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  1. Low VL, Chen CD, Lee HL, Tan TK, Chen CF, Leong CS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(11):e79928.
    PMID: 24278220 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079928
    There has been no comprehensive study on biochemical characterization of insecticide resistance mechanisms in field populations of Malaysian Culex quinquefasciatus. To fill this void in the literature, a nationwide investigation was performed to quantify the enzyme activities, thereby attempting to characterize the potential resistance mechanisms in Cx. quinquefasciatus in residential areas in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism*
  2. Abdul Aziz FA, Suzuki K, Honjo M, Amano K, Mohd Din ARJB, Tashiro Y, et al.
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2021 Jan;131(1):77-83.
    PMID: 33268319 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.09.009
    The coexisting mechanism of a synthetic bacterial community (SBC) was investigated to better understand how to manage microbial communities. The SBC was constructed with three kinds of phenol-utilizing bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. LAB-08, Comamonas testosteroni R2, and Cupriavidus sp. P-10, under chemostat conditions supplied with phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. Population densities of all strains were monitored by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the gene encoding the large subunit of phenol hydroxylase. Although the supply of phenol was stopped to allow perturbation in the SBC, all of the strains coexisted and the degradation of phenol was maintained for more than 800 days. The qPCR analyses showed that strains LAB-08 and R2 became dominant simultaneously, whereas strain P-10 was a minor population. This phenomenon was observed before and after the phenol-supply stoppage. The kinetic parameters for phenol of the SBC changed before and after the phenol-supply stoppage, which suggests a change in functional roles of strains in the SBC. Transcriptional levels of phenol hydroxylase and catechol dioxygenases of three strains were monitored by reverse-transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR). The RT-qPCR analyses revealed that all strains shared phenol and survived independently before the phenol-supply stoppage. After the stoppage, strain P-10 would incur the cost for degradation of phenol and catechol, whereas strains LAB-08 and R2 seemed to be cheaters using metabolites, indicating the development of the metabolic network. These results indicated that it is important for the management and redesign of microbial communities to understand the metabolism of bacterial communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism
  3. Hanifiah FHA, Abdullah SNA, Othman A, Shaharuddin NA, Saud HM, Hasnulhadi HAH, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2018 Aug;37(8):1127-1143.
    PMID: 29789886 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-018-2300-y
    KEY MESSAGE: TAAAAT and a novel motif, GCTTCA found in the oil palm stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1) promoter are involved in regulating mesocarp-specific expression. Two key fatty acid biosynthetic genes, stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1), and acyl-carrier protein (ACP3) in Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) showed high level of expression during the period of oil synthesis in the mesocarp [12-19 weeks after anthesis (w.a.a.)] and kernel (12-15 w.a.a.). Both genes are expressed in spear leaves at much lower levels and the expression increased by 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold following treatments with ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). Both SAD1 and ACP3 promoters contain phytohormone-responsive, light-responsive, abiotic factors/wounding-responsive, endosperm specificity and fruit maturation/ripening regulatory motifs. The activities of the full length and six 5' deletion fragments of the SAD1 promoter were analyzed in transiently transformed oil palm tissues by quantitative β-glucuronidase (GUS) fluorometric assay. The highest SAD1 promoter activity was observed in the mesocarp followed by kernel and the least in the leaves. GUS activity in the D3 deletion construct (- 486 to + 108) was the highest, while the D2 (- 535 to + 108) gave the lowest suggesting the presence of negative cis-acting regulatory element(s) in the deleted - 535 to - 486 (49 bp). It was found that the 49-bp region binds to the nuclear protein extract from mesocarp but not from leaves in electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Further fine-tuned analysis of this 49-bp region using truncated DNA led to the identification of GCTTCA as a novel motif in the SAD1 promoter. Interestingly, another known fruit ripening-related motif, LECPLEACS2 (TAAAAT) was found to be required for effective binding of the novel motif to the mesocarp nuclear protein extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism*
  4. Basri RS, Rahman RNZRA, Kamarudin NHA, Ali MSM
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Dec 01;164:3155-3162.
    PMID: 32841666 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.162
    The conversion of aldehydes to valuable alkanes via cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylating oxygenase is of great interest. The availability of fossil reserves that keep on decreasing due to human exploitation is worrying, and even more troubling is the combustion emission from the fuel, which contributes to the environmental crisis and health issues. Hence, it is crucial to use a renewable and eco-friendly alternative that yields compound with the closest features as conventional petroleum-based fuel, and that can be used in biofuels production. Cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a metal-dependent enzyme with an α-helical structure that contains di‑iron at the active site. The substrate enters the active site of every ADO through a hydrophobic channel. This enzyme exhibits catalytic activity toward converting Cn aldehyde to Cn-1 alkane and formate as a co-product. These cyanobacterial enzymes are small and easy to manipulate. Currently, ADOs are broadly studied and engineered for improving their enzymatic activity and substrate specificity for better alkane production. This review provides a summary of recent progress in the study of the structure and function of ADO, structural-based engineering of the enzyme, and highlight its potential in producing biofuels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism*
  5. Jusoh M, Loh SH, Chuah TS, Aziz A, Cha TS
    Phytochemistry, 2015 Mar;111:65-71.
