Displaying all 5 publications

  1. Tan SH, Khong TK, Selvanayagam VS, Yusof A
    Eur J Appl Physiol, 2024 Feb;124(2):403-415.
    PMID: 38038740 DOI: 10.1007/s00421-023-05350-w
    Rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has been shown to enhance exercise performance while reducing neuromuscular fatigue. This effect is thought to be mediated through the stimulation of oral receptors, which activate brain areas associated with reward, motivation, and motor control. Consequently, corticomotor responsiveness is increased, leading to sustained levels of neuromuscular activity prior to fatigue. In the context of endurance performance, the evidence regarding the central involvement of mouth rinse (MR) in performance improvement is not conclusive. Peripheral mechanisms should not be disregarded, particularly considering factors such as low exercise volume, the participant's fasting state, and the frequency of rinsing. These factors may influence central activations. On the other hand, for strength-related activities, changes in motor evoked potential (MEP) and electromyography (EMG) have been observed, indicating increased corticospinal responsiveness and neuromuscular drive during isometric and isokinetic contractions in both fresh and fatigued muscles. However, it is important to note that in many studies, MEP data were not normalised, making it difficult to exclude peripheral contributions. Voluntary activation (VA), another central measure, often exhibits a lack of changes, mainly due to its high variability, particularly in fatigued muscles. Based on the evidence, MR can attenuate neuromuscular fatigue and improve endurance and strength performance via similar underlying mechanisms. However, the evidence supporting central contribution is weak due to the lack of neurophysiological measures, inaccurate data treatment (normalisation), limited generalisation between exercise modes, methodological biases (ignoring peripheral contribution), and high measurement variability.Trial registration: PROSPERO ID: CRD42021261714.
    Matched MeSH terms: Evoked Potentials, Motor/physiology
  2. Naish KR, Houston-Price C, Bremner AJ, Holmes NP
    Neuropsychologia, 2014 11;64:331-48.
    PMID: 25281883 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.034
    Many human behaviours and pathologies have been attributed to the putative mirror neuron system, a neural system that is active during both the observation and execution of actions. While there are now a very large number of papers on the mirror neuron system, variations in the methods and analyses employed by researchers mean that the basic characteristics of the mirror response are not clear. This review focuses on three important aspects of the mirror response, as measured by modulations in corticospinal excitability: (1) muscle specificity; (2) direction; and (3) timing of modulation. We focus mainly on electromyographic (EMG) data gathered following single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), because this method provides precise information regarding these three aspects of the response. Data from paired-pulse TMS paradigms and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) are also considered when we discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the mirror response. In this systematic review of the literature, we examine the findings of 85 TMS and PNS studies of the human mirror response, and consider the limitations and advantages of the different methodological approaches these have adopted in relation to discrepancies between their findings. We conclude by proposing a testable model of how action observation modulates corticospinal excitability in humans. Specifically, we propose that action observation elicits an early, non-specific facilitation of corticospinal excitability (at around 90ms from action onset), followed by a later modulation of activity specific to the muscles involved in the observed action (from around 200ms). Testing this model will greatly advance our understanding of the mirror mechanism and provide a more stable grounding on which to base inferences about its role in human behaviour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Evoked Potentials, Motor/physiology*
  3. Zakaria MN, Abdullah R, Nik Othman NA
    Ear Hear, 2018 11 22;40(4):1039-1042.
    PMID: 30461445 DOI: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000676
    OBJECTIVES: Post-auricular muscle response (PAMR) is a large myogenic potential that can be useful in estimating behavioral hearing thresholds when the recording protocol is optimal. The main aim of the present study was to determine the influence of stimulus repetition rate on PAMR threshold.

    DESIGN: In this repeated-measures study, 20 normally hearing adults aged between 18 and 30 years were recruited. Tone bursts (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) were used to record PAMR thresholds at 3 different stimulus repetition rates (6.1/s, 11.1/s, and 17.1/s).

    RESULTS: Statistically higher PAMR thresholds were found for the faster stimulus rate (17.1/s) compared with the slower stimulus rate (6.1/s) (p < 0.05). For all stimulus rates and frequencies, significant correlations were found between PAMR and pure-tone audiometry thresholds (r = 0.62 to 0.82).

    CONCLUSIONS: Even though the stimulus rate effect was significant at most of the tested frequencies, the differences in PAMR thresholds between the rates were small (<5 dB). Nevertheless, based on the correlation results, we suggest the use of 11.1/s stimulus rate when recording PAMR thresholds.

    Matched MeSH terms: Evoked Potentials, Motor/physiology*
  4. Goh HT, Chan HY, Abdul-Latif L
    J Neurol Phys Ther, 2015 Jan;39(1):15-22.
    PMID: 25427033 DOI: 10.1097/NPT.0000000000000064
    Noninvasive brain stimulation, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have gained popularity in the stroke rehabilitation literature. Little is known about the time course and duration of effects of noninvasive brain stimulation on corticospinal excitability in individuals with stroke. We examined the aftereffects of a single session of high-frequency rTMS (5 Hz) and anodal tDCS on corticospinal excitability in the same sample of participants with chronic stroke.
    Matched MeSH terms: Evoked Potentials, Motor/physiology
  5. Chan YC, Punzalan-Sotelo AM, Kannan TA, Shahrizaila N, Umapathi T, Goh EJH, et al.
    Muscle Nerve, 2017 Nov;56(5):919-924.
    PMID: 28093784 DOI: 10.1002/mus.25577
    INTRODUCTION: In this study we propose electrodiagnostic criteria for early reversible conduction failure (ERCF) in axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and apply them to a cohort of GBS patients.

    METHODS: Serial nerve conduction studies (NCS) were retrospectively analyzed in 82 GBS patients from 3 centers. The criteria for the presence of ERCF in a nerve were: (i) a 50% increase in amplitude of distal compound muscle action potentials or sensory nerve action potentials; or (ii) resolution of proximal motor conduction block with an accompanying decrease in distal latencies or compound muscle action potential duration or increase in conduction velocities.

    RESULTS: Of 82 patients from 3 centers, 37 (45%) had ERCF, 21 (26%) had a contrasting evolution pattern, and 8 (10%) had both. Sixteen patients did not show an amplitude increase of at least 50%.

    CONCLUSION: Our proposed criteria identified a group of patients with a characteristic evolution of NCS abnormality that is consistent with ERCF. Muscle Nerve 56: 919-924, 2017.

    Matched MeSH terms: Evoked Potentials, Motor/physiology*
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