Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Schwartz PL, Kyaw Tun Sein
    Med Educ, 1987 May;21(3):265-8.
    PMID: 3600444
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  2. Schwartz PL, Crooks TJ, Sein KT
    Med Educ, 1986 Sep;20(5):399-406.
    PMID: 3762442
    It has been suggested that the 'ideal' measure of reliability of an examination is obtained by test and retest using the one examination on the same group of students. However, because of practical and theoretical arguments, most reported reliabilities for multiple choice examinations in medicine are actually measures of internal consistency. While attempting to minimize the effects of potential interfering factors, we have undertaken a study of true test-retest reliability of multiple true-false type multiple choice questions in preclinical medical subjects. From three end-of-term examinations, 363 items (106 of 449 from term 1, 150 of 499 from term 2, and 107 of 492 from term 3) were repeated in the final examination (out of 999 total items). Between test and retest, there was little overall decrease in the percentage of items answered correctly and a decrease of only 3.4 in the percentage score after correction for guessing. However, there was an inverse relation between test-retest interval and decrease in performance. Between test and retest, performance decreased significantly on 33 items and increased significantly on 11 items. Test-retest correlation coefficients were 0.70 to 0.78 for items from the separate terms and 0.885 for all items that were retested. Thus, overall, these items had a very high degree of reliability, approximately the 0.9 which has been specified as the requirement for being able to distinguish between individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  3. Shahabudin SH
    Med Educ, 1983 Sep;17(5):316-8.
    PMID: 6621433
    The belief that it is unwise to alter the initial response to a multiple choice question is questioned. Among 39 380 MCQ responses, there were 1818 changes (4.62%) of which 21.9% were correct to incorrect responses, 46.3% incorrect to correct responses and 31.8% incorrect to incorrect. This effect was very much more marked among the better students, incorrect to correct changes accounting for 61% of the responses in the upper group, 42% in the middle group and 34% in the lower group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  4. Roslani AM, Sein KT, Nordin R
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Mar;44(1):75-82.
    PMID: 2626116
    The Phase I and Phase II undergraduate teaching programmes of the School of Medical Sciences were reviewed at the end of the 1985/86 academic year. It was found that deviations from the School's philosophy had crept into the implementation process. Modifications were therefore made in Phase I and Phase II programmes with a view to:--(i) reducing content, (ii) promoting integration, (iii) improving clinical examination skills of students, and (iv) providing more opportunities to students for self learning, reinforcement and application of knowledge. The number of assessment items in Phase I and the frequency of assessment in Phase II were also found to be inappropriate and so modifications in assessment were made to rectify this situation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  5. Barman A
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2008 Nov;37(11):957-63.
    PMID: 19082204
    INTRODUCTION: Setting, maintaining and re-evaluation of assessment standard periodically are important issues in medical education. The cut-off scores are often "pulled from the air" or set to an arbitrary percentage. A large number of methods/procedures used to set standard or cut score are described in literature. There is a high degree of uncertainty in performance standard set by using these methods. Standards set using the existing methods reflect the subjective judgment of the standard setters. This review is not to describe the existing standard setting methods/procedures but to narrate the validity, reliability, feasibility and legal issues relating to standard setting.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review is on some of the issues in standard setting based on the published articles of educational assessment researchers.

    RESULTS: Standard or cut-off score should be to determine whether the examinee attained the requirement to be certified competent. There is no perfect method to determine cut score on a test and none is agreed upon as the best method. Setting standard is not an exact science. Legitimacy of the standard is supported when performance standard is linked to the requirement of practice. Test-curriculum alignment and content validity are important for most educational test validity arguments.

    CONCLUSION: Representative percentage of must-know learning objectives in the curriculum may be the basis of test items and pass/fail marks. Practice analysis may help in identifying the must-know areas of curriculum. Cut score set by this procedure may give the credibility, validity, defensibility and comparability of the standard. Constructing the test items by subject experts and vetted by multi-disciplinary faculty members may ensure the reliability of the test as well as the standard.

