A comparative study of five periodic human strains of Brugia malayi, originating from India, China, Korea, Malaysia and Indonesia, is given. This morphological analysis is based on males; the "standard" characters (oesophagus, papillae, spicules...) appear identical. On the contrary, the cuticular ornamentation of the posterior region--which is composed of the area rugosa and of a system of bosses and constitutes a secondary non-skid copulatory apparatus--differs following the geographical origin of the strain. A key is given, based on this character. 1(2) At 800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail, numerous cuticular bosses present on the right side of the body (fig. 2 and 8 B). 2(1) At 800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail, cuticular bosses absent or scarce on the right side of the body (fig. 8 D). 3(4) At 1,800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail (fig. 4), scarce and slightly projecting cuticular bosses on the dorsal side of the body contrasting with well projecting lateral cuticular bosses (fig. 9 E and F). Anterior extremity of the area rugosa made by a few stripes of tiny bosses linked transversally (fig. 9 A). 4(3) At 1,800-2,200 micron, numerous cuticular bosses on the dorsal side of the body (figs. 5, 6 and 7). Anterior extremity of the area rugosa made by the stripes of longitudinal rods (fig. 9C). 5(6) Oblong transversally stretched cuticular bosses on the dorsal and left sides of the body, anteriorly to the area rugosa (fig. 5); big oblong bosses on the left side (fig. 9 B). Transversal wrinkles and stripes of rods absent on the dorsal side of the body. 6(5) Round cuticular bosses on the dorsal and left sides of the body anteriorly to the area rugosa (figs. 6 and 7): no big oblong bosses on the left side. Transversal wrinkles or stripes of rods present on the dorsal side of the body (fig. 9 D). Nomenclaturally, such differences could be used in defining different taxa, but it could be useful to perform "blind determination" (material without labelling), to study conveniently the morphology of microfilariae (often an excellent indication for speciation in that group of Nematodes) and, evenly, to proceed to parallel studies on isoenzymes. However, whatever could be the taxonomical conclusion, the differences observed in Brugia malayi originating from different regions appear to the sufficient to consider the existence of four distinct diseases.
An experiment was carried out with Mansonia mosquitos in an area endemic for subperiodic Brugia malayi to assess the applicability of the mark-release-recapture method to these mosquitos. An estimated 17,880 individuals of six species of Mansonia were marked with fluorescent dust and released: 453 Ma. annulata, 305 Ma. annulifera, 6,200 Ma. bonneae, 516 Ma. dives, 3,998 Ma. indiana and 6,408 Ma. uniformis. Twenty-three marked individuals were recaptured. Most recaptures were made one or two nights after their release, but one Ma. annulifera was recaptured five nights later and one Ma. bonneae had been marked and released 6-11 nights previously. The recaptured mosquitos were collected between 0.5 and 2.4 km from their release points.
1. Observations on filariasis made during medical travels in the Malay Peninsula are described. 2. The tentative diagnosis of endemic filariasis was made when cases typical of filarial elephantiasis were found in members of the indigenous population who have never resided in a previously known filariasis area, and was confirmed by finding microfilariae of Wuchereria malayi in bloods from that population. 3. Endemic filariasis has previously been reported associated with jungle swamp along the lower reaches of some of the larger rivers, and in certain coastal ricefield areas. It is reported in this paper in undeveloped inland areas of Perak, Pahang and Selangor, far distant from the previously described foci. This data has been summarized in maps and an Appendix. 4. In most inland areas where a search has been made, it has been possible to find evidence of endemic filariasis and sometimes the parasite rate has been over 50%. 5. The geographical distribution of the disease has not yet been defined, but is certainly more extensive than that described in this paper. 6. Infection probably takes place at an altitude of 1,500 feet in mountain valleys in Malaya.
Some filarial nematodes, such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, whereas other filarial parasites from wild animals cause zoonotic diseases in humans worldwide. To elucidate the prevalence and diversity of filarial parasites in Malaysia, we investigated the filarial parasites from wild animals in Gemas, Negeri Sembilan. To find adult filarial parasites, we dissected 26 animals, which included five frogs, one skink, one snake, two birds, six common treeshrews, and 11 rats. Then, we examined microfilariae in the blood smears and skin snips obtained from each animal. We found two types of microfilariae in the blood smears of common treeshrews: one was very similar to Malayfilaria sofiani and the other closely resembled Brugia tupaiae. These findings indicate an additional distribution of these filarial parasites in Gemas.
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in Indonesia but in some endemic areas, B malayi is more commonly found. Diagnosis of filariasis is normally based on clinical, parasitological and immunological examinations but those methods have limitations. The discovery of monoclonal antibodies is expected to provide a new dimension to the efforts in the development of specific and sensitive immunological tests for the various stages of filariasis infection. This preliminary report, using monoclonal antibodies and dot-blot assay in human lymphatic filariasis showed that 75% of sera from microfilaremic patients with clinical signs, 40% of sera from amicrofilaraemic patients with clinical signs, 88.8% of sera from microfilaremic patients without clinical signs and 19.6% of sera from amicrofilaremic patients without clinical signs have circulating antigens.