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  1. Yam MF, Loh YC, Tan CS, Khadijah Adam S, Abdul Manan N, Basir R
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Jul 24;19(8).
    PMID: 30042373 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19082164
    Pain has been considered as a concept of sensation that we feel as a reaction to the stimulus of our surrounding, putting us in harm's way and acting as a form of defense mechanism that our body has permanently installed into its system. However, pain leads to a huge chunk of finances within the healthcare system with continuous rehabilitation of patients with adverse pain sensations, which might reduce not only their quality of life but also their productivity at work setting back the pace of our economy. It may not look like a huge deal but factor in pain as an issue for majority of us, it becomes an economical burden. Although pain has been researched into and understood by numerous researches, from its definition, mechanism of action to its inhibition in hopes of finding an absolute solution for victims of pain, the pathways of pain sensation, neurotransmitters involved in producing such a sensation are not comprehensively reviewed. Therefore, this review article aims to put in place a thorough understanding of major pain conditions that we experience-nociceptive, inflammatory and physiologically dysfunction, such as neuropathic pain and its modulation and feedback systems. Moreover, the complete mechanism of conduction is compiled within this article, elucidating understandings from various researches and breakthroughs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nociceptive Pain/drug therapy
  2. Kamarudin N, Hisamuddin N, Ong HM, Ahmad Azmi AF, Leong SW, Abas F, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 21;23(9).
    PMID: 30134576 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092099
    Curcuminoids derived from turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the peripheral and central antinociceptive activities of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue at 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), through chemical and thermal models of nociception. The effects of DHHPD on the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems were evaluated through the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. Results showed that DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the writhing response produced by the 0.8% acetic acid injection. In addition, 1 and 3 mg/kg of DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time spent by each mouse in both phases of the 2.5% formalin test and increased the response latency of mice on the hot-plate. However, the effect produced in the latter was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Despite this, DHHPD decreased the licking latency of mice in the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests in a dose response manner. In conclusion, DHHPD showed excellent peripheral and central antinociceptive activities possibly by attenuation of the synthesis and/or release of pro-inflammatory mediators in addition to modulation of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems without an apparent effect on the opioidergic system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nociceptive Pain/drug therapy*
  3. Ismail NI, Ming-Tatt L, Lajis N, Akhtar MN, Akira A, Perimal EK, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Aug 22;21(8).
    PMID: 27556438 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21081077
    The antinociceptive effects produced by intraperitoneal administration of a novel synthetic chalcone, 3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (DMFP), were investigated in several mouse models of induced nociception. The administration of DMFP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) produced significant attenuation on the acetic acid-induced abdominal-writhing test. It also produced a significant increase in response latency time in the hot-plate test and a marked reduction in time spent licking the injected paw in both phases of the formalin-induced paw-licking test. In addition, it was also demonstrated that DMFP exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociceptive response induced by intraplantar injections of capsaicin and glutamate. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of DMFP in the acetic acid-induced abdominal-writhing test and the hot-plate test was not antagonized by pretreatment with a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Finally, DMFP did not show any toxic effects and/or mortality in a study of acute toxicity and did not interfere with motor coordination during the Rota-rod test. Our present results show that DMFP exhibits both peripheral and central antinociceptive effects. It was suggested that its peripheral antinociceptive activity is associated with attenuated production and/or release of NO and various pro-inflammatory mediators, while central antinociceptive activity seems to be unrelated to the opioidergic system, but could involve, at least in part, an interaction with the inhibition of capsaicin-sensitive fibers and the glutamatergic system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nociceptive Pain/drug therapy*
  4. Ismail CAN, Suppian R, Abd Aziz CB, Haris K, Long I
    Diabetes Metab J, 2019 04;43(2):222-235.
    PMID: 30604591 DOI: 10.4093/dmj.2018.0020
    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the role of NR2B in a modulated pain process in the painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) rat using various pain stimuli.

    METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=8): control, diabetes mellitus (DM) rats and diabetic rats treated with ifenprodil at a lower dose (0.5 μg/day) (I 0.5) or higher dose (1.0 μg/day) (I 1.0). DM was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin at 60 mg/kg on day 0 of experimentation. Diabetic status was assessed on day 3 of the experimentation. The responses on both tactile and thermal stimuli were assessed on day 0 (baseline), day 14 (pre-intervention), and day 22 (post-intervention). Ifenprodil was given intrathecally for 7 days from day 15 until day 21. On day 23, 5% formalin was injected into the rats' hind paw and the nociceptive responses were recorded for 1 hour. The rats were sacrificed 72 hours post-formalin injection and an analysis of the spinal NR2B expression was performed.

    RESULTS: DM rats showed a significant reduction in pain threshold in response to the tactile and thermal stimuli and higher nociceptive response during the formalin test accompanied by the higher expression of phosphorylated spinal NR2B in both sides of the spinal cord. Ifenprodil treatment for both doses showed anti-allodynic and anti-nociceptive effects with lower expression of phosphorylated and total spinal NR2B.

    CONCLUSION: We suggest that the pain process in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat that has been modulated is associated with the higher phosphorylation of the spinal NR2B expression in the development of PDN, which is similar to other models of neuropathic rats.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nociceptive Pain/drug therapy
  5. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahim MH, Roosli RAJ, Mohd Sani MH, Marmaya NH, Omar MH, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:6593125.
    PMID: 31467905 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6593125
    Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (MECN) has been reported to exert antinociceptive activity. The present study aimed to elucidate the possible antinociceptive mechanisms of a lipid-soluble fraction of MECN, which was obtained after sequential extraction in petroleum ether. The petroleum ether fraction of C. nutans (PECN), administered orally to mice, was (i) subjected to capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged (intraperitoneal (i.p.)) with 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine, 1 mg/kg pindolol, 3 mg/kg caffeine, 0.2 mg/kg haloperidol, or 10 mg/kg atropine, which were the respective antagonist of α2-adrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, or muscarinic receptors; and (iii) prechallenged (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide, 0.04 mg/kg apamin, 0.02 mg/kg charybdotoxin, or 4 mg/kg tetraethylammonium chloride, which were the respective inhibitor of ATP sensitive-, small conductance Ca2+-activated-, large conductance Ca2+-activated-, or nonselective voltage-activated-K+ channel. Results obtained demonstrated that PECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) inhibited all models of nociception described earlier. The antinociceptive activity of 500 mg/kg PECN was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated when prechallenged with all antagonists or K+ channel blockers. However, only pretreatment with apamin and charybdotoxin caused full inhibition of PECN-induced antinociception. The rest of the K+ channel blockers and all antagonists caused only partial inhibition of PECN antinociception, respectively. Analyses on PECN's phytoconstituents revealed the presence of antinociceptive-bearing bioactive compounds of volatile (i.e., derivatives of γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and lupeol) and nonvolatile (i.e., cinnamic acid) nature. In conclusion, PECN exerts a non-opioid-mediated antinociceptive activity involving mainly activation of adenosinergic and cholinergic receptors or small- and large-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+ channels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nociceptive Pain/drug therapy*
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