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  1. Hooi LN, Athiyah SO
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):327-35.
    PMID: 7674967
    A study was done on 638 infants with BCG related lymphadenitis seen between August 1990 and December 1993. Most infants (86.5%) had developed symptoms by six months after vaccination and the nodes became suppurative in 317. Surgical procedures were carried out in 82 cases and the rest were managed conservatively. The mean duration to resolution was 6.6 months (range 1 to 29 months). This outbreak was related to a change from the Japan to the Pasteur strain of BCG. The incidence remained high ( > 15 per 1000 live births) despite a dose reduction from 0.1 ml to 0.05 ml, but declined when the Japan strain was reintroduced in April 1992.
    Study site: Chest Clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: BCG Vaccine/adverse effects*
  2. Marciano BE, Huang CY, Joshi G, Rezaei N, Carvalho BC, Allwood Z, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2014 Apr;133(4):1134-41.
    PMID: 24679470 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.028
    BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome characterized by profound T-cell deficiency. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with SCID. Because most countries encourage BCG vaccination at birth, a high percentage of patients with SCID are vaccinated before their immune defect is detected.

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the complications and risks associated with BCG vaccination in patients with SCID.

    METHODS: An extensive standardized questionnaire evaluating complications, therapeutics, and outcomes regarding BCG vaccination in patients given a diagnosis of SCID was widely distributed. Summary statistics and association analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: Data on 349 BCG-vaccinated patients with SCID from 28 centers in 17 countries were analyzed. Fifty-one percent of the patients had BCG-associated complications, 34% disseminated and 17% localized (a 33,000- and 400-fold increase, respectively, over the general population). Patients receiving early vaccination (≤1 month) showed an increased prevalence of complications (P = .006) and death caused by BCG-associated complications (P < .0001). The odds of experiencing complications among patients with T-cell numbers of 250/μL or less at diagnosis was 2.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.4-3.4 times higher; P = .001) than among those with T-cell numbers of greater than 250/μL. BCG-associated complications were reported in 2 of 78 patients who received antimycobacterial therapy while asymptomatic, and no deaths caused by BCG-associated complications occurred in this group. In contrast, 46 BCG-associated deaths were reported among 160 patients treated with antimycobacterial therapy for a symptomatic BCG infection (P < .0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccine has a very high rate of complications in patients with SCID, which increase morbidity and mortality rates. Until safer and more efficient antituberculosis vaccines become available, delay in BCG vaccination should be considered to protect highly vulnerable populations from preventable complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: BCG Vaccine/adverse effects*
  3. Anandakrishnan P, Khoo TB
    BMJ Case Rep, 2018 May 30;2018.
    PMID: 29848532 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2018-224496
    Cerebral demyelination and optic neuritis are often seen in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following various infections and immunisations. An eight month old girl presented with a left axillary lymph node swelling and an erythematous lace-like rash over her cheeks and trunk. She then developed acute encephalopathy, bilateral nystagmus, right hemiparesis and left facial nerve palsy. Her electroencephalogram showed an encephalopathic process and visual evoked response study were grossly abnormal. Her MRI brain showed hyperintensities in the midbrain, pons and bilateral cerebellar peduncles. She was treated as postinfectious cerebral demyelination with intravenous antibiotics, methylprednisolone and immunoglobulin. Left axillary lymph node excision biopsy and GeneXpert test detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that prompted initiation of antituberculous therapy. Her chest X-ray and cerebrospinal fluid examinations for tuberculosis were normal. She showed significant recovery after 2 weeks. This case illustrates a rare presentation of cerebral demyelination and bilateral optic neuritis following suppurative BCG lymphadenitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: BCG Vaccine/adverse effects*
  4. Ng KL, Chua CB
    Asian J Surg, 2017 Apr;40(2):163-165.
    PMID: 25183290 DOI: 10.1016/j.asjsur.2014.01.016
    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been a proven and effective immunotherapy treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, especially for high-grade tumors and carcinoma in situ. Nevertheless, significant side effects are associated with BCG instillations, including fever, myalgia, malaise, dysuria, hematuria, and irritable lower urinary tract symptoms. We herein report the case of a patient who developed Reiter's syndrome following intravesical BCG instillations. A 39-year-old Chinese man presented with a 3-week history of dysuria, suprapubic pain, and pain at the tip of the penis postmicturition. Initial investigations revealed that he had microhematuria, and an ultrasound with computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a bladder mass. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed and the patient received a single dose of intravesical mitomycin postoperatively. Results of histopathological examination revealed high-grade bladder TCC (G3pT1), and the patient was managed with intravesical BCG for 2 weeks following the surgery. Four weekly cycles of BCG were administered uneventfully; however, before the fifth instillation, the patient complained of urethral discharge, bilateral conjunctivitis, and low back pain. Reiter's syndrome was diagnosed as a rare but known complication of BCG instillation and the BCG immunotherapy was withheld. The patient was treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (for back pain) and eye ointment (for conjunctivitis) and his condition improved. This case report of Reiter's syndrome should be highlighted as a rare but significant complication of BCG immunotherapy and urologists should have a high index of suspicion to diagnose this rare complication.
    Matched MeSH terms: BCG Vaccine/adverse effects*
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