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  1. Inayat-Hussain SH, Rajab NF, Roslie H, Hussin AA, Ali AM, Annuar BO
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:176-7.
    PMID: 15468875
    Biomaterials intended for end-use application as bone-graft substitutes have to undergo safety evaluation. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effects especially to determine the mode of death of two hydroxyapatite compounds (HA2, HA3) which were synthesized locally. The methods used for cytotoxicity was the standard MTT assay whereas AO/PI staining was performed to determine the mode of cell death in HA treated L929 fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that both HA2 and HA3 were not significantly cytotoxic as more than 75% cells after 72 hours treatment were viable. Furthermore, we found that the major mode of cell death in HA treated cells was apoptosis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these hydroxyapatite compounds are not cytotoxic where the mode of death was primarily via apoptosis.
  2. Rajab NF, Yaakob TA, Ong BY, Hamid M, Ali AM, Annuar BO, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:170-1.
    PMID: 15468872
    Hydroxyapatite is the main component of the bone which is a potential biomaterial substance that can be applied in orthopaedics. In this study, the biocompatibility of this biomaterial was assessed using an in vitro technique. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effect of HA2 and HA3 against L929 fibroblast cell was evaluated using the MTT Assay and Alkaline Comet Assay respectively. Both HA2 and HA3 compound showed low cytotoxicity effect as determined using MTT Assay. Cells viability following 72 hours incubation at maximum concentration of both HA2 and HA3 (200 mg/ml) were 75.3 +/- 8.8% and 86.7 +/- 13.1% respectively. However, the cytotoxicity effect of ZnSO4.7H2O as a positive control showed an IC50 values of 46 mg/ml (160 microM). On the other hand, both HA2 and HA3 compound showed a slight genotoxicity effect as determined using the Alkaline Comet Assay following incubation at the concentration 200 mg/ml for 72 hours. This assay has been widely used in genetic toxicology to detect DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile site. The percentage of the cells with DNA damage for both substance was 27.7 +/- 1.3% and 15.6 +/- 1.0% for HA2 and HA3 respectively. Incubation of the cells for 24 hours with 38 microg/ml (IC25) of positive control showed an increase in percentage of cells with DNA damage (67.5 +/- 0.7%). In conclusion, our study indicated that both hydroxyapatite compounds showed a good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells.
  3. Ahmad Z, Rasouli M, Azman AZ, Omar AR
    BMC Biotechnol, 2012 Sep 19;12:64.
    PMID: 22989329 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-12-64
    BACKGROUND: Gene therapy could provide an effective treatment of diabetes. Previous studies have investigated the potential for several cell and tissue types to produce mature and active insulin. Gut K and L-cells could be potential candidate hosts for gene therapy because of their special features.

    RESULTS: In this study, we isolated gut K and L-cells to compare the potential of both cell types to produce insulin when exposed to similar conditions. The isolated pure K and L-cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids encoding insulin and with specific promoters for K or L-cells. Insulin expression was studied in response to glucose or meat hydrolysate. We found that glucose and meat hydrolysate efficiently induced insulin secretion from K and L-cells. However, the effects of meat hydrolysate on insulin secretion were more potent in both cells compared with glucose. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that L-cells secreted more insulin compared with K-cells regardless of the stimulator, although this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION: The responses of K and L-cells to stimulation with glucose or meat hydrolysate were generally comparable. Therefore, both K and L-cells show similar potential to be used as surrogate cells for insulin gene expression in vitro. The potential use of these cells for diabetic gene therapy warrants further investigation.

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