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  1. Subramaniam P, Woods B
    Clin Interv Aging, 2016;11:1263-1276.
    PMID: 27698556
    There is increasing interest in using information and communication technology to help older adults with dementia to engage in reminiscence work. Now, the feasibility of such approaches is beginning to be established. The purpose of this study was to establish an evidence-base for the acceptability and efficacy of using multimedia digital life storybooks with people with dementia in care homes, in comparison with conventional life storybooks, taking into account the perspectives of people with dementia, their relatives, and care staff.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dementia/therapy*
  2. Yusoff S, Koh CT, Mohd Aminuddin MY, Krishnasamy M, Suhaila MZ
    East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 2013 Sep;23(3):91-101.
    PMID: 24088402
    The Malaysian Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) for Management of Dementia (second edition) was launched in April 2010 by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. A training programme for the management of dementia, involving all categories of staff working at primary and secondary centres, was implemented to ensure that care delivery for people with dementia was in accordance with the guidelines. The study aimed to look into improving knowledge and understanding of dementia following training, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the training programme using a clinical audit indicator recommended in the guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dementia/therapy*
  3. Lai NM, Chang SMW, Ng SS, Tan SL, Chaiyakunapruk N, Stanaway F
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019 11 25;2019(11).
    PMID: 31763689 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013243.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic condition which progressively affects memory and other cognitive functions, social behaviour, and ability to carry out daily activities. To date, no treatment is clearly effective in preventing progression of the disease, and most treatments are symptomatic, often aiming to improve people's psychological symptoms or behaviours which are challenging for carers. A range of new therapeutic strategies has been evaluated in research, and the use of trained animals in therapy sessions, termed animal-assisted therapy (AAT), is receiving increasing attention.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of animal-assisted therapy for people with dementia.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialised Register on 5 September 2019. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of major healthcare databases, trial registries, and grey literature sources. We also searched MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), ISI Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO's trial registry portal.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and randomised cross-over trials that compared AAT versus no AAT, AAT using live animals versus alternatives such as robots or toys, or AAT versus any other active intervention.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of Cochrane Dementia. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using mean difference (MD), standardised mean difference (SMD), and risk ratio (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) where appropriate.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included nine RCTs from 10 reports. All nine studies were conducted in Europe and the US. Six studies were parallel-group, individually randomised RCTs; one was a randomised cross-over trial; and two were cluster-RCTs that were possibly related where randomisation took place at the level of the day care and nursing home. We identified two ongoing trials from trial registries. There were three comparisons: AAT versus no AAT (standard care or various non-animal-related activities), AAT using live animals versus robotic animals, and AAT using live animals versus the use of a soft animal toy. The studies evaluated 305 participants with dementia. One study used horses and the remainder used dogs as the therapy animal. The duration of the intervention ranged from six weeks to six months, and the therapy sessions lasted between 10 and 90 minutes each, with a frequency ranging from one session every two weeks to two sessions per week. There was a wide variety of instruments used to measure the outcomes. All studies were at high risk of performance bias and unclear risk of selection bias. Our certainty about the results for all major outcomes was very low to moderate. Comparing AAT versus no AAT, participants who received AAT may be slightly less depressed after the intervention (MD -2.87, 95% CI -5.24 to -0.50; 2 studies, 83 participants; low-certainty evidence), but they did not appear to have improved quality of life (MD 0.45, 95% CI -1.28 to 2.18; 3 studies, 164 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There were no clear differences in all other major outcomes, including social functioning (MD -0.40, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.61; 1 study, 58 participants; low-certainty evidence), problematic behaviour (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.98 to 0.30; 3 studies, 142 participants; very-low-certainty evidence), agitation (SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.89 to 0.10; 3 studies, 143 participants; very-low-certainty evidence), activities of daily living (MD 4.65, 95% CI -16.05 to 25.35; 1 study, 37 participants; low-certainty evidence), and self-care ability (MD 2.20, 95% CI -1.23 to 5.63; 1 study, 58 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were no data on adverse events. Comparing AAT using live animals versus robotic animals, one study (68 participants) found mixed effects on social