Upon legalization of social egg freezing in Singapore from 2023 onwards, compulsory pre-procedure counselling is mandated for all prospective patients to enable informed choice about whether to undergo the procedure. Being a newly introduced medical procedure in Singapore, there are currently no clear directives on what pre-procedure counselling for elective egg freezing should entail. Due to pervasive media and internet influences, prospective egg freezing patients could be misled into believing that the procedure represents a guaranteed path to future motherhood, contrary to statements by professional bodies such as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and the British Fertility Society (BFS). Hence, comprehensive counselling is recommended to provide women with evidence-based information (e.g. success rates of social egg freezing for women of their age) to ensure they make informed decisions and to avoid possible decision regret. For this purpose, a systematic protocol and methodology for pre-procedure counselling of women considering elective egg freezing was developed, incorporating flowcharts and decision trees that are specifically tailored to the unique sociocultural values and legal restrictions in Singapore. Questions relating to the why, what, how, where and when of the egg freezing procedure should be addressed, which could serve as a roadmap to facilitate informed decision-making by women considering elective egg freezing.
Processed umbilical cord blood (UCB) must be stored at cryogenic temperature at all times to maintain the quality and viability of the cells. However, a challenge is presented in the form of moving a large number of cryopreserved UCB samples to a new location. In this report, we share our experience on relocating more than 100,000 units of cryopreserved UCB samples stored in 12 liquid nitrogen freezers (LNFs) to our new laboratory.
Preservation of leptospiral cultures is tantamount to success in leptospiral diagnostics, research, and development of preventive strategies. Each Leptospira isolate has imperative value not only in disease diagnosis but also in epidemiology, virulence, pathogenesis, and drug development studies. As the number of circulating leptospires is continuously increasing and congruent with the importance to retain their original characteristics and properties, an efficient long-term preservation is critically needed to be well-established. However, the preservation of Leptospira is currently characterized by difficulties and conflicting results mainly due to the biological nature of this organism. Hence, this review seeks to describe the efforts in developing efficient preservation methods, to discover the challenges in preserving this organism and to identify the factors that can contribute to an effective long-term preservation of Leptospira. Through the enlightenment of the previous studies, a potentially effective method has been suggested. The article also attempts to evaluate novel strategies used in other industrial and biotechnological preservation efforts and consider their potential application to the conservation of Leptospira spp.
There is a pressing need for practical and successful conservation efforts to establish long-term germplasm collections of recalcitrant and tropical species, given the challenge and threat that these plants are facing. Cryopreservation is the only way of conserving some of these species, especially those with temperature or desiccation sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds. This review covers reports on cryopreservation studies of shoot tips (apical and axillary) of tropical and subtropical plants. Since many of these species have recalcitrant seeds, the cryopreservation successes, failures and problems involved with these seeds are also discussed. The methodologies, important factors and steps involved in successful cryopreservation protocols are analyzed. Finally strategies are suggested to develop a successful cryopreservation protocol for new plant species, in particular those with tropical recalcitrant seeds.
In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.
Cryopreservation is an alternative, safe, and cost-effective method for long-term plant genetic resource conservation. This study was conducted to optimize the conditions for cryopreserving the protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid with the PVS3 vitrification method. Five parameters were assessed in this study: PLB size, sucrose concentration, preculture duration, PVS3 duration, and unloading duration. The viability of the cryopreserved PLBs was determined using the triphenytetrazolium chloride assay and growth recovery assessments. The optimum condition for the cryopreservation of the PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid is based on the size range between 3 and 4 mm precultured with half-strength semi-solid MS media supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose for 24 h, followed by treatment with loading solution mixture of 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose supplemented with half-strength liquid MS media at 25 °C for 20 min. The PLBs were then dehydrated with PVS3 at 0 °C for 20 min prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen; finally, the PLBs were immersed with half-strength liquid MS media supplemented with 1.2 M sucrose for 30 min. Histological analyses displayed denser cytoplasm and voluminous nucleus in the cryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid.
