Snapper had been cultured in Malaysia since 1980 due to the fry availability and the high demand. However, details on the caligids infestation were not properly documented. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, mean intensity and site preference of Caligus rotundigenitalis (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida) a parasitic copepod on cage cultured crimson snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus from Bukit Tambun, Penang, Malaysia. A total of 70 specimens of cultured snapper were examined based on different infestation sites such as head, body as well as operculum. The specimens were separated into three groups according to the size of the fish. C. rotundigenitalis was found to be the only species infesting L. erythropterus with the prevalence and the mean intensity of 81.4% and 5.6±4.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the prevalence of site infestation of the body and inner operculum sites. The prevalence of C. rotundigenitalis was highest on inner operculum of the fish followed by the body and head. However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of C. rotundigenitalis over the different infestation sites derived from the three groups. The information obtained from this study can be used for more effective control measures of ectoparasitic copepod infestation in floating cages.
Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.
Cage-cultured Asian redtail catfish Hemibagrus nemurus (Valenciennes, 1840), a popular food fish in Southeast Asia, proved to be infected by 3 myxozoan species. All the 3 species belonged to the genus Henneguya: 2 were identified as H. mystusia Sarkar, 1985 and H. hemibagri Tchang et Ma, 1993, while the other was described as H. basifilamentalis sp. n. All plasmodia were found in the gills and were characterised by a specific site selection. H. mystusia formed plasmodia in the multi-layered epithelium between the gill lamellae and in the non-lamellar edge of the gill filaments, while H. hemibagri developed in the capillary network of the lamellae. H. basifilamentalis sp. n. had large oval plasmodia located deep among the filaments just above the gill arch.
Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.
Anglerfish from the genus Lophius are a globally important commercial fishery. The microsporidian Spraguea infects the nervous system of these fish resulting in the formation of large, visible parasitic xenomas. Lophius litulon from Japan were investigated to evaluate the intensity and distribution of Spraguea xenomas throughout the nervous system and to assess pathogenicity to the host and possible transmission routes of the parasite. Spraguea infections in L. litulon had a high prevalence; all fish over 403 mm in standard length being infected, with larger fish usually more heavily infected than smaller fish. Seventy percent of all fish examined had some gross visible sign of infection. The initial site of development is the supramedullary cells on the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata, where all infected fish have parasitic xenomas. As the disease progresses, a number of secondary sites typically become infected such as the spinal, trigeminal and vagus nerves. Fish with infection in the vagus nerve bundles often have simultaneous sites of infection, in particular the spinal nerves and along the ventral nerve towards the urinary bladder. Advanced vagus nerve infections sometimes form xenomas adjacent to kidney tissue. Spraguea DNA was amplified from the contents of the urinary bladders of two fish, suggesting that microsporidian spores may be excreted in the urine. We conclude that supramedullary cells on the hindbrain are the primary site of infection, which is probably initiated at the cutaneous mucous glands where supramedullary cells are known to extend their peripheral axons. The prevalence of Spraguea infections in L. litulon was very high, and infections often extremely heavy; however, no associated pathogenicity was observed, and heavily infected fish were otherwise normal.
Tropical iridovirus infection causes severe epizootic resulting in mass mortalities and large economic losses in freshwater ornamental fishes cultured in Southeast Asian countries, in wild fish seedlings captured in South China Sea, and in marine fishes farmed in Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. All of tropical iridovirus-infected fishes histopathologically showed the systemic formation of inclusion body-bearing cells and necrosis of virus-infected splenocytes and hematopoietic cells. We designed primer sets for the ATPase gene and the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and sequenced the PCR products derived from 5 iridovirus isolates from sea bass in South China Sea, red sea bream in Japan, brown-spotted grouper with a grouper sleepy disease in Thailand, dwarf gourami from Malaysia and African lampeye from Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The ATPase gene and the MCP gene of these 5 viral isolates were highly homologous (> 95.8%, > 94.9% identity, respectively) and the deduced amino acid sequences of the ATPase and the MCP were also highly identical (> 98.1%, > 97.2% identity, respectively). Based on the high homology, these 5 isolates of tropical iridovirus from various fishes in geographically different regions were determined to have a single origin and to be native to Southeast Asian regions. However, these sequences were far different from those of members of the genera Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus and Iridovirus in the Family Iridoviridae. We propose a new genus "Tropivirus" for tropical iridovirus in the Family Iridoviridae.
