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  1. Cheah WK, Ishikawa K, Othman R, Yeoh FY
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2017 07;105(5):1232-1240.
    PMID: 26913694 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.33475
    Hemodialysis, one of the earliest artificial kidney systems, removes uremic toxins via diffusion through a semipermeable porous membrane into the dialysate fluid. Miniaturization of the present hemodialysis system into a portable and wearable device to maintain continuous removal of uremic toxins would require that the amount of dialysate used within a closed-system is greatly reduced. Diffused uremic toxins within a closed-system dialysate need to be removed to maintain the optimum concentration gradient for continuous uremic toxin removal by the dialyzer. In this dialysate regenerative system, adsorption of uremic toxins by nanoporous biomaterials is essential. Throughout the years of artificial kidney development, activated carbon has been identified as a potential adsorbent for uremic toxins. Adsorption of uremic toxins necessitates nanoporous biomaterials, especially activated carbon. Nanoporous biomaterials are also utilized in hemoperfusion for uremic toxin removal. Further miniaturization of artificial kidney system and improvements on uremic toxin adsorption capacity would require high performance nanoporous biomaterials which possess not only higher surface area, controlled pore size, but also designed architecture or structure and surface functional groups. This article reviews on various nanoporous biomaterials used in current artificial kidney systems and several emerging nanoporous biomaterials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1232-1240, 2017.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidneys, Artificial*
  2. Ramatillah DL, Syed Sulaiman SA, Khan AH
    J Glob Infect Dis, 2018 6 19;10(2):37-41.
    PMID: 29910562 DOI: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_85_17
    Background: According to the Association of Nephrologist in Indonesia (Pernefri) recommendation, isolation and using special hemodialysis machines are not necessary for hemodialysis (HD) patients who have been infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV), while according to the Ministry of Health Malaysia recommendation, hepatitis C patients should be dialyzed in a separate room or a separate area with a fixed partition and dedicated machines.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between the recommendation which had been followed by two HD centers in different countries and the impact of that on the hepatitis C infection issue.

    Methods: A cohort prospective and retrospective study was done in this research. The study included HD patients who were followed up for 9 months and who died in the last 5 years. Universal sampling was used to select the patients based on inclusion criteria.

    Results: There was a significant relationship between HCV during the first checkup and HCV during the second checkup during the 9-month follow-up of HD patients in a HD center, Jakarta, Indonesia. The total number of patients who had hepatitis C during the first and second checkups was also different in this HD center.

    Conclusion: Besides providing special HD rooms and machines for HD patients with hepatitis C, minimizing blood transfusion to the patients on HD is also important to reduce the chance for the patients to acquire hepatitis C and to increase the percentage of survival.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidneys, Artificial
  3. Ramatillah DL, Syed Sulaiman SA, Khan AH, Meng OL
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):229-238.
    PMID: 29456373 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_191_17
    Background: Quality of life is one of the parameters to check the improvement of hemodialysis treatment among hemodialysed patients. Those patients will be dealing with this treatment in long term if this treatment is the only way for them to replace their kidney function and this thing will affect their quality of life.
    Objective: To evaluate the quality of life patients on hemodialysis using kidney disease quality of life-short term 24 (KDQoL-SF24) Malaysian Version.
    Materials and Methods: Cohort observational study was conducted in this study. The study included 78 hemodialysed patients in HD center Penang, Malaysia.
    Results: There were 9 components which had the lower of the mean and standard deviation (SD) than the standard form; work status (15.01 ± 35.57), cognitive function (75.66 ± 13.75), quality of life social interaction (76.32 ± 16.11), sleep (55.86 ± 15.30), social support (59.61 ± 22.08), patient satisfaction (43.24 ± 15.32), physical functioning (50.06 ± 42.81), general health (29.62 ± 25.56), and role emotional (54.27 ± 49.92). In this HD center, the group of patient's age who had the lower mean ± SD from the KDQoL-SF Manual Standard were the first and the sixth groups of patient's age (≤20 and 61-70).
    Conclusion: The study conducted in HD center, Penang, Malaysia showed that the scoring of work status, cognitive function, quality of social interaction, sleep, social support, patient satisfaction, physical functioning, general health, and role emotional were low than standard form.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidneys, Artificial
  4. Menon PS, Said FA, Mei GS, Berhanuddin DD, Umar AA, Shaari S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(7):e0201228.
    PMID: 30052647 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201228
    This work investigates the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) response of 50-nm thick nano-laminated gold film using Kretschmann-based biosensing for detection of urea and creatinine in solution of various concentrations (non-enzymatic samples). Comparison was made with the presence of urease and creatininase enzymes in the urea and creatinine solutions (enzymatic samples), respectively. Angular interrogation technique was applied using optical wavelengths of 670 nm and 785 nm. The biosensor detects the presence of urea and creatinine at concentrations ranging from 50-800 mM for urea samples and 10-200 mM for creatinine samples. The purpose of studying the enzymatic sample was mainly to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor towards urea and creatinine in the samples. Upon exposure to 670 nm optical wavelength, the sensitivity of 1.4°/M was detected in non-enzymatic urea samples and 4°/M in non-enzymatic creatinine samples. On the other hand, sensor sensitivity as high as 16.2°/M in urea-urease samples and 10°/M in creatinine-creatininase samples was detected. The enhanced sensitivity possibly attributed to the increase in refractive index of analyte sensing layer due to urea-urease and creatinine-creatininase coupling activity. This work has successfully proved the design and demonstrated a proof-of-concept experiment using a low-cost and easy fabrication of Kretschmann based nano-laminated gold film SPR biosensor for detection of urea and creatinine using urease and creatininase enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidneys, Artificial
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