    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  6. Torke S, Upadhya S, Abraham RR, Ramnarayan K
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2006 Mar;30(1):48-9.
    PMID: 16481610
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  7. Rao M
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2006 Jun;30(2):95.
    PMID: 16709743
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  8. Sim SM, Rasiah RI
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2006 Feb;35(2):67-71.
    PMID: 16565756
    INTRODUCTION: This paper reports the relationship between the difficulty level and the discrimination power of true/false-type multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in a multidisciplinary paper for the para-clinical year of an undergraduate medical programme.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCQ items in papers taken from Year II Parts A, B and C examinations for Sessions 2001/02, and Part B examinations for 2002/03 and 2003/04, were analysed to obtain their difficulty indices and discrimination indices. Each paper consisted of 250 true/false items (50 questions of 5 items each) on topics drawn from different disciplines. The questions were first constructed and vetted by the individual departments before being submitted to a central committee, where the final selection of the MCQs was made, based purely on the academic judgement of the committee.

    RESULTS: There was a wide distribution of item difficulty indices in all the MCQ papers analysed. Furthermore, the relationship between the difficulty index (P) and discrimination index (D) of the MCQ items in a paper was not linear, but more dome-shaped. Maximal discrimination (D = 51% to 71%) occurred with moderately easy/difficult items (P = 40% to 74%). On average, about 38% of the MCQ items in each paper were "very easy" (P > or =75%), while about 9% were "very difficult" (P <25%). About two-thirds of these very easy/difficult items had "very poor" or even negative discrimination (D < or =20%).

    CONCLUSIONS: MCQ items that demonstrate good discriminating potential tend to be moderately difficult items, and the moderately-to-very difficult items are more likely to show negative discrimination. There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of our MCQ items.

    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  9. Chan SW, Ismail Z, Sumintono B
    PLoS One, 2016;11(11):e0163846.
    PMID: 27812091 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163846
    Based on a synthesis of literature, earlier studies, analyses and observations on high school students, this study developed an initial framework for assessing students' statistical reasoning about descriptive statistics. Framework descriptors were established across five levels of statistical reasoning and four key constructs. The former consisted of idiosyncratic reasoning, verbal reasoning, transitional reasoning, procedural reasoning, and integrated process reasoning. The latter include describing data, organizing and reducing data, representing data, and analyzing and interpreting data. In contrast to earlier studies, this initial framework formulated a complete and coherent statistical reasoning framework. A statistical reasoning assessment tool was then constructed from this initial framework. The tool was administered to 10 tenth-grade students in a task-based interview. The initial framework was refined, and the statistical reasoning assessment tool was revised. The ten students then participated in the second task-based interview, and the data obtained were used to validate the framework. The findings showed that the students' statistical reasoning levels were consistent across the four constructs, and this result confirmed the framework's cohesion. Developed to contribute to statistics education, this newly developed statistical reasoning framework provides a guide for planning learning goals and designing instruction and assessments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  10. Tan K, Chong MC, Subramaniam P, Wong LP
    Nurse Educ Today, 2018 May;64:180-189.
    PMID: 29500999 DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt.2017.12.030
    BACKGROUND: Outcome Based Education (OBE) is a student-centered approach of curriculum design and teaching that emphasize on what learners should know, understand, demonstrate and how to adapt to life beyond formal education. However, no systematic review has been seen to explore the effectiveness of OBE in improving the competencies of nursing students.

    OBJECTIVE: To appraise and synthesize the best available evidence that examines the effectiveness of OBE approaches towards the competencies of nursing students.

    DESIGN: A systematic review of interventional experimental studies.

    DATA SOURCES: Eight online databases namely CINAHL, EBSCO, Science Direct, ProQuest, Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS were searched.

    REVIEW METHODS: Relevant studies were identified using combined approaches of electronic database search without geographical or language filters but were limited to articles published from 2006 to 2016, handsearching journals and visually scanning references from retrieved studies. Two reviewers independently conducted the quality appraisal of selected studies and data were extracted.

