Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 302 in total

  1. Rozilawati H, Zairi J, Adanan CR
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Jun;24(1):83-94.
    PMID: 17568381 MyJurnal
    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  2. Ujang Z, Buckley C
    Water Sci Technol, 2002;46(9):1-9.
    PMID: 12448446
    This paper summarises the paper presentation sessions at the Conference, as well giving insights on the issues related to developing countries. It also discusses the present status of practice and research on water and wastewater management, and projected future scenario based not only on the papers presented in the Conference, but also on other sources. The strategy is presented to overcome many problems in developing countries such as rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, financial and institutional problems and, depleting water resources. The strategy consists of Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM), cleaner industrial production, waste minimisation and financial arrangements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  3. Venkataraman VV, Kraft TS, Dominy NJ, Endicott KM
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017 03 21;114(12):3097-3102.
    PMID: 28265058 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617542114
    The residential mobility patterns of modern hunter-gatherers broadly reflect local resource availability, but the proximate ecological and social forces that determine the timing of camp movements are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that the timing of such moves maximizes foraging efficiency as hunter-gatherers move across the landscape. The marginal value theorem predicts when a group should depart a camp and its associated foraging area and move to another based on declining marginal return rates. This influential model has yet to be directly applied in a population of hunter-gatherers, primarily because the shape of gain curves (cumulative resource acquisition through time) and travel times between patches have been difficult to estimate in ethnographic settings. We tested the predictions of the marginal value theorem in the context of hunter-gatherer residential mobility using historical foraging data from nomadic, socially egalitarian Batek hunter-gatherers (n = 93 d across 11 residential camps) living in the tropical rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia. We characterized the gain functions for all resources acquired by the Batek at daily timescales and examined how patterns of individual foraging related to the emergent property of residential movements. Patterns of camp residence times conformed well with the predictions of the marginal value theorem, indicating that communal perceptions of resource depletion are closely linked to collective movement decisions. Despite (and perhaps because of) a protracted process of deliberation and argument about when to depart camps, Batek residential mobility seems to maximize group-level foraging efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  4. Pryor RJ
    J Trop Geogr, 1978;46:61-75.
    PMID: 12262749
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  5. Sutlive V
    Urban anthropol, 1977;6(4):355-69.
    PMID: 12310786
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  6. Nasir MD, Abdullah MT
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2010 Dec;21(2):69-83.
    PMID: 24575200
    There is not much information available on the distribution of the Sunda colugo (Galeopterus variegates) in Malaysia, despite it being one of only two known species in the order Dermoptera. Data on the presence of the Sunda colugo and the vernacular names used by various ethnic groups throughout Malaysia were collected and compiled from various primary and secondary sources. There were 27 locations from Peninsular, 11 locations from Sabah and 34 locations from Sarawak that reported the presence of the Sunda colugo throughout Malaysia. The various ethnic groups of Malaysia adopted 37 different vernacular names to describe the Sunda colugo. This baseline data can be useful for the management authorities in conducting periodic monitoring and will enhance our knowledge of the population dynamics of the Sunda colugo in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics
  7. Williams EW, Gardner EM, Harris R, Chaveerach A, Pereira JT, Zerega NJ
    Ann Bot, 2017 03 01;119(4):611-627.
    PMID: 28073771 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw249
    Background and Aims: The breadfruit genus ( Artocarpus , Moraceae) includes valuable underutilized fruit tree crops with a centre of diversity in Southeast Asia. It belongs to the monophyletic tribe Artocarpeae, whose only other members include two small neotropical genera. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates and infer ancestral ranges of Artocarpeae, especially Artocarpus , to better understand spatial and temporal evolutionary relationships and dispersal patterns in a geologically complex region.

    Methods: To investigate the phylogeny and biogeography of Artocarpeae, this study used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to analyze DNA sequences from six plastid and two nuclear regions from 75% of Artocarpus species, both neotropical Artocarpeae genera, and members of all other Moraceae tribes. Six fossil-based calibrations within the Moraceae family were used to infer divergence times. Ancestral areas and estimated dispersal events were also inferred.

    Key Results: Artocarpeae, Artocarpus and four monophyletic Artocarpus subgenera were well supported. A late Cretaceous origin of the Artocarpeae tribe in the Americas is inferred, followed by Eocene radiation of Artocarpus in Asia, with the greatest diversification occurring during the Miocene. Borneo is reconstructed as the ancestral range of Artocarpus , with dozens of independent in situ diversification events inferred there, as well as dispersal events to other regions of Southeast Asia. Dispersal pathways of Artocarpus and its ancestors are proposed.

    Conclusions: Borneo was central in the diversification of the genus Artocarpus and probably served as the centre from which species dispersed and diversified in several directions. The greatest amount of diversification is inferred to have occurred during the Miocene, when sea levels fluctuated and land connections frequently existed between Borneo, mainland Asia, Sumatra and Java. Many species found in these areas have extant overlapping ranges, suggesting that sympatric speciation may have occurred. By contrast, Artocarpus diversity east of Borneo (where many of the islands have no historical connections to the landmasses of the Sunda and Sahul shelves) is unique and probably the product of over water long-distance dispersal events and subsequent diversification in allopatry. This work represents the most comprehensive Artocarpus phylogeny and biogeography study to date and supports Borneo as an evolutionary biodiversity hotspot.