Excised embryonic axes from seeds of three taxa, namely, Citrus suhuiensis cv. limau madu, Citrumelo (Citrus paradisi x Poncirus trifoliate) and Fortunella polyandra, were desiccated in a laminar airflow, over silica gel, and ultra-rapidly. Desiccation sensitivity (WC50) was estimated for each taxon using the quantal response model. High desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.11 g water per g dry mass. g/gdw) was observed for limau madu embryonic axes desiccated in a laminar airflow and ultra-rapidly (WC50 =0.10 g/gdw). Desiccation tolerance was substantially lower (WC50 = 0.19 g/gdw) for silica gel dehydration. Similarly, high desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.15 g/gdw) was associated with F. polyandra embryonic axes when desiccated in a laminar airflow, while a lower desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.17 g/gdw) was observed with silica gel dehydration. Ultra-rapid desiccation led to the highest desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.14 g/gdw). The dehydration rate, however, had no influence on desiccation tolerance (WC50 ~ 0.14 g/gdw) for Citrumelo embryonic axes. After each desiccation period, embryonic axes were directly immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN) followed by rapid rewarming. Normal seedling recovery of 80 to 83% for excised embryonic axes of limau madu was observed for laminar airflow and ultra-rapid dehydration, but for silica gel dehydration, 57% recovery was obtained. Similarly, for Citrumelo, high recoveries of 100% and 97% were obtained from axes desiccated in a laminar airflow and using ultra-rapid dehydration, respectively, whereas a lower value was associated with silica gel dehydration (80%). For F. polyandra, 50% recovery was obtained both for laminar airflow and ultra-rapid dehydration, while much lower recovery (43%) was associated with silica gel dehydration. Regardless of the drying method employed, axis survival percentages following exposure to LN were commensurate with the desiccation sensitivity pattern.
Cryopreservation is a technique used to preserve cells for long-time storage. It is widely used in agriculture to store male gametes in liquid nitrogen. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum thawing temperature and time for samples subjected to annexin V magnetic-activated cell sorting (AnMACS) as the sperm preparation technique. Pooled semen samples from three ejaculates were divided into two groups. The treatment group was subjected both to AnMACS and to being cryopreserved, whilst the control group was cryopreserved directly without MACS. Post-thaw analysis was carried out for samples thawed at either 20°C for 13 s, 37°C for 30 s, 40°C for 7 s, 60°C for 6 s or 80°C for 5 s. Sperm kinematics, viability and capacitation status were determined for samples subjected to all thawing temperatures described. Results showed that thawing at 37°C for 13 s for MACS-processed samples was a superior option compared with other thawing procedures; there was a significant difference in P < 0.05 values for curvilinear velocity (VCL μm/s) and sperm straightness (STR %) when samples were thawed at 40°C for 7 s, with fewer capacitated spermatozoa (P < 0.05) when samples were thawed at 37°C for 30 s, 40°C for 7 s or 60°C for 6 s. Hence, we can speculate that the use of AnMACS as the sperm preparation technique can somehow enhance sperm cryosurvival rate after cryopreservation, however the fertilization potential of these cells has yet to be determined.
Cryopreservation is the most promising way for long-term storage of biological samples e.g., single cells and cellular structures. Among various cryopreservation methods, vitrification is advantageous by employing high cooling rate to avoid the formation of harmful ice crystals in cells. Most existing vitrification methods adopt direct contact of cells with liquid nitrogen to obtain high cooling rates, which however causes the potential contamination and difficult cell collection. To address these limitations, we developed a non-contact vitrification device based on an ultra-thin freezing film to achieve high cooling/warming rate and avoid direct contact between cells and liquid nitrogen. A high-throughput cell printer was employed to rapidly generate uniform cell-laden microdroplets into the device, where the microdroplets were hung on one side of the film and then vitrified by pouring the liquid nitrogen onto the other side via boiling heat transfer. Through theoretical and experimental studies on vitrification processes, we demonstrated that our device offers a high cooling/warming rate for vitrification of the NIH 3T3 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with maintained cell viability and differentiation potential. This non-contact vitrification device provides a novel and effective way to cryopreserve cells at high throughput and avoid the contamination and collection problems.