In Southeast Asia, a new disease called scale drop disease (SDD) caused by a novel Megalocytivirus (SDDV) has emerged in farmed Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. We received samples from an Eastern Thai province that also showed gross signs of SDD (loss of scales). Clinical samples of 0.2-1.1 kg L. calcarifer collected between 2016 and 2018 were examined for evidence of SDDV infection. Histopathology was similar to that in the first report of SDDV from Singapore including necrosis, inflammation and nuclear pyknosis and karyorrhexis in the multiple organs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were also observed in the muscle tissue. In a density-gradient fraction from muscle extracts, TEM revealed enveloped, hexagonal megalocytiviral-like particles (~100-180 nm). By PCR using primers derived from the Singaporean SDDV genome sequence, four different genes were amplified and sequenced from the Thai isolate revealing 98.7%-99.9% identity between the two isolates. Since viral inclusions were rarely observed, clinical signs and histopathology could not be used to easily distinguish between SDD caused by bacteria or SDDV. We therefore recommend that PCR screening be used to monitor broodstock, fry and grow-out fish to estimate the current impact of SDDV in Southeast Asia and to prevent its spread.
This study describes the susceptibility of different fish gender following acute Streptococcus agalactiae infection by using Javanese medaka Oryzias javanicus as test fish. The fish were grouped into four groups, which were: (1) all-male; (2) all-female; (3) mixed-gender (1 male: 1 female ratio); and (4) control non-infected (1 male: 1 female ratio). The fish in group 1, 2 and 3 were intraperitoneally exposed to 5.4 × 108 CFU/mL of S. agalactiae, while for group 4, the fish were exposed using sterile broth. The main clinical signs and histopathological changes of infected Javanese medaka were commonly observed in S. agalactiae infected fishes. However, no difference on clinical signs and histopathological changes of fish in group 1, 2 and 3 were noticed. The Javanese medaka mortality in group 1, 2 and 3 were observed from 4 h post infection (hpi) to 6 hpi, with the cumulative mortality from 3% to 30%. Then, the mortality increased at 12 hpi, with the range from 53% to 80%. However, 100% of the infected fish dead at 24 hpi. No clinical sign, histopathological change and fish mortality recorded in group 4. Generally, the clinical signs, mortality patterns, cumulative mortality and histopathological changes of Javanese medaka infected by S. agalactiae did not show any difference between the all-male, all-female and mixed-gender groups. This indicates that the susceptibility of fish to S. agalactiae infection is not influenced by their gender.
This study determines the median lethal dose, and describes the clinico-pathological changes and disease development following Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Javanese medaka model. Javanese medakas were infected with S. agalactiae via intraperitoneal (IP) from 104 to 108 CFU/mL, and immersion (IM) route from 103 to 107 CFU/mL. The LD50-240h and clinico-pathological changes of the fish was determined until 240 h post infection (hpi). Next, the disease development was determined for 96 hpi in the fish following IP and IM infection at 103 CFU/mL and 104 CFU/mL, respectively. The LD50-240h of S. agalactiae in Javanese medaka was lower following IP injection (4.5 × 102 CFU/mL), compared to IM route (3.5 × 103 CFU/mL). The clinical signs included separating from the schooling group, swimming at the surface of water column, lethargy, erratic swimming pattern, corneal opacity and exophthalmia. Histopathological examinations revealed generalized congestion in almost all internal organs, particularly in liver and brain, while the kidney displayed tubular necrosis. Both IP and IM routes showed significant positive correlation (p fish tissue and fish deaths. Moreover, the lesions for histopathological scoring in selected organs following IP and IM challenges were also reflecting the CFU/g and fish deaths. This study indicates the capability of Javanese medaka as a model organism in study of streptococcosis development.