    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics
  8. Zaidi Che Cob, Aziz Arshad, Japar Sidik Bujang, Mazlan Abdul Ghaffar
    A total of 230 individuals of Strombus were sampled at various locations along the Johor Straits, Malaysia. There were four species of Strombus present in the study areas i.e. Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758; Strombus urceus Linnaeus, 1758; Strombus marginatus subspecies succinctus Linnaeus, 1767; Strombus marginatus subspecies robustus Sowerby, 1874; and Strombus vittatus subspecies vittatus Linnaeus, 1758. Strombus canarium was the most common, widely distributed and most abundant, followed by S. urceus, while the others were only rarely found. Among the species Strombus marginatus and Strombus vittatus were two new distribution records for the Johor Straits. Since all Strombus were traditionally harvested and consumed by the locals since long ago, further studies are needed particularly regarding the population dynamics and fishery of the harvested species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics
  9. Mohamed WN, Diamond I, Smith PW
    J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc, 1998;161(3):349-66.
    PMID: 12348725
    "A graphical chain modelling approach is used to study the determinants of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in Malaysia. This approach provides an easily interpretable empirical description and illustrates explicitly the conditional independence structure between each pair of variables. The interpretation can be read directly from a mathematical graph. Besides examining the direct association of each determinant on mortality, we also examine the effects of socio-economic determinants on intermediate determinants to understand the pathways through which the socioeconomic determinants affect the chance of mortality. The data anlaysed come from the second Malaysian Family Life Survey, fielded between August 1988 and January 1989. "
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  10. Williams MJ
    Ambio, 2002 Jun;31(4):337-9.
    PMID: 12174604
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  11. Chan KE
    Malays J Trop Geogr, 1994 Dec;25(2):69-77.
    PMID: 12291229
    "This paper discusses the patterns and trends in internal territorial mobility in Peninsular Malaysia from 1957 [to] the 1980s, focussing specially on the period of the 1980s." Data are from Peninsular Malaysian Labour Force Migration Sample Surveys.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  12. PMID: 12267657
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  13. Lim LL, Jones GW, Hirschman C
    J Biosoc Sci, 1987 Oct;19(4):405-25.
    PMID: 3680319
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
  14. Santika T, Ancrenaz M, Wilson KA, Spehar S, Abram N, Banes GL, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 07;7(1):4839.
    PMID: 28687788 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-04435-9
    For many threatened species the rate and drivers of population decline are difficult to assess accurately: species' surveys are typically restricted to small geographic areas, are conducted over short time periods, and employ a wide range of survey protocols. We addressed methodological challenges for assessing change in the abundance of an endangered species. We applied novel methods for integrating field and interview survey data for the critically endangered Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), allowing a deeper understanding of the species' persistence through time. Our analysis revealed that Bornean orangutan populations have declined at a rate of 25% over the last 10 years. Survival rates of the species are lowest in areas with intermediate rainfall, where complex interrelations between soil fertility, agricultural productivity, and human settlement patterns influence persistence. These areas also have highest threats from human-wildlife conflict. Survival rates are further positively associated with forest extent, but are lower in areas where surrounding forest has been recently converted to industrial agriculture. Our study highlights the urgency of determining specific management interventions needed in different locations to counter the trend of decline and its associated drivers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics/trends*
  15. Andrew NL, Bright P, de la Rua L, Teoh SJ, Vickers M
    PLoS One, 2019;14(9):e0223249.
    PMID: 31568527 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223249
    The coastal zones of Small Island States are hotspots of human habitation and economic endeavour. In the Pacific region, as elsewhere, there are large gaps in understandings of the exposure and vulnerability of people in coastal zones. The 22 Pacific Countries and Territories (PICTs) are poorly represented in global analyses of vulnerability to seaward risks. We combine several data sources to estimate populations to zones 1, 5 and 10 km from the coastline in each of the PICTs. Regional patterns in the proximity of Pacific people to the coast are dominated by Papua New Guinea. Overall, ca. half the population of the Pacific resides within 10 km of the coast but this jumps to 97% when Papua New Guinea is excluded. A quarter of Pacific people live within 1 km of the coast, but without PNG this increases to slightly more than half. Excluding PNG, 90% of Pacific Islanders live within 5 km of the coast. All of the population in the coral atoll nations of Tokelau and Tuvalu live within a km of the ocean. Results using two global datasets, the SEDAC-CIESIN Gridded Population of the World v4 (GPWv4) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Landscan differed: Landscan under-dispersed population, overestimating numbers in urban centres and underestimating population in rural areas and GPWv4 over-dispersed the population. In addition to errors introduced by the allocation models of the two methods, errors were introduced as artefacts of allocating households to 1 km x 1 km grid cell data (30 arc-seconds) to polygons. The limited utility of LandScan and GPWv4 in advancing this analysis may be overcome with more spatially resolved census data and the inclusion of elevation above sea level as an important dimension of vulnerability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Dynamics*
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