During a forensic entomological study conducted at an oil palm plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Kuala Langat, Selangor, a Bengalia emarginata Malloch, 1927 (Diptera: Calliphoridae: Calliphorinae: Bengalini) was collected for the first time. Two adults were collected nearby the pig carcass by the first author and identified by the second. Prior to this finding, nine species of Bengalia were recorded from peninsular Malaysia or Borneo. Male of B. emarginata are different from Bengalia varicolor Fabricious by the following characters: Sternite 5 projection rounded with small identation and mid tibia double-fringed in ventral surface.
A new species of Trichoformosomyia, T. abbreviata sp. nov., is described from Sabah, Malaysia. Trichoformosomyia sauteri Baranov is redescribed and it is newly recorded from China, Vietnam and Japan. A key to the three known species of Trichoformosomyia is given and monophyly of the genus is briefly discussed based on adult morphology.
Three species composition surveys were conducted in a rural location in Kedah and an urban location in Pulau Pinang. Two of the surveys were conducted in November 2003, the first was at the Kedah site and the second was at the Pulau Pinang site. The third survey was conducted at the Pulau Pinang site again on the last week of April 2004. All these surveys were conducted one week prior to field evaluations of commercial chemical fly baits. The predominant species recovered from the surveys was the house fly, Musca domestica, which ranked first in prevalence in all three studies. Catches of Musca sorbens, Chrysoma megacephala and Lucillia cuprina were lower than M. domestica. Sarcophaga sp. was not present at the Kedah site and was only present at the Pulau Pinang site during the survey in April 2004. The other fly species present at the Kedah site were Megaselia sp., Psycoda sp., Piophila sp. and Fannia sp. These species were scarce and never exceeded 1% of the total catch.
A key to the common Calliphorid flies of Peninsular Malaysia is presented. Illustrations of the genitalia of some rare species, list of new localities, altitudes and other ecological data are also presented. The following species were recorded for the first time from Peninsular Malaysia; Catapicephala sinica, C. kurahashii, Taninanina javanica, Hemipyrellia tagaliana, Lucilia sinensis, Blaesoxipha kasterni, Boettcherisca javanica, Parasarcophaga misera, P. orchidea, P. albicephs, Sarcosolomonia crinita, Thyrsocnema bornensis, Sarcorohdendorfia antilope and Lioproctia pattoni.
Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively.
This species, known only by a single male, is described from Mount Kinabalu and thus is recorded from the same area as Macrostylophora borneensis (Jordan, 1926), teste Traub (1972). It is distinguished from its congeneric and characterized by the absence of eriged setae on the thorax and first abdominal tergits, as well as by the shape of terminal segments and the phallosom. Macrostylophora kinabaluae was found to parasitize the Sciurid rodent Callosciurus prevostii that is widespread throughout most areas in the Malaysian subregion.
Previous studies suggested the presence of species complex in the so-called Simulium asakoae Takaoka & Davies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand due to its high morphological variability and genetic divergence. To investigate whether the true S. asakoae is present in Thailand, we performed a detailed morphological identification of S. asakoae and compared its DNA barcodes with the morphospecies S. asakoae from Myanmar and the typical S. asakoae from Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Thai materials analyzed in this study were indeed genetically similar with those from Myanmar and Malaysia, though genetic distances 0-2.27% were observed. We tentatively regard this divergence as intraspecific variation, and the automatic barcode gap discovery analysis further supports them as a single species.
Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.
In addition to the scarcity of forensic entomology baseline data on oviposition of necrophagous insects and completion of their life cycles in the Borneo region, similar data derived from caves remain unreported. Since entomological baseline data can differ from one biogeoclimatic region to another, the lack of such data would limit the practical values of applying entomological evidence in estimating minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). Therefore, this present research that investigated oviposition and completion of life cycles of necrophagous flies infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in Mount Kapur Cave and its surrounding forest habitat in Kuching, Sarawak merits forensic consideration. In general, 13 taxa of necrophagous flies were identified viz. Hypopygiopsis violacea, Hypopygiopsis fumipennis, Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Hemipyrellia tagaliana, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya villeneuvi, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya chani, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Ophyra spinigera and Ophyra chalcogaster, as well as unidentified Sarcophagidae. In addition, Hyp. violacea and Hyp. fumipennis were the two earlier necrophagous flies that oviposited in all rabbit carcasses decomposing in both habitats. While all these necrophagous flies were observed infesting carcasses in Mount Kapur Cave, Hem. ligurriens and Hem. tagaliana were not found infesting carcasses in the surrounding forest habitat. Complete life cycles for six and five different necrophagous fly species were successfully observed in Mount Kapur Cave and its surrounding forest habitat, respectively. Significant delay in oviposition, as well as longer durations for completing the life cycles in several necrophagous fly species were observed in Mount Kapur Cave when compared with those of surrounding forest habitat (p < 0.05). These findings deserve consideration as the first ever forensic empirical baseline data on oviposition and completion of life cycles for necrophagous flies in Sarawak as well as in a cave habitat, in view of its practical values for estimating mPMI for forensic practical caseworks.
Horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are of medical and veterinary importance, as their blood-sucking feeding habit enables them to transmit several disease-causing agents. In Malaysia, the family Tabanidae consists of 120 species belonging to eight genera. The current study describes two new species (Chrysops idlani sp. nov. and Tabanus ekor sp. nov.) and presents new records for seven species: Tabanus fontinalisSchuurmans Stekhoven, 1926; Tabanus fuscifronsSchuurmans Stekhoven, 1926, Tabanus latifasciesSchuurmans Stekhoven, 1926, Tabanus megalops (Walker, 1854), Tabanus rhinargusPhilip, 1962, Tabanus salvazai (Surcouf, 1922), and Tabanus tristisWulp, 1881. Complete descriptions and illustrations are provided for the new species, and species variations for the new records are discussed. Male Tabanus latifasciesSchuurmans Stekhoven, 1926 and Tabanus perakiensis Ricardo, 1911 are thoroughly described herein.
Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia.
Three new species of Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel, 1934 and one of Pseudorhicnoessa Malloch, 1914 from the Indo-Pacific area are described and the male terminalia illustrated. Among these new species, Dasyrhicnoessa paradoxa sp. nov. and Pseudorhicnoessa longicerca sp. nov. are especially noteworthy for the morphological peculiarities of the male terminalia.
In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.
Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.
The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.
Hypopygiopsis violacea, a species of fly of forensic importance, was recovered from a corpse and described for the first time. The morphological structures of the second and third instar larvae of four specimens were examined using light microscope. Observations were focused on three main morphological characters: cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles. Cephalopharyngeal skeleton of second instar larva is darkly pigmented and without accessory sclerite below the mouth hook. The anterior spiracles of second and third instar larvae have 8-9 papillae each, arranged in a single row. The posterior spiracle of second instar larva has two spiracular slits with no thickening of peritreme. This differentiates it from the third instar, whereby the latter has three slits for each posterior spiracle. Cephalopharyngeal skeleton of third instar larva is heavily pigmented. An accessory sclerite is found below the hook part of third instar larva but is absent in second instar. Peritreme of the posterior spiracle of third instar larva is thick almost complete encircling a button. The intersegmental spines of the cuticular surface are dome-shaped and unicuspid. Third instar larva of this species is large with size approximately 15 mm long. These findings provide important identification features of immature stages of Hy. violacea which could be useful in forensic entomology.
The type and amount of resources available significantly influences the structure and dynamics of food webs. In this study, we analyzed differences in species richness of scavengers based on carcass type in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We collected insects from experimental carcasses of three different types, domestic dogs (Canidae, Canis lupus familiaris), Hijazi goats (Bovidae, Capra aegagrus hircus), and camels (Camelidae, Camelus dromedarius). Data collection was conducted during the decay stage in June, 2016. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) barcodes as a marker for the molecular identification of the scavenger insects. The results showed that there were more insects on the camels and goats than the dogs. In total, seven species were found on all carrions. Six species were found on the camels and goats, but only five were found on the dog. Musca domestica was the most collected species of flies whereas, Necrobia rufipes was the most collected species of beetles. Overall, this study showed that carrion type had an effect on the type and number of insects attracted to the carrions. Thus, one of the significant factors that influence the associated scavenger assemblage is a carcass type.
Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) brinchangense and S. (G.) tanahrataense, are described on the basis of reared adult females, males, pupae and larvae from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. These new species are assigned to the asakoae species-group within Simulium (Gomphostilbia) and taxonomic notes are given to distinguish each new species from six known species in Malaysia. Revised keys to identify all 21 species including 13 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The species diversity of the asakoae species-group in Cameron's Highlands is briefly noted.
Long columns of migrating larval sciarid armyworms were discovered in central and northern Japan, specifically Kanagawa, Gunma, Miyagi and Akita prefectures, as well as Hokkaido. This is the first examination of armyworms in East Asia. In Europe, armyworms have been identified as Sciara militaris, belonging to the family Sciaridae (sciarid flies or black fungus gnats), by rearing them to adulthood. In Japan, we were unable to obtain live samples for rearing; therefore, DNA barcodes were obtained from the samples of armyworms collected in the Gunma and Miyagi prefectures. The DNA barcodes were compared with those obtained from the following samples: pupae of S. militaris from UK, adults of Sciara kitakamiensis, Sciara humeralis, Sciara hemerobioides, Sciara thoracica, Sciara helvola and Sciara melanostyla from Japan, and adults of one undescribed Sciara species from Malaysia. Neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood analyses revealed that the armyworms discovered in Japan are S. kitakamiensis. Although adults of this species have been recorded in several locations in Japan, this is the first report of migrating larval armyworms. DNA barcodes were effectively used to link different life stages of this species. The average intraspecific and interspecific pairwise genetic distances of the genus Sciara were 0.3% and 12.6%, respectively. The present study illustrates that DNA barcodes are an effective means of identifying sciarid flies in Japan.