The pathological changes present in 300 red tilapias (Oreochromis spp.) naturally infected by Streptococcus agalactiae are described. The most consistent gross findings were marked congestion of internal organs, particularly the liver, spleen and kidneys. Other features included exophthalmos, softening of the brain and the occasional accumulation of fluid within the abdominal cavity. Microscopical examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion of the liver, spleen and kidneys. The endothelial cells lining major blood vessels of the liver and occasionally the spleen were swollen and vacuolated. There was evidence of vascular thrombosis with infarction of surrounding tissue. Bacterial colonies were noted within and immediately surrounding the affected blood vessels. The meninges were thickened by the infiltration of numerous heterophils. Similar infiltrates of heterophils and lymphocytes were observed in the lamina propria of the intestine. The kidneys were severely congested and haemorrhagic, with extensive interstitial nephritis.
Lesions associated with two species of tapeworms within the digestive tract of wild-caught specimens of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, and the sicklefin weasel shark, Hemigaleus microstoma, from Malaysian Borneo are described. Portions of the glandular stomach and pyloric gut with parasites were removed and fixed in 10% formalin buffered in sea water. Whole mounts, histological sections of tissues with and without worms in situ, and scanning electron microscopy images of detached worms were examined. Both species of cestodes belonged to the trypanorhynch family Tentaculariidae. Heteronybelinia estigmena was found in large numbers parasitizing the pyloric gut of C. leucas; an unidentified tentaculariid was found in relatively small numbers in both the glandular stomach and pyloric gut of H. microstoma. Both species burrowed their scoleces deeply in the mucosa and attached via hooked tentacles and unciniform microtriches of the scolex. The lesions induced by the parasites were marked in both sharks and ranged from acute necrotizing to chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis. Regenerative hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelium were also present. The severity and character of pathology was causally linked to the intensity of infection, the attachment mode of the parasites, and to the anatomophysiological relationships within the gut of the host shark.
Cage-cultured sutchi catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878), a favourite food fish in Southeast Asia, proved to be infected by 6 myxozoan species. Three species belonged to the genus Hennegoides (H. berlandi, H. malayensis, and H. pangasii), 1 to Henneguya (H. shariffi) and 2 to Myxobolus (M. baskai, and M. pangasii). Five myxozoans infected the gills and 1 was found on the spleen. Myxozoans infecting the gills were characterised by a specific site selection. H. shariffi sp. n. and H. berlandi sp. n. formed plasmodia in the multi-layered epithelium of the gill filaments. Of the 2 vascular species H. pangasii sp. n. developed in the gill arteries, while M. baskai sp. n. infected the capillary network of the gill lamellae. Plasmodia of H. malayensis sp. n. were found inside the cartilaginous gill rays of the filaments. Large plasmodia of M. pangasii sp. n. were located in a groove of the spleen but they affected only the serosa layer covering the spleen.
Culture of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. This fish is in high demand and fetches a good price in the local market. The seed for this fish is commercially produced by induced spawning in hatcheries. However, the seed supply is affected by frequent mass mortality of larvae aged between 15 and 60 dph. The clinical signs shown by the affected larvae include lethargy, loss of appetite, uncoordinated swimming, unusual spiral movement pattern and dark coloration. Histological examination of brain and eye of the affected specimens revealed extensive cell vacuolation in larvae aged 15-25 dph. Partial nucleotide sequence of the nervous necrosis virus coat protein gene of the affected larvae showed 94.0-96.1% homology to the nucleotide sequences of coat protein gene from nervous necrosis virus isolated from other countries in the Southeast Asia and Australia. This study provides scientific evidence based on molecular technique that many episodes of mass mortality in seabass larvae in Sabah is associated with the viral nervous necrosis. Because no effective treatment has been reported for this infection, stringent biosecurity measures must be adopted for exclusion of the pathogen from the culture system.