This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage.
Regrowth of the cryopreserved protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium Bobby Messina was assessed based on the plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) optimisation conditions. The optimized protocol obtained based on TTC spectrophotometrical analysis and growth recovery were 3-4 mm of PLBs size precultured in 0.2 M sucrose for 1 day, treated with a mixture of 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose supplemented with half-strength liquid MS media at 25 °C for 20 min and subsequently dehydrated with PVS2 at 0 °C for 20 min prior to storage in liquid nitrogen. Following rapid warming in a water bath at 40 °C for 90 s, PLBs were treated with unloading solution containing half-strength liquid MS media supplemented with 1.2 M sucrose. Subsequently, the PLBs were cultured on half-strength semi-solid MS media supplemented with 2 % (w/v) sucrose without any growth regulators and resulted in 40 % growth recovery. In addition, ascorbic acid treatment was used to evaluate the regeneration process of cryopreserved PLBs. However, growth recovery rates of non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved PLBs were 30 and 10 % when 0.6 mM ascorbic acid was added. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicates that there are not much damages observed on both cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved PLBs in comparison to PLBs stock culture.
The effect of preculture with different sugars and mannitol on cryopreservation of scalps of the banana (Musa) cvs. Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak was investigated. Scalps (0.3 square cm) were precultured on semi-solid MS-based medium, containing 0.4 or 0.5 M sucrose, glucose, fructose, trehalose or mannitol, for 14 days under a 16 h light and 8 h dark photoperiod prior to rapid cooling and storage in liquid nitrogen. Explants were rewarmed rapidly in a water bath at 40 degree C for 1 min, followed by recovery on two layers of sterile filter paper overlaying 25 ml aliquots of semi-solid MS-based medium with 5 mg per liter benzylaminopurine, 0.2 mg per liter indole acetic acid and 10 mg per liter ascorbic acid (PM8 medium) for 2 days in the dark. Subsequently, scalps were transferred onto 25 ml aliquots of semi-solid PM8 medium and incubated in the dark for 1 week prior to incubation in the light. Shoot regeneration from 5 - 48 percent of cryopreserved scalps of all the banana cvs., was observed only following preculture with 0.4 or 0.5 M glucose or fructose, and with 0.4 M trehalose for the cvs. Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. Preculture with 0.4 M glucose resulted in maximum shoot regeneration of cryopreserved scalps of 10 percent, 13 percent, 42 percent and 48 percent for the cvs. Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak, respectively. Concentrations of 0.5 M trehalose, or 0.4 and 0.5 M sucrose or mannitol were extremely toxic to scalps of all the cvs. investigated.
