Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Wells R
    Med J Malaya, 1958 Dec;13(2):165-70.
    PMID: 13632215
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use*
  2. Chandran S
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Mar;26(3):207-10.
    PMID: 5031018
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use
  3. Lee EI, Khoo BH, Puthucheary SD, Thong ML
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Dec;32(2):114-9.
    PMID: 26858
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use
    Med J Malaya, 1953 Dec;8(2):192-201.
    PMID: 13164690
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use*
  5. Choo KE, Razif A, Ariffin WA, Sepiah M, Gururaj A
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1988 Dec;8(4):207-12.
    PMID: 2467604
    A retrospective study of 137 patients with blood culture-positive typhoid fever admitted to the paediatric unit of the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia was carried out to study epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment aspects of typhoid fever in Kelantanese children in hospital. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. School-children were the most affected. Cases were seen throughout the year. The five most frequently presenting features were fever, hepatomegaly, diarrhoea, vomiting and cough. Rose spots were seen in only two patients. Complications included gastritis, bronchitis, ileus, psychosis, encephalopathy, gastro-intestinal bleeding and myocarditis. Relative bradycardia was not seen. Blood and stool cultures were positive in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks of illness. There was no significant difference between percentages of elevated O and H titres, whether done during or after the 1st week of illness. A four-fold rise in (O) titres occurred in 50% of cases tested. We would miss 50% of typhoid fever cases if a titre (O) equal to more than 1/160 were relied upon for diagnosis. Altogether, 46% of patients had leucopenia. Chloramphenicol was the most commonly used antibiotic. There were two deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use
    Lancet, 1956 Jan 07;270(6906):13-6.
    PMID: 13279151
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use*
  7. Subramania A, Reddy SC
    Med J Malaysia, 1996 Dec;51(4):491.
    PMID: 10968042
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use*
  8. Twartz JC
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1981 Jan;10(1):107-11.
    PMID: 6792975
    Scrub typhus is a widespread and at times serious infection in Asia. If results from central Malaysia can be applied, it appears to be economically important. Diagnosis is often difficult and treatment prone to fail if short courses of antibiotics are used. Prophylaxis is the key area of research with the development of a vaccine being the ultimate goal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use*
  9. El Sayed I, Liu Q, Wee I, Hine P
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018 09 24;9:CD002150.
    PMID: 30246875 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002150.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, an important cause of acute fever in Asia, is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Antibiotics currently used to treat scrub typhus include tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides, and rifampicin.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effects of different antibiotic regimens for treatment of scrub typhus.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 8 January 2018: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialized trials register; CENTRAL, in the Cochrane Library (2018, Issue 1); MEDLINE; Embase; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT). We checked references and contacted study authors for additional data. We applied no language or date restrictions.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing antibiotic regimens in people with the diagnosis of scrub typhus based on clinical symptoms and compatible laboratory tests (excluding the Weil-Felix test).

