Enterococcus faecium is an opportunistic pathogen with a remarkable ability to acquire resistance toward multiple antibiotics, including those of last-resort drugs such as vancomycin and daptomycin. The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium is on the rise and there is a need to understand the virulence of this organism. One of the factors that contributes to the virulence is the ability to form biofilms. Since bacteria in biofilm state are more resistant to antibiotics and host immune response, understanding the molecular mechanism of biofilm development is important to control biofilm-related diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the global gene expression profiles of an E. faecium strain, VREr5, during the early event of sessile growth compared with its planktonic phase through RNA-sequencing approach. The results clearly illustrated distinct expression profiles of the planktonic and biofilm cells. A total of 177 genes were overexpressed in the biofilm cells. Most of them encode for proteins involved in adherence, such as the ebpABCfm locus. Genes associated with plasmid replication, gene exchange, and protein synthesis were also upregulated during the early event of biofilm development. Furthermore, the transcriptome analysis also identified genes such as fsrB, luxS, and spx that might suppress biofilm formation in VREr5. The putative biofilm-related bee locus was found to be downregulated. These new findings could provide caveats for future studies on the regulation and maintenance of biofilm and development of biomarkers for biofilm-related diseases.
In this study, 90 non-replicate imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) Malaysian isolates collected between October 2005 and March 2008 were subjected to a screening test for detection of the integron and the gene cassette. Class 1 integrons were detected in 54 IRPA clinical isolates, whilst three isolates contained class 2 integrons. Analysis of the gene cassettes associated with the class 1 integrons showed the detection of accC1 in isolates carrying bla(IMP-7) and aacA7 in isolates carrying bla(VIM-2). aadA6 was detected in two isolates carrying bla(IMP-4). Using random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, 14 PCR fingerprint patterns were generated from the 32 isolates carrying metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes (35.5 %), whilst 20 patterns were generated from the 58 non-MBL gene isolates (64.4 %). Based on the differences in the fingerprinting patterns, two clusters (A and B) were identified among the MBL-producing isolates. Cluster A comprised 18 isolates (56 %) carrying the bla(VIM) gene, whereas cluster B comprised 14 (44 %) isolates carrying the bla(IMP) gene. The non-MBL isolates were divided into clusters C and D. Cluster C comprised 22 non-MBL isolates harbouring class 1 integrons, whilst cluster D consisted of three isolates carrying class 2 integrons. These findings suggest that the class 1 integron is widespread among P. aeruginosa isolated in Malaysia and that characterization of cassette arrays of integrons will be a useful epidemiological tool to study the evolution of multidrug resistance and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.
Phenotypic variation in biofilm formation is common in clinical isolates of S. epidermidis. In the current study, nearly 5% of all clinical isolates analysed showed phenotypic variation in biofilm forming ability and electrophoretic mobility (EM). This is the first report of S. epidermidis strains irreversibly switching from biofilm-positive to biofilm-negative phenotype by spontaneous deletion of icaADBC genes which represents a new, possibly common mechanism of phenotypic variation.
Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae, is a leading cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) with rapid development of multi-drug resistance. Identification of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), which belongs to a class of RNAs that do not translate into a protein, could permit the comprehension of the regulatory roles this molecules play in mediating pathogenesis and multi-drug resistance of the organism. In this study, comparative sRNA analysis across three different members of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium) was carried out to identify the sRNA homologs in P. mirabilis. A total of 232 sRNA genes that were reported in E. coli, S. typhi and S. typhimurium were subjected to comparative analysis against P. mirabilis HI4320 genome. We report the detection of 14 sRNA candidates, conserved in the orthologous regions of P. mirabilis, that are not included in Rfam database. Northern-blot analysis was carried out for selected three sRNA candidates from the current investigation and three known sRNA from Rfam of P. mirabilis. The expression pattern of the six sRNA candidates shows that they are growth stage-dependant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of sRNA candidates in P. mirabilis.