    PMID: 25583439 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.12.022
    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism
  6. Saed Taha R, Ismail I, Zainal Z, Abdullah SN
    J. Plant Physiol., 2012 Sep 01;169(13):1290-300.
    PMID: 22658816 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2012.05.001
    The stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase is a plastid-localized enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyl-ACP and plays an important role in the determination of the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. Functional characterization of the fatty acid desaturase genes and their specific promoters is a prerequisite for altering the composition of unsaturated fatty acids of palm oil by genetic engineering. In this paper, the specificity and strength of the oil palm stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene promoter (Des) was evaluated in transgenic tomato plants. Transcriptional fusions between 5' deletions of the Des promoter (Des1-4) and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were generated and their expression analyzed in different tissues of stably transformed tomato plants. Histochemical analysis of the Des promoter deletion series revealed that GUS gene expression was confined to the tomato fruits. No expression was detected in vegetative tissues of the transgenic plants. The highest levels of GUS activity was observed in different tissues of ripe red fruits (vascular tissue, septa, endocarp, mesocarp and columella) and in seeds, which harbored the promoter region located between -590 and +10. A comparison of the promoter-deletion constructs showed that the Des4 promoter deletion (314bp) produced a markedly low level of GUS expression in fruits and seeds. Fluorometric analysis of the GUS activity revealed a 4-fold increase in the activity of the full-length Des promoter compared to the CaMV35S promoter. RNA-hybridization analyses provided additional evidence of increased GUS expression in fruits driven by a Des fragment. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of the Des promoter as a tool for the genetic engineering of oil palms and other species, including dicots, in improving the quality and nutritional value of the fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism*
  7. Alizadeh F, Abdullah SN, Khodavandi A, Abdullah F, Yusuf UK, Chong PP
    J. Plant Physiol., 2011 Jul 01;168(10):1106-13.
    PMID: 21333381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2010.12.007
    The expression profiles of Δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD1 and SAD2) and type 3 metallothionein (MT3-A and MT3-B) were investigated in seedlings of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) artificially inoculated with the pathogenic fungus Ganoderma boninense and the symbiotic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Expression of SAD1 and MT3-A in roots and SAD2 in leaves were significantly up-regulated in G. boninense inoculated seedlings at 21 d after treatment when physical symptoms had not yet appeared and thereafter decreased to basal levels when symptoms became visible. Our finding demonstrated that the SAD1 expression in leaves was significantly down-regulated to negligible levels at 42 and 63 d after treatment. The transcripts of MT3 genes were synthesized in G. boninense inoculated leaves at 42 d after treatment, and the analyses did not show detectable expression of these genes before 42 d after treatment. In T. harzianum inoculated seedlings, the expression levels of SAD1 and SAD2 increased gradually and were stronger in roots than leaves, while for MT3-A and MT3-B, the expression levels were induced in leaves at 3d after treatment and subsequently maintained at same levels until 63d after treatment. The MT3-A expression was significantly up-regulated in roots at 3d after treatment and thereafter were maintained at this level. Both SAD and MT3 expression were maintained at maximum levels or at levels higher than basal. This study demonstrates that oil palm was able to distinguish between pathogenic and symbiotic fungal interactions, thus resulting in different transcriptional activation profiles of SAD and MT3 genes. Increases in expression levels of SAD and MT3 would lead to enhanced resistance against G. boninense and down-regulation of genes confer potential for invasive growth of the pathogen. Differences in expression profiles of SAD and MT3 relate to plant resistance mechanisms while supporting growth enhancing effects of symbiotic T. harzianum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism
  8. Leong CS, Vythilingam I, Wong ML, Wan Sulaiman WY, Lau YL
    Acta Trop, 2018 Sep;185:115-126.
    PMID: 29758171 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.05.008
    The resistance status of Selangor Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Aedes aegypti were susceptible against temephos (organophosphate), although resistance (RR50 = 0.21-2.64) may be developing. The insecticides susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti larvae were found heterogeneous among the different study sites. Results showed that Ae. aegypti larvae from Klang, Sabak Bernam and Sepang were susceptible against all insecticides tested. However, other study sites exhibited low to high resistance against all pyrethroids (RR50 = 1.19-32.16). Overall, the application of synergists ethacrynic acid, S.S.S.- tributylphosphorotrithioate and piperonyl butoxide increased the toxicity of insecticides investigated. However, the application failed to increase the mortality to susceptible level (>97%) for certain populations, therefore there are chances of alteration of target site resistance involved. Biochemical assays revealed that α-esterase, (Gombak, Kuala Langat, Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains) β-esterase (Klang and Sabak Bernam strains), acetylcholinesterase (Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains), glutathione-S-transferase (Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains) and mono-oxygenases (Gombak, Hulu Langat, Hulu Selangor and Kuala Langat strains) were elevated. Spearman rank-order correlation indicated a significant correlation between resistance ratios of: DDT and deltamethrin (r = 0.683, P = 0.042), cyfluthrin and deltamethrin (r = 0.867, P =0.002), cyflyuthrin and lambdacyhalothrin (r = 0.800, P =0.010), cyfluthrin and permethrin (r = 0.770, P =0.015) deltamethrin and permethrin (r = 0.803, P =0.088), propoxur and malathion (r = 0.867, P = 0.002), malathion and temephos (r = 0.800, P = 0.010), etofenprox and MFO enzyme (r = 0.667, P =0.050). The current study provides baseline information for vector control programs conducted by local authorities. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti should be monitored sporadically to ensure the effectiveness of current vector control strategy in Selangor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism
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