Redescription of the female of Setaria thomasi Sandosham, 1954, parasite of Sus scrofa jubatus; description of the female of Papillosetaria malayi n.sp. from Tragulus javanicus. The study of the buccal region of Papillosteria leads the authors to consider this genus as an ancestral form of Setaria.
Parasitic nematodes from the Berlin (ZMB) and Vienna (NMW) Museum collections referred to the genus Filaria Mueller, 1787 by von Linstow or Molin were studied. Three samples were in good condition and the specimens redescribed. Litomosa hepatica (von Linstow, 1897) n. comb., sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 3368, from the megachiropteran Pteropus neohibernicus, Bismarck Archipelago, resembles L. maki Tibayrenc, Bain & Ramanchandran, 1979, from Pteropus vampyrus, in Malaysia, but the buccal capsule differs. Both species display particular morphological characters which differ from species of Litomosa parasitic in microchiropterans. The remaining material originates from Brazil. The spicule morphology of Litomosoides circularis (von Linstow, 1899) Chandler, 1931, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 1059 from Hesperomys spec. (= Holochilus brasiliensis), Porto Alegre, confirms that it belongs to the sigmodontis group; the microfilaria presents characters of the genus Litomosoides, e.g. body attenuated at both extremities and salient cephalic hook. Taxonomic discussions by others confirm that species of Litomosoides belonging to the sigmodontis group and described subsequently are distinct from L. circularis. Litomosoides serpicula (Molin, 1858) Guerrero, Martin, Gardner & Bain, 2002, is redescribed, sample NMW 6323 from the bat Phyllostoma spiculatum (= Sturnira lilium), Ypanema. It is very close to L. brasiliensis Almeida, 1936, type host Moytis sp., but distinguished by a single ring in the buccal capsule, rather than two, supporting previous conclusions that the taxon L. brasiliensis, as generally regarded, may represent a complex of species. Samples NMW 6322 and NMW 6324, from other bats and also identified by Molin (1858) as Filaria serpicula, contain unidentifiable fragments of Litomosoides incertae sedis. Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3905 from Sorer vulgaris (= Sorex araneus), is incertae sedis because it contains two unidentifiable posterior parts of male, which might be an acuarid, Stammerinema sp. Filaria vesperuginis von Linstow, 1885, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3929, from the bat Vesperugo serotinus (= Eptesicus serotinus), contains encysted nematode larvae and is a nomen dubium.
Edesonfilaria cynocephali n. sp., a parasite of Cynocephalus variegatus taylori (Thomas) in Malaysia, is described. Makifilaria Krishnasamy et coll., 1981 is placed in synonymy with Edesonfilaria and the new combination E. inderi (Krishnasamy et coll., 1981) n. comb. is proposed. Edesonfilaria and the closely related genus Macacanema constitute a small evolutionary line of Filariae with a hyperspecialized oesophagus (the glandular portion lacks lumen); the line is restricted to the Indo-Malaysian region and occurs in arboreal Dermopterans, Chiropterans and Primates.
Infective larvae of Wuchereria, Brugia, Breinlia, Dirofilaria and Setaria species from an experimental vector, Aedes togoi, are compared. The distinctive bubble-like caudal papillae of Wuchereria bancrofti are readily distinguishable from the protuberant ones of Brugia spp; the 'ear-like' papillae of Breinlia are distinct from the 'knob-like' ones of Dirofilaria or the 'thorn-like' terminal papilla of Setaria.
Seven of the 18 species of lowland forest terrestrial and semi-arboreal murids were found naturally infected with Breinlia booliati. Of these, two species, Rattus sabanus and R. cremoriventer, were found to be the most preferred hosts. None of the murids from the highland, field or human-inhabited areas was infected. This could have been due more to the greater scarcity of the vectors in these habitats than to the susceptibility of the hosts. The absence of this parasite in the squirrels examined may be attributed either to host specificity or to the normal activity cycles or vertical stratification of the vectors, separating them in space and/or time from the squirrels. The pattern of dispersion of the parasite is influenced by the wide distribution of suitable hosts, and the hypothesis that the parasite is of forest origin is discussed.
Histochemical demonstration of acid phosphatase activity in microfilariae gives sufficiently characteristic and consistent results for the differentiation of even closely related species. No difference could be detected among nocturnally periodic, nocturnally subperiodic and diurnally subperiodic Brugia malayi, but they could readily be distinguished from B. pahangi. Similarly, Dirofilaria repens could be readily distinguished from D. immitis and B. booliati from B. sergenti. The enzyme distribution pattern of a Malaysian rural strain of Wuchereria bancrofti was different from those of other regions.
Breinlia booliati Singh and Ho, 1973 is described from the Malaysian wood rat, Rattus rattus jalorensis Bonhote. The parasites presented here were originally discovered in 1955 in Kuantan, Malaysia, but were not classified until now. On the basis of morphological observations of anatomical structures and comparisons with other species of Breinlia, it was determined that the parasites were B. booliati. The parasites discussed here show slight deviation from B. booliati, but they do not warrant a new species classification. There is some variation in anatomical measurements, the number of male caudal papillae, and the morphology of the microfilariae. Breinlia booliati from a new host is described in this article, with a brief discussion on Rattus species that are hosts of B. booliati and vectors that transmit the parasite. The occurrence of B. booliati in R. r. jalorensis represents the first report of the parasite in this host.
Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae: Onchocercinae) is described based on adult filarioids and microfilariae obtained from subcutaneous connective tissues and skin, respectively, of Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma) in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. No endemic species of the genus had been found in Japan. Recently, some filarioids (e.g., Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Dirofilaria spp., and Onchocerca spp.) have come to light as causative agents of zoonosis worldwide. The new species was readily distinguished from its congeners by morphologic characteristics such as body length, body width, esophagus length, spicule length, and the length of microfilariae. Based on the molecular data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, A. delicata n. sp. was included in the clade of the genus Acanthocheilonema but differed from two other congeneric species available for study, A. viteae and A. reconditum. Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. did not harbor Wolbachia. It is likely that the fauna of filarioids from mammals on the Japanese islands is characterized by a high level of endemicity.
Hard ticks taken from the Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus, in Yamagata Prefecture, Honshu, harboured infective larvae of onchocercid filariae after incubation from the 22nd to the 158th day. Haemaphysalis flava and H. japonica contained one to eight filarial larvae; females, males and a nymph of the ticks were infected. The 44 infective larvae recovered were 612-1,370 μm long, and 11 of them, 930-1,340 μm long, were studied in detail. The larvae possessed the morphologic characteristics of the larvae of the genus Cercopithifilaria, namely an oesophagus with a posterior glandular part, no buccal capsule and a long tail with three terminal lappets. Five types (A to E) of infective larvae were identified based on the morphologic characteristics. While to date five species of Cercopithifilaria have been described from the Japanese serow, a specific identification of the larvae found in this study was generally not possible. Only type E larvae could be tentatively assigned to Cercopithifilaria tumidicervicata, as they had a cervical swelling similar to that of the adults of this species. A key for the identification of the five larval types is presented. The study presents circumstantial evidences indicating that H. flava and H. japonica may transmit Cercopithifilaria spp. to Japanese serows. It also suggests the possibility that such filarial larvae will be found in hard ticks anywhere, because Cercopithifilaria is distributed worldwide, though this genus generally goes unnoticed, as its microfilariae occur in the skin, not in the blood, of host animals.