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  1. Amini E, Rezaei M, Mohamed Ibrahim N, Golpich M, Ghasemi R, Mohamed Z, et al.
    Mol Neurobiol, 2015 Aug;52(1):492-513.
    PMID: 25195699 DOI: 10.1007/s12035-014-8876-5
    Epilepsy is the most common and chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The key aim in treating patients with epilepsy is the suppression of seizures. An understanding of focal changes that are involved in epileptogenesis may therefore provide novel approaches for optimal treatment of the seizure. Although the actual pathogenesis of epilepsy is still uncertain, recently growing lines of evidence declare that microglia and astrocyte activation, oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondria dysfunction, and damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are involved in its pathogenesis. Impaired GABAergic function in the brain is probably the most accepted hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Clinical neuroimaging of patients and experimental modeling have demonstrated that seizures may induce neuronal apoptosis. Apoptosis signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of several types of epilepsy such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The quality of life of patients is seriously affected by treatment-related problems and also by unpredictability of epileptic seizures. Moreover, the available antiepileptic drugs (AED) are not significantly effective to prevent epileptogenesis. Thus, novel therapies that are proficient to control seizure in people who are suffering from epilepsy are needed. The preconditioning method promises to serve as an alternative therapeutic approach because this strategy has demonstrated the capability to curtail epileptogenesis. For this reason, understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying brain tolerance induced by preconditioning is crucial to delineate new neuroprotective ways against seizure damage and epileptogenesis. In this review, we summarize the work to date on the pathogenesis of epilepsy and discuss recent therapeutic strategies in the treatment of epilepsy. We will highlight that novel therapy targeting such as preconditioning process holds great promise. In addition, we will also highlight the role of gene reprogramming and mitochondrial biogenesis in the preconditioning-mediated neuroprotective events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects
  2. Liew KF, Chan KL, Lee CY
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Apr 13;94:195-210.
    PMID: 25768702 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.02.055
    A series of novel aurones bearing amine and carbamate functionalities at various positions (rings A and/or B) of the scaffold was synthesized and evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Structure-activity relationship study disclosed several potent submicromolar acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) particularly aurones bearing piperidine and pyrrolidine moieties at ring A or ring B. Bulky groups particularly methoxyls, and carbamate to a lesser extent, at either rings were also prominently featured in these AChEI aurones as exemplified by the trimethoxyaurone 4-3. The active aurones exhibited a lower butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. A 3'-chloroaurone 6-3 originally designed to improve the metabolic stability of the scaffold was the most potent of the series. Molecular docking simulations showed these AChEI aurones to adopt favourable binding modes within the active site gorge of the Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) including an unusual chlorine-π interaction by the chlorine of 6-3 to establish additional bondings to hydrophobic residues of TcAChE. Evaluation of the potent aurones for their blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and metabolic stability using PAMPA-BBB assay and in vitro rat liver microsomes (RLM) identified 4-3 as an aurone with an optimal combination of high passive BBB permeability and moderate CYP450 metabolic stability. LC-MS identification of a mono-hydroxylated metabolite found in the RLM incubation of 4-3 provided an impetus for further improvement of the compound. Thus, 4-3, discovered within this present series is a promising, drug-like lead for the development of the aurones as potential multipotent agents for Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects*
  3. Anwar A, Rajendran K, Siddiqui R, Raza Shah M, Khan NA
    ACS Chem Neurosci, 2019 01 16;10(1):658-666.
    PMID: 30346711 DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00484
    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species and Naegleria fowleri are rare but fatal. A major challenge in the treatment against the infections caused by these amoebae is the discovery of novel compounds that can effectively cross the blood-brain barrier to penetrate the CNS. It is logical to test clinically approved drugs against CNS diseases for their potential antiamoebic effects since they are known for effective blood-brain barrier penetration and affect eukaryotic cell targets. The antiamoebic effects of clinically available drugs for seizures targeting gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor and ion channels were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype and N. fowleri. Three such drugs, namely, diazepam (Valium), phenobarbitone (Luminal), phenytoin (Dilantin), and their silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were evaluated against both trophozoites and cysts stage. Drugs alone and drug conjugated silver nanoparticles were tested for amoebicidal, cysticidal, and host-cell cytotoxicity assays. Nanoparticles were synthesized by sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate with drugs as capping agents. Drug conjugated nanoconjugates were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In vitro moebicidal assay showed potent amoebicidal effects for diazepam, phenobarbitone, and phenytoin-conjugated AgNPs as compared to drugs alone against A. castellanii and N. fowleri. Furthermore, both drugs and drug conjugated AgNPs showed compelling cysticidal effects. Drugs conjugations with silver nanoparticles enhanced their antiacanthamoebic activity. Interestingly, amoeba-mediated host-cell cytotoxicity was also significantly reduced by drugs alone as well as their nanoconjugates. Since, these drugs are being used to target CNS diseases, their evaluation against brain-eating amoebae seems feasible due to advantages such as permeability of the blood-brain barrier, established pharmacokinetics and dynamics, and United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Given the limited availability of effective drugs against brain-eating amoebae, the clinically available drugs tested here present potential for further in vivo studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects
  4. Harun MSR, Marsh V, Elsaied NA, Webb KF, Elsheikha HM
    Brain Res, 2020 11 01;1746:147002.
    PMID: 32592740 DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147002
    Toxoplasma gondii can cause parasitic encephalitis, a life-threatening infection that predominately occurs in immunocompromised individuals. T. gondii has the ability to invade the brain, but the mechanisms by which this parasite crosses the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) remain incompletely understood. The present study reports the changes associated with infection and replication of T. gondii within human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in vitro. Our results indicated that exposure to T. gondii had an adverse impact on the function and integrity of the BMECs - through induction of cell cycle arrest, disruption of the BMEC barrier integrity, reduction of cellular viability and vitality, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase of the DNA fragmentation, and alteration of the expression of immune response and tight junction genes. The calcium channel/P-glycoprotein transporter inhibitor verapamil was effective in inhibiting T. gondii crossing the BMECs in a dose-dependent manner. The present study showed that T. gondii can compromise several functions of BMECs and demonstrated the ability of verapamil to inhibit T. gondii crossing of the BMECs in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects
  5. Harun SN, Nordin SA, Gani SSA, Shamsuddin AF, Basri M, Basri HB
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:2571-2584.
    PMID: 29731632 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S151788
    Background and aim: Drugs that are effective against diseases in the central nervous system and reach the brain via blood must pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a unique interface that protects against potential harmful molecules. This presents a major challenge in neuro-drug delivery. This study attempts to fabricate the cefuroxime-loaded nanoemulsion (CLN) to increase drug penetration into the brain when parenterally administered.

