Soil-transmitted helminth infections remain a major public health burden in low- and middle-income countries. The traditional diagnosis by microscopic examination of fecal samples is insensitive and time-consuming. In this study, a pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of Ancylostoma, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The results were compared with those obtained by conventional parasitological diagnostic methods. Real-time PCR was positive in 48 of 77 samples (62.3%) and microscopic examination was positive in six samples (7.8%) only (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay described in this study provides a specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of these four helminth species in epidemiological studies and monitoring of treatment programs.
Twenty-seven cases of ascaris cholecystitis and cholangitis were managed in a surgical unit of a general hospital in Yangon, Myanmar, from January 1989 to March 1990. Nineteen women and eight men with a mean age of 42 years were studied. Main clinical manifestations were right hypochondrial pain, fever, chills, rigors, nausea, vomiting and jaundice. Diagnosis was established by abdominal ultrasonograms in all cases. Laparotomy was performed in all cases because of failure to respond to initial conservative treatment. Live and dead ascarids were found in the gall bladder and biliary ductal system. Cholecystectomy, bile duct exploration, worm extraction and T-tube drainage were done in all cases. There were no deaths. Two patients developed minor wound sepsis. During the follow-up period ranging from 3 to 12 months, there was no recurrence of symptoms in all patients. All patients were given antihelminthics before discharge and three weeks later.
This is a case report of ascaris worm in the common bile duct in a 61 year old lady. Ultrasound diagnosis was initially made based on the presence of linear hyperreflective foci within the common bile duct. ERCP confirmed a single worm within the duct. Balloon extraction was then successfully carried out following papillotomy. This case illustrates the value of ultrasound in the definitive diagnosis of biliary ascariasis and the therapeutic role of ERCP.
A community study on the age and sex related prevalence, intensity infection and frequency distribution of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm was carried out in 205 Orang Asli (Aborigines) children (95 boys, 110 girls) aged 1-13 years. The overall prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm was 62.9%, 91.7% and 28.8%, respectively. Almost two-thirds of the children were infected with moderate and severe intensity infection of Trichuris, 46.3% had moderate to severe intensity infection of Ascaris. However only 1.5% had moderate intensity of hookworm infection. The prevalence and mean intensity infection (measured by eggs per g) of Ascaris was age-dependent; lower in age group 1-4 years reached peak and stable at age group 5 years and above. The prevalence of Trichuris was high in all age groups and it fluctuated with age; the mean intensity of infection of Trichuris (measured by eggs per g) was age-dependent. Hookworm infection also rose with age and reached peak at 5-6 years, following that the prevalence declined. The frequency distributions of Ascaris, and hookworm were overdispersed. A strong positive correlation (p < 0.001) were observed between Ascaris and Trichuris and between hookworm and Trichuris. A positive correlation (p < 0.01) were also observed between Ascaris and hookworm.