Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Jamshed S, Ibrahim MI, Awaisu A
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2009 Apr;17(2):79-88.
    PMID: 20214255
    OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on consumers' knowledge, attitudes and opinions of the use of generic medicines.
    METHOD: A narrative review of studies conducted from 1970 to 2008 on consumers perceptions and views towards generic medicines was performed. An extensive literature search was undertaken using indexing services available at the authors' institution library. The following keywords were used for the search: brand, generic, multisource, medications, medicines, drugs, pharmaceuticals and consumers, customers, and patients. Electronic databases searched were Medline, Inside Web, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Springer Link, JSTOR, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. These electronic databases were searched for full text papers published in English from 1970 to October 2008.
    KEY FINDINGS: Twenty studies were identified. Eleven were from the USA, four were from Europe, two were from Canada and one each was from Australia, Brazil and Malaysia. In general, consumers showed mixed reactions towards the use of generic medicines. This was evident from the divergence of views observed by country development level, consumers' socioeconomic characteristics, drug product characteristics, pharmaceutical reimbursement system, policy environment, contact with health care professionals, past experience with medications, and knowledge of the seriousness of a medical condition.
    CONCLUSIONS: Patient confidence and knowledge pertaining to generic medicines use have increased over the past four decades, especially in developed countries. Mass educational efforts, financial incentives, and greater communication among patients and health care professionals were seen as major drivers to the uptake of generic medicines among consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  2. Al-Tamimi SK, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, ALrasheedy AA
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2016 Feb;24(1):72-3.
    PMID: 26764227 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12204
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  3. Jain D, Darrow JJ
    Health Matrix Clevel, 2013;23(2):425-57.
    PMID: 24341078
    Access to affordable drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and other diseases is increasingly challenging in many developing countries such as Brazil, South Africa, and India. These challenges are in part the result of strengthened patent laws mandated by the 1994 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) treaty. However, there are underutilized instruments within TRIPS that governments can use to limit the adverse effects of patent protection and thereby ensure a supply of affordable generic drugs to their people. One such instrument is compulsory licensing, which allows generic manufacturers to produce pharmaceutical products that are currently subject to patent protection. Compulsory licensing has been used by a number of countries in the last few years, including the United States, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, and Thailand, and is particularly significant for countries such as India, where large numbers of people are infected with HIV. This Article explores the feasibility of compulsory licensing as a tool to facilitate access to essential medicines within the current patent regime in India, drawing on the experiences of other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  4. Sharrad AK, Hassali MA
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2011 Mar;7(1):108-12.
    PMID: 21397885 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2009.12.003
    BACKGROUND: The use of generic medicines has been increasing steadily internationally, primarily because of cost concerns. Knowledge and use patterns of generic medicines in Iraq have not yet been measured.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore consumers' perception and knowledge on issues relating to generic medicine use in Basrah, Iraq.
    METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to gather information from consumers in Basrah, Iraq. A purposive sample of 14 consumers in Basrah was interviewed face-to-face using a semistructured interview guide.
    RESULTS: Thematic analysis of the interviews identified 5 major themes: understanding of the term "generic medicine," preference for generic medicine, refusal of generic medicine, generic substitution, and education on the use of generic medicines. Not all the consumers were familiar with the term "generic medicine;" they were familiar with the term "commercial medicine." Most of the participants understood that generics cost less compared with their branded counterparts. Most of the consumers said that their physicians and pharmacists had given them information on generics.
    CONCLUSION: Knowledge of generic medicines may be lacking among consumers in Iraq. Development of consumer education on generics by health care providers is required to support the implementation of the policy on generic medicines in Iraq.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  5. Ping CC, Bahari MB, Hassali MA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2008 Jan;17(1):82-9.
    PMID: 17879323
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generic substitution (GS) practices undertaken by community pharmacists in the State of Penang, Malaysia with a focus on the extent of communication between pharmacists and prescribers on issues related to GS, consumer's acceptance on the GS and estimation of cost saving achieved for patients opted for GS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics*
