3.120.401343
    Tilapia are among the most important farmed fish species worldwide, and are fundamental for the food security of many developing countries. Several genetically improved Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains exist, such as the iconic Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT), and breeding programs typically follow classical pedigree-based selection. The use of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data can enable an understanding of the genetic architecture of economically important traits and the acceleration of genetic gain via genomic selection. Due to the global importance and diversity of Nile tilapia, an open access SNP array would be beneficial for aquaculture research and production. In the current study, a ∼65K SNP array was designed based on SNPs discovered from whole-genome sequence data from a GIFT breeding nucleus population and the overlap with SNP datasets from wild fish populations and several other farmed Nile tilapia strains. The SNP array was applied to clearly distinguish between different tilapia populations across Asia and Africa, with at least ∼30,000 SNPs segregating in each of the diverse population samples tested. It is anticipated that this SNP array will be an enabling tool for population genetics and tilapia breeding research, facilitating consistency and comparison of results across studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa
  15. Awan AM, Azam M, Saeed IU, Bakhtyar B
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Dec;27(36):45405-45418.
    PMID: 32789804 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10445-4
    The broad purpose of this study is to empirically explore the impact of globalization and financial development on environmental pollution by carbon (CO2) emissions in the six Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries using balanced panel data from 1971 to 2015. We also aimed to test the legitimacy of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for this region. The fixed-effects approach preferred by the Hausman specification test is used to estimate the empirical model, and the feasible generalized least squares (F.G.L.S.) estimator is employed to cope with any issue of heteroscedasticity and serial correlation. This study found that globalization and financial development have adverse and significant effects on environmental degradation and affirm the legitimacy of the EKC hypothesis for these countries. The finding of this study suggests that the governments of MENA countries should design and implement appropriate policies for strengthening the renewable sources of energy like wind, solar, bio-fuel, and thermal to decrease CO2 emissions and boost sustainable economic development. The policymakers should focus on the efficiency of institutions and enhancement of energy-saving projects in this region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Northern
  16. Abunama T, Ansari M, Awolusi OO, Gani KM, Kumari S, Bux F
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Sep 01;293:112862.
    PMID: 34049159 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112862
    To ensure the safe discharge of treated wastewater to the environment, continuous efforts are vital to enhance the modelling accuracy of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through utilizing state-of-art techniques and algorithms. The integration of metaheuristic modern optimization algorithms that are natlurally inspired with the Fussy Inference Systems (FIS) to improve the modelling performance is a promising and mathematically suitable approach. This study integrates four population-based algorithms, namely: Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Genetic algorithm (GA), Hybrid GA-PSO, and Mutating invasive weed optimization (M-IWO) with FIS system. A full-scale WWTP in South Africa (SA) was selected to assess the validity of the proposed algorithms, where six wastewater effluent parameters were modeled, i.e., Alkalinity (ALK), Sulphate (SLP), Phosphate (PHS), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The results from this study showed that the hybrid PSO-GA algorithm outperforms the PSO and GA algorithms when used individually, in modelling all wastewater effluent parameters. PSO performed better for SLP and TKN compared to GA, while the M-IWO algorithm failed to provide an acceptable modelling convergence for all the studied parameters. However, three out of four algorithms applied in this study proven beneficial to be optimized in enhancing the modelling accuracy of wastewater quality parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: South Africa
  17. Paterson RRM
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Dec 15;300:113785.
    PMID: 34562818 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113785
    Palms are iconic plants. Oil palms are very important economically and originate in Africa where they can act as a model for palms in general. The effect of future climate on the growth of oil palm will be very detrimental. Latitudinal migration of tropical crops to climate refuges may be impossible, and longitudinal migration has only been confirmed for oil palm, of all the tropical crops. The previous method to determine the longitudinal trend for oil palm used the longitudes of various countries in Africa and plotted these against the percentage suitable climate for growing oil palms in each country. An increasing longitudinal trend was observed from west to east. However, the longitudes of the countries were randomly distributed which may have introduced bias and the procedure was time consuming. The present report presents an optimised and systematic procedure that divided the regions, as presented on a map derived from a CLIMEX model, into ten equal sectors and the percentage suitable climates for growing oil palm were determined for each sector. This approach was quicker, systematic and straight forward and will be useful for management of oil palm plantations under climate change. The method confirmed and validated the trends reported in the original method although the suitability values were often lower and there was less spread of values around the trend. The values for the CSIRO MK3.0 and MIROC H models demonstrated considerable similarities to each other, contributing to validation of the method. The procedure of dividing maps equally into sectors derived from models, could be used for other crops, regions, or systems more generally, where the alternative may be a more superficial visual examination of the maps. Methods are required to mitigate the effects of climate change and stakeholders need to contribute more actively to the current climate debate with tangible actions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Africa
  18. Boedeker W, Watts M, Clausing P, Marquez E
    BMC Public Health, 2020 Dec 07;20(1):1875.
    PMID: 33287770 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-09939-0
    BACKGROUND: Human poisoning by pesticides has long been seen as a severe public health problem. As early as 1990, a task force of the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about one million unintentional pesticide poisonings occur annually, leading to approximately 20,000 deaths. Thirty years on there is no up-to-date picture of global pesticide poisoning despite an increase in global pesticide use. Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of unintentional, acute pesticide poisoning (UAPP), and to estimate the annual global number of UAPP.

    METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of the scientific literature published between 2006 and 2018, supplemented by mortality data from WHO. We extracted data from 157 publications and the WHO cause-of-death database, then performed country-wise synopses, and arrived at annual numbers of national UAPP. World-wide UAPP was estimated based on national figures and population data for regions defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

    RESULTS: In total 141 countries were covered, including 58 by the 157 articles and an additional 83 by data from the WHO Mortality Database. Approximately 740,000 annual cases of UAPP were reported by the extracted publications resulting from 7446 fatalities and 733,921 non-fatal cases. On this basis, we estimate that about 385 million cases of UAPP occur annually world-wide including around 11,000 fatalities. Based on a worldwide farming population of approximately 860 million this means that about 44% of farmers are poisoned by pesticides every year. The greatest estimated number of UAPP cases is in southern Asia, followed by south-eastern Asia and east Africa with regards to non-fatal UAPP.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study updates outdated figures on world-wide UAPP. Along with other estimates, robust evidence is presented that acute pesticide poisoning is an ongoing major global public health challenge. There is a need to recognize the high burden of non-fatal UAPP, particularly on farmers and farmworkers, and that the current focus solely on fatalities hampers international efforts in risk assessment and prevention of poisoning. Implementation of the international recommendations to phase out highly hazardous pesticides by the FAO Council could significantly reduce the burden of UAPP.

    Matched MeSH terms: Africa, Eastern
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