function, with longer duration of physical contact but shorter duration of talking in participants who received AAT using live animals versus robotic animals (median: 93 seconds with live versus 28 seconds with robotic for physical contact; 164 seconds with live versus 206 seconds with robotic for talk directed at a person; 263 seconds with live versus 307 seconds with robotic for talk in total). Another study showed no clear differences between groups in behaviour measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MD -6.96, 95% CI -14.58 to 0.66; 78 participants; low-certainty evidence) or quality of life (MD -2.42, 95% CI -5.71 to 0.87; 78 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were no data on the other outcomes. Comparing AAT using live animals versus a soft toy cat, one study (64 participants) evaluated only social functioning, in the form of duration of contact and talking. The data were expressed as median and interquartile ranges. Duration of contact was slightly longer in participants in the AAT group and duration of talking slightly longer in those exposed to the toy cat. This was low-certainty evidence.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-certainty evidence that AAT may slightly reduce depressive symptoms in people with dementia. We found no clear evidence that AAT affects other outcomes in this population, with our certainty in the evidence ranging from very-low to moderate depending on the outcome. We found no evidence on safety or effects on the animals. Therefore, clear conclusions cannot yet be drawn about the overall benefits and risks of AAT in people with dementia. Further well-conducted RCTs are needed to improve the certainty of the evidence. In view of the difficulty in achieving blinding of participants and personnel in such trials, future RCTs should work on blinding outcome assessors, document allocation methods clearly, and include major patient-important outcomes such as affect, emotional and social functioning, quality of life, adverse events, and outcomes for animals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dementia/therapy*
  4. Rosdinom R, Zarina MZ, Zanariah MS, Marhani M, Suzaily W
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S67-9.
    PMID: 23313789 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.025
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the relationships between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), cognitive impairment and burden of care of patients with dementia.
    METHOD: A cross-sectional, non-randomised study of 65 elderly patients with dementia and their caregivers was conducted over a 3-month period in January 2007 at the memory clinics of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Patients' cognitive functions were assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Caregivers were interviewed to determine the severity of BPSD and caregiver burden (CB) using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Questionnaire and Zarit Burden Interview (BI) respectively.
    RESULTS: Cognitive impairment did not contribute significantly to CB. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that high BPSD scores contributed 0.27 more in BI score, female patients contributed 0.37 less in BI score and caregivers with higher educational level contribute 0.5 more in BI score.
    CONCLUSION: Patients' BPSD and male gender, but not cognitive impairment, were associated with CB. Even though CB was experienced more among caregivers with better education, all caregivers should be screened to ensure their general well-being.
    KEYWORDS: BPSD; Caregiver burden; Cognitive impairment
    Study site: Memory clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM) and Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Dementia/therapy
  5. Jeon YH, Chien WT, Ha JY, Ibrahim R, Kirley B, Tan LL, et al.
    Aging Ment Health, 2018 10;22(10):1279-1286.
    PMID: 28714742 DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2017.1351521
    OBJECTIVES: An Asia-Pacific regional collaboration group conducted its first multi-country research project to determine whether or not European quality indicators (QIs) for psychosocial care in dementia could be implemented as a valid tool in residential aged care across seven Asia-Pacific sites (Australia, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Mainland China, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand).

    METHOD: Following the European QI protocol, auditing and data extraction of medical records of consenting residents with dementia were conducted by trained auditors with relevant health care backgrounds. Detailed field notes by the auditors were also obtained to describe the characteristics of the participating care facilities, as well as key issues and challenges encountered, for each of the 12 QIs.

    RESULTS: Sixteen residential care facilities in the seven Asia-Pacific sites participated in this study. Data from 275 residents' records revealed each of the 12 Qis' endorsement varied widely within and between the study sites (0%-100%). Quality of the medical records, family and cultural differences, definitions and scoring of certain indicators, and time-consuming nature of the QI administration were main concerns for implementation.

    CONCLUSION: Several items in the European QIs in the current format were deemed problematic when used to measure the quality of psychosocial care in the residential aged care settings in participating Asia-Pacific countries. We propose refinements of the European QIs for the Asian-Pacific context, taking into account multiple factors identified in this study. Our findings provide crucial insights for future research and implementation of psychosocial dementia care QIs in this region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dementia/therapy*
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