    RESULTS: Six interventional studies met the inclusion criteria. Two of the studies were rated as high methodological quality and four were rated as moderate. Studies were published between 2009 and 2016 and were mostly from Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Results showed that OBE approaches improves competency in knowledge acquisition in terms of higher final course grades and cognitive skills, improve clinical skills and nursing core competencies and higher behavioural skills score while performing clinical skills. Learners' satisfaction was also encouraging as reported in one of the studies. Only one study reported on the negative effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although OBE approaches does show encouraging effects towards improving competencies of nursing students, more robust experimental study design with larger sample sizes, evaluating other outcome measures such as other areas of competencies, students' satisfaction, and patient outcomes are needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  11. Sim JH, Abdul Aziz YF, Mansor A, Vijayananthan A, Foong CC, Vadivelu J
    Med Educ Online, 2015;20:26185.
    PMID: 25697602 DOI: 10.3402/meo.v20.26185
    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination.
    METHODS: Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students' exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared.
    RESULTS: Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students' unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students' clinical reasoning development.
    KEYWORDS: OSCE; clinical skills; student performance
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  12. Yusoff MS
    Med Educ, 2012 Nov;46(11):1122.
    PMID: 23078712 DOI: 10.1111/medu.12057
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  13. Lai NM
    Med Educ, 2009 May;43(5):479-80.
    PMID: 19344346 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03320.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  14. Tan CP, Rokiah P
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60 Suppl D:48-53.
    PMID: 16315624
    Formative and summative student assessment has always been of concern to medical teachers, and this is especially important at the level of graduating doctors. The effectiveness and comprehensiveness of the clinical training provided is tested with the use of clinical cases, either with real patients who have genuine medical conditions, or with the use of standardised patients who are trained to simulate accurately actual patients. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is one method of assessing the adequacy of clinical skills of medical students, and their level of competence. It can be used to test a variety of skills such as history taking (communication and interpersonal skills) and performing aspects of physical examination, undertaking emergency procedures, and interpreting investigational data. It can also be used to ensure an adequate depth and breadth of coverage of clinical skills expected of a graduating doctor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  15. Chan MY
    Med Educ Online, 2015;20:28565.
    PMID: 26194482 DOI: 10.3402/meo.v20.28565
    The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners' and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre.
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  16. Ismail MA, Ahmad A, Mohammad JA, Fakri NMRM, Nor MZM, Pa MNM
    BMC Med Educ, 2019 Jun 25;19(1):230.
    PMID: 31238926 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-019-1658-z
    BACKGROUND: Gamification is an increasingly common phenomenon in education. It is a technique to facilitate formative assessment and to promote student learning. It has been shown to be more effective than traditional methods. This phenomenological study was conducted to explore the advantages of gamification through the use of the Kahoot! platform for formative assessment in medical education.

    METHODS: This study employed a phenomenological design. Five focus groups were conducted with medical students who had participated in several Kahoot! sessions.

    RESULTS: Thirty-six categories and nine sub-themes emerged from the focus group discussions. They were grouped into three themes: attractive learning tool, learning guidance and source of motivation.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Kahoot! sessions motivate students to study, to determine the subject matter that needs to be studied and to be aware of what they have learned. Thus, the platform is a promising tool for formative assessment in medical education.

    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  17. Venkataramani P, Sadanandan T, Savanna RS, Sugathan S
    Med Educ, 2019 05;53(5):499-500.
    PMID: 30891812 DOI: 10.1111/medu.13860
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  18. Prashanti E, Ramnarayan K
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2019 Jun 01;43(2):99-102.
    PMID: 30835147 DOI: 10.1152/advan.00173.2018
    In an era that is seemingly saturated with standardized tests of all hues and stripes, it is easy to forget that assessments not only measure the performance of students, but also consolidate and enhance their learning. Assessment for learning is best elucidated as a process by which the assessment information can be used by teachers to modify their teaching strategies while students adjust and alter their learning approaches. Effectively implemented, formative assessments can convert classroom culture to one that resonates with the triumph of learning. In this paper, we present 10 maxims that show ways that formative assessments can be better understood, appreciated, and implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
  19. Yusoff MS, Hadie SN, Abdul Rahim AF
    Med Educ, 2014 Feb;48(2):108-10.
    PMID: 24528391 DOI: 10.1111/medu.12403
    Matched MeSH terms: Educational Measurement/methods*
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