Commercial fisheries of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus have been carried out in Iceland for centuries. Traditionally the most valuable part is the eggs which are harvested for use as a caviar substitute.Previously reported parasitic infections from lumpfish include an undescribed intranuclear microsporidian associated with abnormal kidneys and mortalities in captive lumpfish in Canada. During Icelandic lumpfish fisheries in spring 2011, extensive enlargements to the kidneys were observed in some fish during processing. The aim of this study was to identify the pathogen responsible for these abnormalities.
Cruoricola lates are found throughout sea bass (Lates calcarifer), most commonly in the mesenteric blood vessels, kidney, pericardial vessels, and eye. Eggs of C. lates were predominantly found in the gills, ventricle, hepatopancreas, and kidneys, but only develop to miracidia regularly in the gills and heart. Single miracidia escaping appear to cause little damage, but groups induce an inflammatory response and haemorrhage. Endocardial macrophages encapsulate eggs trapped between trabeculae in the heart. The reaction to eggs in the kidneys, hepatopancreas and spleen consists of fibrocytic encapsulation. Infection at the levels observed in this study were insufficient to cause lethal pathological changes, but could result in reduced food conversion ratios or impaired immunological capacity.
The ciliated protozoan parasite Cryptocaryon irritans infecting marine fishes in Taiwan is described. Developmental characteristics and sequences of the ribosomal DNA regions such as part of 18 S, the entire first internal transcribed spacer, and part of 5.8 S of various Taiwan isolates of C. irritans were investigated. A total of 5 isolates was obtained from different fish-host species and localities, the majority from cultured fish species. C. irritans from Taiwan is able to shift its developmental characteristics, i.e. from non-adherent to adherent tomonts, from individualistic to aggregate-forming tomonts, from infection of the gills only to infection of the gills and body. Thus, it is not possible to classify strains of C. irritans on the basis of these parameters. Premature tomonts that developed from dead fishes were able to produce theronts that could infect fish host. Isolates from Pingtung and the USA had identical nucleotide sequences while an isolate from Malaysia was identical to an Israel isolate. Percentage variation among pairs of Taiwan isolates showed a higher degree of variation than isolate sequences listed in GenBank. Sequence analysis revealed highly aberrant isolates in Taiwan, and a phylogenetic tree distinguished a marine and a low-salinity variant. C. irritans from marine fishes in Taiwan, therefore, display some characteristics not previously reported. Since manipulation of salinity in brackishwater ponds and marine cage sites is not feasible, there is a need to develop new strategies for the control and prevention of cryptocaryoniasis.
Many species of ornamental freshwater fishes are imported into Japan from all over the world. We found African lampeye Aplocheilichthys normani and dwarf gourami Colisa lalia suffering from an iridovirus infection just after being imported by tropical fish wholesalers from Singapore. African lampeye were cultured on the Indonesian Island of Sumatra and dwarf gourami were cultured in Malaysia before export. Diseased fishes displayed distinct histopathological signs of iridovirus infection: systemic appearance of inclusion body-bearing cells, and necrosis of splenocytes and hematopoietic cells. Electron microscopy revealed viral particles (African lampeye:180 to 200 nm in edge to edge diameter; dwarf gourami: 140 to 150 nm in diameter) in an inclusion body within the cytoplasm of inclusion body-bearing cells as well as in the cytoplasm of necrotized cells. Experimental infection with an iridovirus isolate from African lampeye (ALIV) revealed pathogenicity of ALIV to African lampeye and pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from ALIV and an iridovirus isolate from dwarf gourami (DGIV) using iridovirus-specific primers were indistinguishable. The nucleotide sequence of PCR products derived from ALIV (696 base pairs) and DGIV (701 base pairs) had 95.3% identity. These results indicate that ALIV and DGIV have a single origin.