Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Ibrahim NUA, Abd Aziz S, Hashim N, Jamaludin D, Khaled AY
    J Food Sci, 2019 Apr;84(4):792-797.
    PMID: 30861127 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14436
    Total polar compounds (TPC) and free fatty acids (FFA) are important indicators in evaluating the quality of frying oil. Conventional methods to determine TPC and FFA are often time consuming, involved laboratory analyses which required skilled personnel and used substantial amount of harmful solvent. In this study, dielectric spectroscopy technique was used to investigate the relation between dielectric property of refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) during deep frying with TPC and FFA. In total, 150 batches of French fries were intermittently fried at 185 ± 5 °C for 7 hr a day over 5 consecutive days. A total of 30 frying oil samples were collected. The dielectric property of frying oil samples were measured using impedance analyzer with frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 10 MHz. The TPC of frying oil samples were measured with a Testo 270, while the FFA analysis was done using Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) test method. Results showed that dielectric constant, TPC and FFA of RBDPO increased as the frying time increased. Dielectric constant increased from 3.09 to 3.17, while TPC and FFA increased from 9.96 to 19.52 and from 0.08% to 0.36%, respectively. Partial least square (PLS) analysis produced good prediction of TPC and FFA with the application of genetic algorithm (GA). Model developed for prediction of TPC and FFA yielded highly significant correlation with R2 of 0.91 and 0.95, respectively and both had root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) of 1.06%. This study demonstrates the potential of dielectric spectroscopy in monitoring palm olein degradation during frying. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The application of dielectric spectroscopy to detect degradation of palm olein during frying was studied. The dielectric property of palm olein during frying has successfully correlated with TPC and FFA. The model developed in this study could be used for the development of a sensing system for palm olein degradation monitoring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/chemistry
  2. Lokman IM, Rashid U, Zainal Z, Yunus R, Taufiq-Yap YH
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(9):849-55.
    PMID: 25099911
    In the current research work, effect of microwave irradiation energy on the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to produce PFAD methyl ester / biodiesel was intensively appraised. The PFAD is a by-product from refinery of crude palm oil consisting >85% of free fatty acid (FFA). The esterification reaction process with acid catalyst is needed to convert the FFA into fatty acid methyl ester or known as biodiesel. In this work, fabricated microwave-pulse width modulation (MPWM) reactor with controlled temperature was designed to be capable to increase the PFAD biodiesel production rate. The classical optimization technique was used in order to study the relationship and the optimum condition of variables involved. Consequently, by using MPWM reactor, mixture of methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio of 9:1, 1 wt.% of sulfuric acid catalyst, at 55°C reaction temperature within 15 min reaction time gave 99.5% of FFA conversion. The quality assessment and properties of the product were analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), European (EN) standard methods and all results were in agreement with the standard requirements. It revealed that the use of fabricated MPWM with controlled temperature was significantly affecting the rate of esterification reaction and also increased the production yield of PFAD methyl ester.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/chemistry*
  3. Loo JL, Khoramnia A, Lai OM, Long K, Ghazali HM
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 23;19(6):8556-70.
    PMID: 24959682 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068556
    Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL), from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium cells harvested after 54 h. The yield and specific activity of MBL were 3.87 g/L dry weight and 508.33 U/g protein, respectively, while less than 0.2 U/mL lipase activity was detected in the culture supernatant. Prolonged incubation caused release of the bound lipase into the growth medium. The growth pattern of G. candidum, and production and properties of MBL were not affected by the scale. The stability of mycelia harboring lipase (MBL), harvested and lyophilized after 54 h, studied at 4 °C depicted a loss of 4.3% and 30% in MBL activity after 1 and 8 months, while the activity of free lipase was totally lost after 14 days of storage. The MBL from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/chemistry
  4. Hindryawati N, Maniam GP
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2015 Jan;22:454-62.
    PMID: 24842471 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.04.011
    This study demonstrates the potential of Na-silica waste sponge as a source of low cost catalyst in the transesterification of waste cooking oil aided by ultrasound. In this work an environmentally friendly and efficient transesterification process using Na-loaded SiO2 from waste sponge skeletons as a solid catalyst is presented. The results showed that the methyl esters content of 98.4±0.4wt.% was obtainable in less than an hour (h) of reaction time at 55°C. Optimization of reaction parameters revealed that MeOH:oil, 9:1; catalyst, 3wt.% and reaction duration of 30min as optimum reaction conditions. The catalyst is able to tolerant free fatty acid and moisture content up to 6% and 8%, respectively. In addition, the catalyst can be reused for seven cycles while maintaining the methyl esters content at 86.3%. Ultrasound undoubtedly assisted in achieving this remarkable result in less than 1h reaction time. For the kinetics study at 50-60°C, a pseudo first order model was proposed, and the activation energy of the reaction is determined as 33.45kJ/mol using Arrhenius equation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/chemistry
  5. Bokhari A, Chuah LF, Yusup S, Klemeš JJ, Kamil RNM
    Bioresour Technol, 2016 Jan;199:414-422.
    PMID: 26298387 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.08.013
    Pretreatment of the high free fatty acid rubber seed oil (RSO) via esterification reaction has been investigated by using a pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor. Four newly designed orifice plate geometries are studied. Cavities are induced by assisted double diaphragm pump in the range of 1-3.5 bar inlet pressure. An optimised plate with 21 holes of 1mm diameter and inlet pressure of 3 bar resulted in RSO acid value reduction from 72.36 to 2.64 mg KOH/g within 30 min of reaction time. Reaction parameters have been optimised by using response surface methodology and found as methanol to oil ratio of 6:1, catalyst concentration of 8 wt%, reaction time of 30 min and reaction temperature of 55°C. The reaction time and esterified efficiency of HC was three fold shorter and four fold higher than mechanical stirring. This makes the HC process more environmental friendly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/chemistry
  6. Salimon J, Abdullah BM, Salih N
    Lipids Health Dis, 2012;11:74.
    PMID: 22694753 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-74
    The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/chemistry
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