Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in soil after oxygen. It is not an essential element for plant growth and formation but plays an important role in increasing plant tolerance towards different kinds of abiotic and biotic stresses. The molecular mechanism of Si absorption and accumulation may differ between plants, such as monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Silicon absorption and accumulation in mangrove plants are affected indirectly by some proteins rich in serine and proline amino acids. The expression level of the genes responsible for Si absorption varies in different parts of plants. In this study, Si is mainly observed in the epidermal roots' cell walls of mangrove plants compared to other parts. The present work was carried out to discover further information on Si stress responsive genes in Rhizophora apiculata, using the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. To construct the cDNA library, two-month-old seedlings were exposed to 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM SiO2 for 15 hrs and for 1 to 6 days resulting in a total of 360 high quality ESTs gained. Further examination by RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR showed the expression of a candidate gene of serine-rich protein.
The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, defense responses and metabolite accumulation. To date MYB family genes have not yet been comprehensively identified in the major staple fruit crop banana. In this study, we present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Musa acuminata DH-Pahang (A genome). A total of 285 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Organ- and development-specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-Seq data. For 280 M. acuminata MYB genes for which expression was found in at least one of the analysed samples, a variety of expression patterns were detected. The M. acuminata R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised, leading to the identification of seven clades containing only M. acuminata R2R3-MYBs. The encoded proteins may have specialised functions that were acquired or expanded in Musa during genome evolution. This functional classification and expression analysis of the MYB gene family in banana establishes a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of MaMYBs and can be utilized in banana improvement programmes.
KEY MESSAGE: Three tau class MaGSTs responded to abiotic stress, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 responded to signaling molecules, they may play an important role in the growth of banana plantlet. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that participate in a variety of cellular processes, including stress responses. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of five GST genes (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2, MaGSTU3, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1) cloned from banana (Musa acuminate L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish) using a RACE-PCR-based strategy. The predicted molecular masses of these GSTs range from 23.4 to 27.7 kDa and their pIs are acidic. At the amino acid level, they share high sequence similarity with GSTs in the banana DH-Pahang (AA group) genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of MaGSTs also have high similarity to GSTs of other plant species. Expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues. In addition, their expression is regulated by various stress conditions, including exposure to signaling molecules, cold, salinity, drought and Fusarium oxysporum f specialis(f. Sp) cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) infection. The expression of the tau class MaGSTs (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2 and MaGSTU3) mainly responded to cold, salinity and drought while MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 expressions were upregulated by signaling molecules. Our findings suggest that MaGSTs play a key role in both development and abiotic stress responses.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from lipid-rich fleshy mesocarp tissue of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fruit and is of global economic and nutritional relevance. While the understanding of oil biosynthesis in plants is improving, the fundamentals of oil biosynthesis in oil palm still require further investigations. To gain insight into the systemic mechanisms that govern oil synthesis during oil palm fruit ripening, the proteomics approach combining gel-based electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to profile protein changes and classify the patterns of protein accumulation during these complex physiological processes. Protein profiles from different stages of fruit ripening at 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18 and 20 weeks after anthesis (WAA) were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). The proteome data were then visualised using a multivariate statistical analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) to get an overview of the proteome changes during the development of oil palm mesocarp. A total of 68 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and functionally classified using ontology analysis. Proteins related to lipid production, energy, secondary metabolites and amino acid metabolism are the most significantly changed proteins during fruit development representing potential candidates for oil yield improvement endeavors. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009579. This study provides important proteome information for protein regulation during oil palm fruit ripening and oil synthesis.