Following the investigation of desiccation sensitivity and freezing tolerance of the whole seed of Citrus suhuiensis cv. limau langkat, desiccation sensitivity and cryopreservation of the excised embryonic axes from the seeds of the same species were examined. Three drying conditions were employed: desiccation by equilibrium for the whole seeds and desiccation in laminar airflow and over silica gel for the excised embryonic axes. The relevance of desiccation sensitivity (WC50) to cryopreservation of whole seeds and excised axes was investigated. High desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.034 g H2O x g(-1)dw) was acquired for axes desiccated with faster dehydration rate (1.5 g x g(-1) x h(-1)) in laminar airflow compared to substantially lower desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.132 and 0.110 g H2O x g(-1)dw) acquired under slower dehydration rates (1.0 and 0.005 g x g(-1) x h(-1)) for axes desiccated over silica gel and whole seeds desiccated by equilibrium respectively. While few whole seeds (8.3%) survived freezing, high recovery percentages of axes (83.3% and 62.2%) after freezing were obtained under laminar airflow and silica gel drying conditions respectively. Irrespective of the drying method employed, axes survival percentages after exposure to LN temperature commensurate with the desiccation sensitivity pattern. For the whole seeds, a factor other than desiccation sensitivity that limits the tolerance to exposure to LN temperature seems to exist and still needs to be defined.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold many advantages over embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and other somatic cells in clinical applications. MSCs are multipotent cells with strong immunosuppressive properties. They can be harvested from various locations in the human body (e.g., bone marrow and adipose tissues). Cryopreservation represents an efficient method for the preservation and pooling of MSCs, to obtain the cell counts required for clinical applications, such as cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. Upon cryopreservation, it is important to preserve MSCs functional properties including immunomodulatory properties and multilineage differentiation ability. Further, a biosafety evaluation of cryopreserved MSCs is essential prior to their clinical applications. However, the existing cryopreservation methods for MSCs are associated with notable limitations, leading to a need for new or improved methods to be established for a more efficient application of cryopreserved MSCs in stem cell-based therapies. We review the important parameters for cryopreservation of MSCs and the existing cryopreservation methods for MSCs. Further, we also discuss the challenges to be addressed in order to preserve MSCs effectively for clinical applications.
This paper investigates the importance of loading and treatment with a vitrification solution on the survival of Citrus madurensis embryonic axes cryopreserved using a vitrification protocol. Among the seven different loading solutions tested, the solution containing 2 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose was the most efficient. Of the six vitrification solutions tested, the PVS2 vitrification solution, applied for 20 min at 25 degree C or for 60 min at 0 degree C, ensured the highest survival. A three-step vitrification protocol, involving the treatment of embryonic axes at 0 degree C with half strength PVS2 solution for 20 min then with full strength PVS2 for an additional 40 min was more efficient than a two-step protocol that involved treatment of axes directly with full strength PVS2 solution for 60 min. After rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen, rapid rewarming, unloading in a 1.2 M sucrose solution for 20 min, culture on solid medium with 0.3 M sucrose for 1 day and growth recovery for 4 weeks on standard medium, survival of C. madurensis embryonic axes reached 85 % following the three-step process, compared with 70 % for the two-step process.
In this paper, we demonstrate that C. madurensis embryonic axes can withstand cryopreservation using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. Up to 57.5 % survival was achieved using a standard encapsulation-dehydration protocol, which included pregrowth of encapsulated axes for 16 h in medium containing 0.8 M sucrose + 1 M glycerol, desiccation of beads to around 30 % moisture content (fresh weight basis) followed by rapid freezing. A slightly higher survival percentage (65 %) was obtained using a modified encapsulation-dehydration protocol, which included pretreatment of axes with 2 M glycerol + 0.6 M sucrose for 1 h, concomitantly with their encapsulation in 3 % calcium alginate beads, followed by desiccation of the beads to around 30 % moisture content.
The role of pregrowth and preculture treatments in terms of both medium composition and exposure duration on survival of embryonic axes of Citrus madurensis after cryopreservation using the vitrification procedure was investigated. The optimal pregrowth treatment for excised embryonic axes was a 3-day treatment with 0.1M sucrose. Preculture was also essential in increasing survival after cryopreservation. Among the various media and treatment durations evaluated, a 24h-preculture of embryonic axes on medium with 0.3M sucrose and 0.5M glycerol was found to be optimal. Using these pregrowth and preculture conditions followed by treatment at 25 degrees C for 20 min each with a loading solution (0.4M sucrose + 2.0M glycerol) and then the PVS2 vitrification solution, direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, rapid rewarming, unloading in a 1.2M sucrose solution for 20 min and transfer of embryonic axes on recovery medium, 82.5% survival and regrowth without intermediary callus formation were obtained with C. madurensis embryonic axes.