    Methods: The nanoemulsions were formulated using a high-pressure homogenization technique and were characterized for their physicochemical properties.

    Results: The characterizations revealed a particle size of 100.32±0.75 nm, polydispersity index of 0.18±0.01, zeta potential of -46.9±1.39 mV, viscosity of 1.24±0.34 cps, and osmolality of 285.33±0.58 mOsm/kg, indicating that the nanoemulsion has compatibility for parenteral application. CLN was physicochemically stable within 6 months of storage at 4°C, and the transmission electron microscopy revealed that the CLN droplets were almost spherical in shape. The in vitro release of CLN profile followed a sustained release pattern. The pharmacokinetic profile of CLN showed a significantly higher Cmax, area under the curve (AUC)0-
    t
    , prolonged half-life, and lower total plasma clearance, indicating that the systemic concentration of cefuroxime was higher in CLN-treated rats as compared to cefuroxime-free treated rats. A similar profile was obtained for the biodistribution of cefuroxime in the brain, in which CLN showed a significantly higher Cmax, AUC0-
    t
    , prolonged half-life, and lower clearance as compared to free cefuroxime solution.

    Conclusion: Overall, CLN showed excellent physicochemical properties, fulfilled the requirements for parenteral administration, and presented improved in vivo pharmacokinetic profile, which reflected its practical approach to enhance cefuroxime delivery to the brain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects
  6. Shahid M, Azfaralariff A, Law D, Najm AA, Sanusi SA, Lim SJ, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 01 15;11(1):1594.
    PMID: 33452398 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-81026-9
    Xanthorrhizol (XNT), is a bioactive compound found in Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. This study aimed to determine the potential targets of the XNT via computational target fishing method. This compound obeyed Lipinski's and Veber's rules where it has a molecular weight (MW) of 218.37 gmol-1, TPSA of 20.23, rotatable bonds (RBN) of 4, hydrogen acceptor and donor ability is 1 respectively. Besides, it also has half-life (HL) values 3.5 h, drug-likeness (DL) value of 0.07, oral bioavailability (OB) of 32.10, and blood-brain barrier permeability (BBB) value of 1.64 indicating its potential as therapeutic drug. Further, 20 potential targets were screened out through PharmMapper and DRAR-CPI servers. Co-expression results derived from GeneMANIA revealed that these targets made connection with a total of 40 genes and have 744 different links. Four genes which were RXRA, RBP4, HSD11B1 and AKR1C1 showed remarkable co-expression and predominantly involved in steroid metabolic process. Furthermore, among these 20 genes, 13 highly expressed genes associated with xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, chemical carcinogenesis and steroid metabolic pathways were identified through gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis. In conclusion, XNT is targeting multiple proteins and pathways which may be exploited to shape a network that exerts systematic pharmacological effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects
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