Displaying all 5 publications

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  1. Inayat-Hussain SH, Fukumura M, Muiz Aziz A, Jin CM, Jin LW, Garcia-Milian R, et al.
    Environ Int, 2018 08;117:348-358.
    PMID: 29793188 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.05.010
    BACKGROUND: Recent trends have witnessed the global growth of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production. Epidemiologic studies have suggested associations between proximity to UOG operations with increased adverse birth outcomes and cancer, though specific potential etiologic agents have not yet been identified. To perform effective risk assessment of chemicals used in UOG production, the first step of hazard identification followed by prioritization specifically for reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity is crucial in an evidence-based risk assessment approach. To date, there is no single hazard classification list based on the United Nations Globally Harmonized System (GHS), with countries applying the GHS standards to generate their own chemical hazard classification lists. A current challenge for chemical prioritization, particularly for a multi-national industry, is inconsistent hazard classification which may result in misjudgment of the potential public health risks. We present a novel approach for hazard identification followed by prioritization of reproductive toxicants found in UOG operations using publicly available regulatory databases.

    METHODS: GHS classification for reproductive toxicity of 157 UOG-related chemicals identified as potential reproductive or developmental toxicants in a previous publication was assessed using eleven governmental regulatory agency databases. If there was discordance in classifications across agencies, the most stringent classification was assigned. Chemicals in the category of known or presumed human reproductive toxicants were further evaluated for carcinogenicity and germ cell mutagenicity based on government classifications. A scoring system was utilized to assign numerical values for reproductive health, cancer and germ cell mutation hazard endpoints. Using a Cytoscape analysis, both qualitative and quantitative results were presented visually to readily identify high priority UOG chemicals with evidence of multiple adverse effects.

    RESULTS: We observed substantial inconsistencies in classification among the 11 databases. By adopting the most stringent classification within and across countries, 43 chemicals were classified as known or presumed human reproductive toxicants (GHS Category 1), while 31 chemicals were classified as suspected human reproductive toxicants (GHS Category 2). The 43 reproductive toxicants were further subjected to analysis for carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Calculated hazard scores and Cytoscape visualization yielded several high priority chemicals including potassium dichromate, cadmium, benzene and ethylene oxide.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal diverging GHS classification outcomes for UOG chemicals across regulatory agencies. Adoption of the most stringent classification with application of hazard scores provides a useful approach to prioritize reproductive toxicants in UOG and other industries for exposure assessments and selection of safer alternatives.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/analysis*
  2. Karwowski MP, Morman SA, Plumlee GS, Law T, Kellogg M, Woolf AD
    Environ Geochem Health, 2017 Oct;39(5):1133-1143.
    PMID: 27704308 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-016-9881-6
    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant's venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/analysis
  3. Rampal KG, Mohd Nizam J
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2006 Nov;46(2):131-5.
    PMID: 16899331
    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/analysis*
  4. Kassim A, Halmi MIE, Gani SSA, Zaidan UH, Othman R, Mahmud K, et al.
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2020 Jun 15;196:110527.
    PMID: 32278138 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110527
    Assessment of eco-toxicant using bioluminescent bacterial assay is a widely used and globally accepted method. In this work, a new luminescent bacterium was isolated from squid (Loligo duvauceli) and identified as Photobacterium leiognathi strain AK-MIE using 16S rRNA, phylogeny analysis. The predicted optimum conditions by RSM were 2.76% (w/v) NaCl, 2.28% (w/v) peptone, 0.34% (w/v) yeast extract, and pH 6.83 with 541,211.80 RLU of luminescent production whereas the predicted optimum conditions by ANN were 2.21% (w/v) NaCl, 2.27% (w/v) peptone, 0.39% (w/v) yeast extract, and pH 6.94 which produced 541,986.20 RLU. The validation analysis of both RSM and ANN show 0.60% and 0.69% deviation from the predicted results indicating that both models provided good quality predictions with ANN showing a superior data fitting capability for non-linear regression analysis. Toxicity tests show strain AK-MIE was sensitive to mercury (concentration causing 50% inhibition or IC50 of 0.00978 mgL-1), followed by cadmium (IC50 of 0.5288 mgL-1), copper IC50 of (0.8117 mgL-1), silver (IC50 of 1.109 mgL-1), and lead (IC50 of 10.71 mgL-1) which are more sensitive than previously isolated luminescent bacteria, suggesting that strain AK-MIE has the potential to be used in toxicity assessment of heavy metals in the environment. Based on the field trial results, several sediment samples from industrial areas in Bangi, Selangor managed to inhibit the bioluminescence of strain AK-MIE. Validation method carried out using ICP-MS proved the presence of several toxic heavy metal elements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/analysis*
  5. Sakai N, Dayana E, Abu Bakar A, Yoneda M, Nik Sulaiman NM, Ali Mohd M
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Oct;188(10):592.
    PMID: 27679511
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites. Therefore, the PCB load was estimated to be negligible during the sampling period because PCBs have an extremely long half-life. The PCBs, particularly higher chlorinated biphenyls, could be thoroughly dechlorinated to mono-CBs to tri-CBs by microbial decomposition in sediment or could still be accumulated in the sediment. The lower chlorinated biphenyls, however, could be resuspended or desorbed from the sediment because they have faster desorption rates and higher solubility, compared to the higher chlorinated biphenyls. The health risk for the Malaysia population by PCB intake that was estimated from the local fish consumption (7.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and tap water consumption (1.5 × 10(-3)-3.1 × 10(-3) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) based on the detected PCB levels in the surface water was considered to be minimal. The hazard quotient based on the tolerable daily intake (20 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) was estimated at 0.36.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hazardous Substances/analysis
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