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For this update, two review authors re-extracted all data and assessed the certainty of evidence. We meta-analysed data to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes when appropriate, and elsewhere tabulated data to facilitate narrative analysis.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs and one quasi-RCT with 548 participants; they took place in the Asia-Pacific region: Korea (three trials), Malaysia (one trial), and Thailand (three trials). Only one trial included children younger than 15 years (N = 57). We judged five trials to be at high risk of performance and detection bias owing to inadequate blinding. Trials were heterogenous in terms of dosing of interventions and outcome measures. Across trials, treatment failure rates were low.Two trials compared doxycycline to tetracycline. For treatment failure, the difference between doxycycline and tetracycline is uncertain (very low-certainty evidence). Doxycycline compared to tetracycline may make little or no difference in resolution of fever within 48 hours (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.44, 55 participants; one trial; low-certainty evidence) and in time to defervescence (116 participants; one trial; low-certainty evidence). We were unable to extract data for other outcomes.Three trials compared doxycycline versus macrolides. For most outcomes, including treatment failure, resolution of fever within 48 hours, time to defervescence, and serious adverse events, we are uncertain whether study results show a difference between doxycycline and macrolides (very low-certainty evidence). Macrolides compared to doxycycline may make little or no difference in the proportion of patients with resolution of fever within five days (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.10; 185 participants; two trials; low-certainty evidence). Another trial compared azithromycin versus doxycycline or chloramphenicol in children, but we were not able to disaggregate date for the doxycycline/chloramphenicol group.One trial compared doxycycline versus rifampicin. For all outcomes, we are uncertain whether study results show a difference between doxycycline and rifampicin (very low-certainty evidence). Of note, this trial deviated from the protocol after three out of eight patients who had received doxycycline and rifampicin combination therapy experienced treatment failure.Across trials, mild gastrointestinal side effects appeared to be more common with doxycycline than with comparator drugs.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Tetracycline, doxycycline, azithromycin, and rifampicin are effective treatment options for scrub typhus and have resulted in few treatment failures. Chloramphenicol also remains a treatment option, but we could not include this among direct comparisons in this review.Most available evidence is of low or very low certainty. For specific outcomes, some low-certainty evidence suggests there may be little or no difference between tetracycline, doxycycline, and azithromycin as treatment options. Given very low-certainty evidence for rifampicin and the risk of inducing resistance in undiagnosed tuberculosis, clinicians should not regard this as a first-line treatment option. Clinicians could consider rifampicin as a second-line treatment option after exclusion of active tuberculosis.Further research should consist of additional adequately powered trials of doxycycline versus azithromycin or other macrolides, trials of other candidate antibiotics including rifampicin, and trials of treatments for severe scrub typhus. Researchers should standardize diagnostic techniques and reporting of clinical outcomes to allow robust comparisons.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use
  10. Ismail R, Teh LK, Choo EK
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1998 Jun;18(2):123-8.
    PMID: 9924573
    Despite concerns about adverse effects, chloramphenicol (CMC) continues to be used in certain situations and, due to its low therapeutic index and variable pharmacokinetics, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is often recommended. At our centre, CMC finds applications in typhoid and meningitis and TDM is routinely performed. Elsewhere in Malaysia, however, CMC is used without TDM. We therefore decided to evaluate our TDM for CMC in relation to its roles in CMC therapy in children, who constitute most of our patients. Our objective was also to develop strategies to improve our TDM for CMC use. Data were collected from 168 children given CMC for various indications and monitored by the TDM service. Plasma CMC was determined by HPLC and used to adjust doses to maintain concentrations within a range of 10-25 micrograms/ml. Outcomes measured included daily temperatures and haematological indices. Daily doses and plasma CMC varied greatly. Doses averaged 40.5 mg/kg for neonates and 75.5 for older children. Average peak concentrations were therapeutic in 60% and trough in 42%. Average duration of fever was 6.3 days and it was unaffected by plasma CMC. Typhoid was eradicated in 97% but nine children with other diagnoses died. Side-effects were confined to mild reversible haematological abnormalities which developed in 11% of children at plasma concentrations which tended to be high. We conclude that CMC remains useful in children with typhoid. Its use for other indications, however, should be reviewed. Routine TDM for CMC is probably not warranted, at least until a clearer role is defined by well designed prospective studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use*
  11. Takasaka M, Morota S, Kasono T, Abe M, Honjo S
    Jikken Dobutsu, 1973 Jul;22(3):227-36.
    PMID: 4204642
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use
  12. Höllhumer R, Zairani Mz A, Watson S
    Cornea, 2016 Sep;35(9):1255-6.
    PMID: 27227396 DOI: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000000889
    PURPOSE: Syphilitic interstitial keratitis is a stromal inflammatory disease with characteristic secondary vascularization. This case illustrates a late complication of hemorrhagic Descemet membrane detachment.

    METHODS: Case report.

    RESULTS: The patient presented with painless sudden visual loss and progressive shallowing of the anterior chamber caused by hemorrhagic Descemet membrane detachment. She had corneal neovascularization and a positive syphilis serology. Owing to the risk of pupil block glaucoma, the patient had surgical drainage of the blood via an ab externo approach.

    CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates a previously unreported complication of syphilitic interstitial keratitis. The patient recovered good visual acuity and had residual pigment deposits in the pre-Descemet interface.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use
  13. Choo KE, Davis TM, Ismail A, Ong KH
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1997 Dec;57(6):656-9.
    PMID: 9430522
    The objective of this study was to investigate the longevity of positive dot enzyme immunosorbent assay (dot EIA) results for IgM and IgG to a Salmonella typhi outer membrane protein in Malaysian children with enteric fever. The patients were children one month to 12 years of age with clinical evidence of typhoid fever, positive blood or stool cultures for S. typhi, and/or a positive Widal test result who were admitted over a two-year period to General Hospital (Kota Bharu, Malaysia). These patients received standard inpatient treatment for enteric fever including chloramphenicol therapy for 14 days. Dot EIA tests were performed as part of clinical and laboratory assessments on admission, at two weeks, and then at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 months postdischarge. Assessment of the longevity of positive dot EIA IgM and IgG titers was done by Kaplan-Meier analysis. In 94 evaluable patients, 28% were dot EIA IgM positive but IgG negative on admission, 50% were both IgM and IgG positive, and 22% were IgM negative and IgG positive. Mean persistence of IgM dot EIA positivity was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval = 2.0-3.1 months) and that of IgG was 5.4 months (4.5-6.3 months). There were no significant differences between the three subgroups. Thus, positive IgM and IgG results determined by dot EIA within four and seven months, respectively, following documented or suspected enteric fever in a child from an endemic area should be interpreted with caution. In other clinical situations, the dot EIA remains a rapid and reliable aid to diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use
  14. Sng EH, Lam S
    Med J Malaya, 1971 Jun;25(4):301-4.
    PMID: 4261307
    Matched MeSH terms: Chloramphenicol/therapeutic use
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