Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 113 in total

  1. Winskill P, Carvalho DO, Capurro ML, Alphey L, Donnelly CA, McKemey AR
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2015 Nov;9(11):e0004156.
    PMID: 26554922 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004156
    BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The dispersal ability of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8 m (95% CI: 49.9 m, 56.8 m) and Malaysia: 58.0 m (95% CI: 51.1 m, 71.0 m).

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects' dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti.

  2. Wong ML, Chua TH, Leong CS, Khaw LT, Fornace K, Wan-Sulaiman WY, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2015;9(10):e0004135.
    PMID: 26448052 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004135
    BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is emerging as a public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysian Borneo where it now accounts for the greatest burden of malaria cases and deaths. Control is hindered by limited understanding of the ecology of potential vector species.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a one year longitudinal study of P. knowlesi vectors in three sites within an endemic area of Sabah, Malaysia. All mosquitoes were captured using human landing catch. Anopheles mosquitoes were dissected to determine, oocyst, sporozoites and parous rate. Anopheles balabacensis is confirmed as the primary vector of. P. knowlesi (using nested PCR) in Sabah for the first time. Vector densities were significantly higher and more seasonally variable in the village than forest or small scale farming site. However An. balabacensis survival and P. knowlesi infection rates were highest in forest and small scale farm sites. Anopheles balabacensis mostly bites humans outdoors in the early evening between 1800 to 2000 hrs.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates transmission is unlikely to be prevented by bednets. This combined with its high vectorial capacity poses a threat to malaria elimination programmes within the region.

  3. NikNadia N, Sam IC, Rampal S, WanNorAmalina W, NurAtifah G, Verasahib K, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 Mar;10(3):e0004562.
    PMID: 27010319 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004562
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2-3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children (measured as seroprevalence). Neutralizing antibody titers against EV-A71 were measured in 2,141 residual serum samples collected from children ≤12 years old between 1995 and 2012 to determine the seroprevalence of EV-A71. Reported national HFMD incidence was highest in children <2 years, and decreased with age; in support of this, EV-A71 seroprevalence was significantly associated with age, indicating greater susceptibility in younger children. EV-A71 epidemics are also characterized by peaks of increased genetic diversity, often with genotype changes. Cross-sectional time series analysis was used to model the association between EV-A71 epidemic periods and EV-A71 seroprevalence adjusting for age and climatic variables (temperature, rainfall, rain days and ultraviolet radiance). A 10% increase in absolute monthly EV-A71 seroprevalence was associated with a 45% higher odds of an epidemic (adjusted odds ratio, aOR1.45; 95% CI 1.24-1.69; P<0.001). Every 10% decrease in seroprevalence between preceding and current months was associated with a 16% higher odds of an epidemic (aOR = 1.16; CI 1.01-1.34 P<0.034). In summary, the 2-3 year cyclical pattern of EV-A71 epidemics in Malaysia is mainly due to the fall of population immunity accompanying the accumulation of susceptible children between epidemics. This study will impact the future planning, timing and target populations for vaccine programs.
  4. Britton S, Cheng Q, Grigg MJ, Poole CB, Pasay C, William T, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 Feb;10(2):e0004443.
    PMID: 26870958 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004443
    INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium vivax malaria has a wide geographic distribution and poses challenges to malaria elimination that are likely to be greater than those of P. falciparum. Diagnostic tools for P. vivax infection in non-reference laboratory settings are limited to microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests but these are unreliable at low parasitemia. The development and validation of a high-throughput and sensitive assay for P. vivax is a priority.

    METHODS: A high-throughput LAMP assay targeting a P. vivax mitochondrial gene and deploying colorimetric detection in a 96-well plate format was developed and evaluated in the laboratory. Diagnostic accuracy was compared against microscopy, antigen detection tests and PCR and validated in samples from malaria patients and community controls in a district hospital setting in Sabah, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The high throughput LAMP-P. vivax assay (HtLAMP-Pv) performed with an estimated limit of detection of 1.4 parasites/ μL. Assay primers demonstrated cross-reactivity with P. knowlesi but not with other Plasmodium spp. Field testing of HtLAMP-Pv was conducted using 149 samples from symptomatic malaria patients (64 P. vivax, 17 P. falciparum, 56 P. knowlesi, 7 P. malariae, 1 mixed P. knowlesi/P. vivax, with 4 excluded). When compared against multiplex PCR, HtLAMP-Pv demonstrated a sensitivity for P. vivax of 95% (95% CI 87-99%); 61/64), and specificity of 100% (95% CI 86-100%); 25/25) when P. knowlesi samples were excluded. HtLAMP-Pv testing of 112 samples from asymptomatic community controls, 7 of which had submicroscopic P. vivax infections by PCR, showed a sensitivity of 71% (95% CI 29-96%; 5/7) and specificity of 93% (95% CI87-97%; 98/105).

