Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1 : 1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P < 0.05). We can conclude that AND suppresses alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-arginine on Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced phagocytosis by RAW264.7 cells. The cells were pretreated with L-arginine or D-arginine prior to incubation with either unopsonized or opsonized P. gingivalis. In other experiments, the cells were pretreated with L-arginine and various concentrations of NMLA (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine) prior to incubation with the bacteria. The phagocytosis was microscopically assessed and determined by the phagocytic index. The results showed that L-arginine, but not D-arginine enhances the ability of RAW264.7 cells to engulf the bacteria. The upregulatory effect of L-arginine on P. gingivalis-induced phagocytosis was abolished by NMLA. The results of the present study suggest that L-arginine may upregulate the P. gingivalis-induced phagocytic activity of RAW264.7 cells, perhaps, via modulation of nitric oxide synthase.
It has previously been suggested that CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in regulating the immune response to periodontal pathogens. The aim of the present study therefore was to determine delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), spleen cell proliferation, serum and splenic anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis antibody levels, and lesion sizes following challenge with viable P. gingivalis in CD4-depleted BALB/c mice immunized with P. gingivalis outer membrane proteins (OMP).
Atherosclerosis is the commonest and most important vascular disease. Andrographolide (AND) is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata and is used in traditional medicine. This study was aimed to evaluate the antiatherogenic effect of AND against atherosclerosis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in White New Zealand rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups as follows: G1, normal group; G2-5, were orally challenged with P. gingivalis five times a week over 12 weeks; G2, atherogenic control group; G3, standard group treated with atorvastatin (AV) 5 mg/kg; and G4 and G5, treatment groups treated with AND 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively over 12 weeks. Serums were subjected to antioxidant enzymatic and anti-inflammatory activities, and the aorta was subjected to histological analyses. Groups treated with AND showed a significant reversal of liver and renal biochemical changes, compared with the atherogenic control group. In the same groups, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH) levels in serum were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, treated groups with AV and AND showed significant decrease in the level of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 compared with the atherogenic control group. In aortic homogenate, the level of nitrotyrosine was significantly increased, while the level of MCP1 was significantly decreased in AV and AND groups compared with the atherogenic control group. In addition, staining the aorta with Sudan IV showed a reduction in intimal thickening plaque in AV and AND groups compared with the atherogenic control group. AND has showed an antiatherogenic property as well as the capability to reduce lipid, liver, and kidney biomarkers in atherogenic serum that prevents atherosclerosis complications caused by P. gingivalis.