  6. Wong ZY, Alrasheedy AA, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2016 04 20;12(5):807-10.
    PMID: 27157864 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.04.002
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  7. Chong CP, March G, Clark A, Gilbert A, Hassali MA, Bahari MB
    Health Policy, 2011 Feb;99(2):139-48.
    PMID: 20732723 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.08.002
    This study evaluated Australian community pharmacists' rate of generic medicine substitution, patient acceptance of generic substitution and cost-savings achieved for patients from substitution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  8. Babar ZD, Izham MI
    Public Health, 2009 Aug;123(8):523-33.
    PMID: 19665741 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.06.011
    Previous studies on anti-infective and cardiovascular drugs have shown extraordinary price increases following privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system. Therefore, it was felt that there was a need to undertake a full-scale study to evaluate the effect of privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system on drug prices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  9. Baker BK
    PLoS Med., 2016 Mar;13(3):e1001970.
    PMID: 26954325 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001970
    Brook Baker describes the potential harms to global health from the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement and its failure to balance the interests of patients and the public with those of industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  10. Chua GN, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A
    Health Policy, 2010 May;95(2-3):229-35.
    PMID: 20044165 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.11.019
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines in a northern state of Malaysia.
    METHOD: A postal cross-sectional survey involving registered GPs in Penang, Malaysia was undertaken. A 23-item questionnaire was developed, validated and administered on the GPs. Eighty-seven GPs responded to the survey (response rate 26.8%).
    RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (85.1%) claimed that they actively prescribed generic medicines in their practice. On the other hand, only 4.6% of the respondents correctly identified the Malaysia's National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau's bioequivalence standard for generic products. There were misconceptions among the respondents about the concepts of "bioequivalence", "efficacy", "safety", and "manufacturing standards" of generic medicines. GPs in this survey believed that a standard guideline on brand substitution process, collaboration with pharmacists, patient education and information on safety and efficacy of generic medicines were necessary to ensure quality use of generics. Furthermore, advertisements and product bonuses offered by pharmaceutical companies, patient's socio-economic factors as well as credibility of manufacturers were factors reported to influence their choice of medicine.
    CONCLUSION: Although it appeared that GPs have largely accepted the use of generic medicines, they still have concerns regarding the reliability and quality of such products. GPs need to be educated and reassured about generic products approval system in Malaysia concerning bioequivalence, quality, and safety. The current findings have important implications in establishing generic medicines policy in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  11. Chong CP, Hassali MA, Bahari MB, Shafie AA
    Health Policy, 2010 Jan;94(1):68-75.
    PMID: 19762106 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.08.011
    This study aims to provide baseline data to support the implementation of generic substitution policy in Malaysia by evaluating the community pharmacists' perceptions and opinions on generic substitution and current substitution practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
  12. Leporowski A, Godman B, Kurdi A, MacBride-Stewart S, Ryan M, Hurding S, et al.
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2018 Dec;18(6):655-666.
    PMID: 30014725 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2018.1501558
    BACKGROUND: Prescribing of lipid-lowering agents (LLAs) has increased worldwide including in Scotland with increasing prevalence of coronary heart disease, and higher dose statins have been advocated in recent years. There have also been initiatives to encourage prescribing of generic versus patented statins to save costs without compromising care. There is a need to document these initiatives and outcomes to provide future direction.

    METHOD: Assessment of utilization (items dispensed) and expenditure of key LLAs (mainly statins) between 2001 and 2015 in Scotland alongside initiatives.

    RESULTS: Multiple interventions over the years have increased international nonproprietary name prescribing (99% for statins) and preferential prescribing of generic versus patented statins, and reduced inappropriate prescribing of ezetimibe. This resulted in a 50% reduction in expenditure of LLAs between 2001 and 2015 despite a 412% increase in utilization, increased prescribing of higher dose statins (71% in 2015) especially atorvastatin following generic availability, and reduced prescribing of ezetimibe (reduced by 72% between 2010 and 2015). As a result, the quality of prescribing has improved.

    CONCLUSION: Generic availability coupled with multiple measures has resulted in appreciable shifts in statin prescribing behavior and reduced ezetimibe prescribing, resulting in improvements in both the quality and efficiency of prescribing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drugs, Generic/economics
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