    CONCLUSION: This novel HtLAMP-P. vivax assay has the potential to be a useful field applicable molecular diagnostic test for P. vivax infection in elimination settings.

  5. Woon YL, Hor CP, Hussin N, Zakaria A, Goh PP, Cheah WK
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 05;10(5):e0004575.
    PMID: 27203726 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004575
    BACKGROUND: Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease, which affects people living in the tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia had large dengue outbreaks in recent years. We aimed to study the demographics and clinical characteristics associated with dengue deaths in Malaysia.

    METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review on all dengue deaths that occurred nationwide between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014. Relevant data were extracted from mortality review reports and investigational forms. These cases were categorized into children (<15 years), adults (15-59 years) and elderly (≥60 years) to compare their clinical characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 322 dengue deaths were reviewed. Their mean age was 40.7±19.30 years, half were females and 72.5% were adults. The median durations of first medical contact, and hospitalization were 1 and 3 days, respectively. Diabetes and hypertension were common co-morbidities among adults and elderly. The most common warning signs reported were lethargy and vomiting, with lethargy (p = 0.038) being more common in children, while abdominal pain was observed more often in the adults (p = 0.040). But 22.4% did not have any warning signs. Only 34% were suspected of dengue illness at their initial presentation. More adults developed severe plasma leakage (p = 0.018). More than half (54%) suffered from multi-organ involvement, and 20.2% were free from any organ involvement. Dengue deaths occurred at the median of 3 days post-admission. Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) contributed to more than 70% of dengue deaths, followed by severe organ involvement (69%) and severe bleeding (29.7%).

    CONCLUSION: In Malaysia, dengue deaths occurred primarily in adult patients. DSS was the leading cause of death, regardless of age groups. The atypical presentation and dynamic progression of severe dengue in this cohort prompts early recognition and aggressive intervention to prevent deaths.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Medical Research Registry (NMRR, NMRR-14-1374-23352).
  6. Ratanabanangkoon K, Tan KY, Eursakun S, Tan CH, Simsiriwong P, Pamornsakda T, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 Apr;10(4):e0004565.
    PMID: 27058956 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004565
    Snakebite envenomation is a serious medical problem in many tropical developing countries and was considered by WHO as a neglected tropical disease. Antivenom (AV), the rational and most effective treatment modality, is either unaffordable and/or unavailable in many affected countries. Moreover, each AV is specific to only one (monospecific) or a few (polyspecific) snake venoms. This demands that each country to prepare AV against its local snake venoms, which is often not feasible. Preparation of a 'pan-specific' AV against many snakes over a wide geographical area in some countries/regions has not been possible. If a 'pan-specific' AV effective against a variety of snakes from many countries could be prepared, it could be produced economically in large volume for use in many countries and save many lives. The aim of this study was to produce a pan-specific antiserum effective against major medically important elapids in Asia. The strategy was to use toxin fractions (TFs) of the venoms in place of crude venoms in order to reduce the number of antigens the horses were exposed to. This enabled inclusion of a greater variety of elapid venoms in the immunogen mix, thus exposing the horse immune system to a diverse repertoire of toxin epitopes, and gave rise to antiserum with wide paraspecificity against elapid venoms. Twelve venom samples from six medically important elapid snakes (4 Naja spp. and 2 Bungarus spp.) were collected from 12 regions/countries in Asia. Nine of these 12 venoms were ultra-filtered to remove high molecular weight, non-toxic and highly immunogenic proteins. The remaining 3 venoms were not ultra-filtered due to limited amounts available. The 9 toxin fractions (TFs) together with the 3 crude venoms were emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and used to immunize 3 horses using a low dose, low volume, multisite immunization protocol. The horse antisera were assayed by ELISA and by in vivo lethality neutralization in mice. The findings were: a) The 9 TFs were shown to contain all of the venom toxins but were devoid of high MW proteins. When these TFs, together with the 3 crude venoms, were used as the immunogen, satisfactory ELISA antibody titers against homologous/heterologous venoms were obtained. b) The horse antiserum immunologically reacted with and neutralized the lethal effects of both the homologous and the 16 heterologous Asian/African elapid venoms tested. Thus, the use of TFs in place of crude venoms and the inclusion of a variety of elapid venoms in the immunogen mix resulted in antiserum with wide paraspecificity against elapid venoms from distant geographic areas. The antivenom prepared from this antiserum would be expected to be pan-specific and effective in treating envenomations by most elapids in many Asian countries. Due to economies of scale, the antivenom could be produced inexpensively and save many lives. This simple strategy and procedure could be readily adapted for the production of pan-specific antisera against elapids of other continents.
  7. Ten Bosch QA, Singh BK, Hassan MR, Chadee DD, Michael E
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 05;10(5):e0004680.
    PMID: 27159023 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004680
    The epidemiology of dengue fever is characterized by highly seasonal, multi-annual fluctuations, and the irregular circulation of its four serotypes. It is believed that this behaviour arises from the interplay between environmental drivers and serotype interactions. The exact mechanism, however, is uncertain. Constraining mathematical models to patterns characteristic to dengue epidemiology offers a means for detecting such mechanisms. Here, we used a pattern-oriented modelling (POM) strategy to fit and assess a range of dengue models, driven by combinations of temporary cross protective-immunity, cross-enhancement, and seasonal forcing, on their ability to capture the main characteristics of dengue dynamics. We show that all proposed models reproduce the observed dengue patterns across some part of the parameter space. Which model best supports the dengue dynamics is determined by the level of seasonal forcing. Further, when tertiary and quaternary infections are allowed, the inclusion of temporary cross-immunity alone is strongly supported, but the addition of cross-enhancement markedly reduces the parameter range at which dengue dynamics are produced, irrespective of the strength of seasonal forcing. The implication of these structural uncertainties on predicted vulnerability to control is also discussed. With ever expanding spread of dengue, greater understanding of dengue dynamics and control efforts (e.g. a near-future vaccine introduction) has become critically important. This study highlights the capacity of multi-level pattern-matching modelling approaches to offer an analytic tool for deeper insights into dengue epidemiology and control.
  8. Clayton BA, Middleton D, Arkinstall R, Frazer L, Wang LF, Marsh GA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 06;10(6):e0004775.
    PMID: 27341030 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004775
    Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.
  9. William T, Rahman HA, Jelip J, Ibrahim MY, Menon J, Grigg MJ, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013;7(1):e2026.
    PMID: 23359830 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002026
    BACKGROUND: The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo and threatens the prospect of malaria elimination. However, little is known about the emergence of P. knowlesi, particularly in Sabah. We reviewed Sabah Department of Health records to investigate the trend of each malaria species over time.

    METHODS: Reporting of microscopy-diagnosed malaria cases in Sabah is mandatory. We reviewed all available Department of Health malaria notification records from 1992-2011. Notifications of P. malariae and P. knowlesi were considered as a single group due to microscopic near-identity.

    RESULTS: From 1992-2011 total malaria notifications decreased dramatically, with P. falciparum peaking at 33,153 in 1994 and decreasing 55-fold to 605 in 2011, and P. vivax peaking at 15,857 in 1995 and decreasing 25-fold to 628 in 2011. Notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi also demonstrated a peak in the mid-1990s (614 in 1994) before decreasing to ≈ 100/year in the late 1990s/early 2000s. However, P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications increased >10-fold between 2004 (n = 59) and 2011 (n = 703). In 1992 P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae/P. knowlesi monoinfections accounted for 70%, 24% and 1% respectively of malaria notifications, compared to 30%, 31% and 35% in 2011. The increase in P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications occurred state-wide, appearing to have begun in the southwest and progressed north-easterly.

    CONCLUSIONS: A significant recent increase has occurred in P. knowlesi notifications following reduced transmission of the human Plasmodium species, and this trend threatens malaria elimination. Determination of transmission dynamics and risk factors for knowlesi malaria is required to guide measures to control this rising incidence.

  10. DeBuysscher BL, de Wit E, Munster VJ, Scott D, Feldmann H, Prescott J
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013;7(1):e2024.
    PMID: 23342177 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002024
    Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M). To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B), we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.
  11. Leong PK, Sim SM, Fung SY, Sumana K, Sitprija V, Tan NH
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2012;6(6):e1672.
    PMID: 22679522 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001672
    Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in the rural areas of Asian and African countries. To date, the only proven treatment for snake envenomation is antivenom therapy. Cross-neutralization of heterologous venoms by antivenom raised against venoms of closely related species has been reported. The present study examined the cross neutralizing potential of a newly developed polyvalent antivenom, termed Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (NPAV). NPAV was produced by immunization against 4 Thai elapid venoms.
  12. Nazari M, Lim SY, Watanabe M, Sharma RS, Cheng NA, Watanabe M
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013;7(1):e1982.
    PMID: 23301114 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001982
    An epidemiological study of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out using molecular detection techniques. A total of 500 canine blood samples were collected from veterinary clinics and dog shelters. Molecular screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using genus-specific primers followed by PCR using E. canis species-specific primers. Ten out of 500 dogs were positive for E. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of the E. canis Malaysia strain showed that it was grouped tightly with other E. canis strains from different geographic regions. The present study revealed for the first time, the presence of genetically confirmed E. canis with a prevalence rate of 2.0% in naturally infected dogs in Malaysia.
  13. Moi ML, Lim CK, Chua KB, Takasaki T, Kurane I
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2012;6(2):e1536.
    PMID: 22389741 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001536
    Progress in dengue vaccine development has been hampered by limited understanding of protective immunity against dengue virus infection. Conventional neutralizing antibody titration assays that use FcγR-negative cells do not consider possible infection-enhancement activity. We reasoned that as FcγR-expressing cells are the major target cells of dengue virus, neutralizing antibody titration assays using FcγR-expressing cells that determine the sum of neutralizing and infection-enhancing activity, may better reflect the biological properties of antibodies in vivo.
  14. Haddow AD, Schuh AJ, Yasuda CY, Kasper MR, Heang V, Huy R, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2012;6(2):e1477.
    PMID: 22389730 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001477
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed throughout much of Africa and Asia. Infection with the virus may cause acute febrile illness that clinically resembles dengue fever. A recent study indicated the existence of three geographically distinct viral lineages; however this analysis utilized only a single viral gene. Although ZIKV has been known to circulate in both Africa and Asia since at least the 1950s, little is known about the genetic relationships between geographically distinct virus strains. Moreover, the geographic origin of the strains responsible for the epidemic that occurred on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia in 2007, and a 2010 pediatric case in Cambodia, has not been determined.
  15. Ngui R, Lim YA, Traub R, Mahmud R, Mistam MS
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2012;6(2):e1522.
    PMID: 22347515 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001522
    Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia.
  16. Ngui R, Lim YA, Chong Kin L, Sek Chuen C, Jaffar S
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2012;6(3):e1550.
    PMID: 22413027 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001550
    Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia.
  17. Tan PC, Soe MZ, Si Lay K, Wang SM, Sekaran SD, Omar SZ
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2012;6(5):e1637.
    PMID: 22590658 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001637
    Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito borne infection worldwide. Vertical transmissions after maternal dengue infection to the fetus and pregnancy losses in relation to dengue illness have been reported. The relationship of dengue to miscarriage is not known.
  18. Engelthaler DM, Bowers J, Schupp JA, Pearson T, Ginther J, Hornstra HM, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2011 Oct;5(10):e1347.
    PMID: 22028940 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001347
    Melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacillus, primarily found in soils in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. A recent case of melioidosis in non-endemic Arizona was determined to be the result of locally acquired infection, as the patient had no travel history to endemic regions and no previous history of disease. Diagnosis of the case was confirmed through multiple microbiologic and molecular techniques. To enhance the epidemiological analysis, we conducted several molecular genotyping procedures, including multi-locus sequence typing, SNP-profiling, and whole genome sequence typing. Each technique has different molecular epidemiologic advantages, all of which provided evidence that the infecting strain was most similar to those found in Southeast Asia, possibly originating in, or around, Malaysia. Advancements in new typing technologies provide genotyping resolution not previously available to public health investigators, allowing for more accurate source identification.
  19. Alhoot MA, Wang SM, Sekaran SD
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2011 Nov;5(11):e1410.
    PMID: 22140591 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001410
    Dengue infection ranks as one of the most significant viral diseases of the globe. Currently, there is no specific vaccine or antiviral therapy for prevention or treatment. Monocytes/macrophages are the principal target cells for dengue virus and are responsible for disseminating the virus after its transmission. Dengue virus enters target cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis after the viral envelope protein E attaches to the cell surface receptor. This study aimed to investigate the effect of silencing the CD-14 associated molecule and clathrin-mediated endocytosis using siRNA on dengue virus entry into monocytes.
  20. Franco L, Palacios G, Martinez JA, Vázquez A, Savji N, De Ory F, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2011 Aug;5(8):e1251.
    PMID: 21829739 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001251
    Dengue virus (DENV) circulates in human and sylvatic cycles. Sylvatic strains are both ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from endemic viruses. Although sylvatic dengue cycles occur in West African countries and Malaysia, only a few cases of mild human disease caused by sylvatic strains and one single case of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Malaysia have been reported. Here we report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with thrombocytopenia (13000/µl), a raised hematocrit (32% above baseline) and mucosal bleeding in a 27-year-old male returning to Spain in November 2009 after visiting his home country Guinea Bissau. Sylvatic DENV-2 West African lineage was isolated from blood and sera. This is the first case of DHF associated with sylvatic DENV-2 in Africa and the second case worldwide of DHF caused by a sylvatic strain.
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