OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and the validity of the Persian version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised among a sample of Iranian nurses.
RESEARCH DESIGN: In this methodological study, 310 nurses were recruited from all hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin University of Medical Sciences from February 2014 to April 2015. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Moral Distress Scale-Revised. The construct validity of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised was evaluated using principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach's alpha.
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered.
FINDINGS: The construct validity of the scale showed four factors with eigenvalues greater than one. The model had a good fit (χ2(162) = 307.561, χ2/df = 1.899, goodness-of-fit index = .904, comparative fit index = .927, incremental fit index = .929, and root mean square error of approximation (90% confidence interval) = .049 (.040-.057)) with all factor loadings greater than .5 and statistically significant. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .853, .686, .685, and .711for the four factors. Moreover, the model structure was invariant across different income groups.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The Persian version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised demonstrated suitable validity and reliability among nurses. The factor analysis also revealed that the Moral Distress Scale-Revised has a multidimensional structure. Regarding the proper psychometric characteristics, the validated scale can be used to further research about moral distress in this population.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Borg CR-10 scale to monitor the perceived exertion of office exercise training.
METHODS: The study involved 105 staff members employed in a government office with an age range from 25 to 50 years. The Borg CR-10 scale was self-administered two times, with an interval of two weeks in order to evaluate the accuracy of the original findings with a retest. Face validity and content validity were also examined.
RESULTS: Reliability was found to be high for the Borg CR-10 scale (0.898). Additionally a high correlation between the Borg CR-10 scale and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was identified (rs = 0.754, P
METHOD: After translating all 39 items of the questionnaire into Bangla, it was administered on 206 children, aged 3 to 6 years, recruited randomly from ten preschools in Dhaka. The schools were selected randomly from the official list of preschools prepared by the Dhaka City Corporation. Class teachers of the respective children completed the questionnaire with the assistant of research assistants.
RESULTS: The Bangla version of the questionnaire retained all 39 items, with seven factors as they were in the English version. The Bangla version shows sufficient reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87; test-retest reliability = 0.89 for whole questionnaire and .79-.89 for sub-scales; inter-rater reliability = 0.88 for whole questionnaire and .79-.88 for sub-scales), and validity (correlated positively with the English version; r = 0.85).
CONCLUSION: Due to its robust psychometric properties, the Bangla DMQ-18 is suggested to be used for Bangladeshi preschool children to assess their mastery motivation.
METHODS: A total of 497 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from public hospitals in the state of Selangor through convenience sampling. Construct validity was evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of the instrument was tested by Cronbach α. Criterion validity and discriminant validity were also used.
RESULTS: The PAID instrument consisted of 3 factors: social support problem, food-related problem, and emotional distress problem. The Cronbach α values of the 3 factors showed adequate internal consistency with α values greater than 0.90. The present confirmatory factor analysis model achieved a good fit with a comparative fit index value of 0.923. Satisfactory criterion validity was also demonstrated because there existed positive significant association between glycated hemoglobin A1c and diabetes duration.
CONCLUSIONS: The PAID questionnaire in Malaysia was found to be a reliable and valid instrument exhibiting good psychometric properties.
Methods: This study took place at the National Heart Institute and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between March 2013 and March 2014. A self-administered 75-item HFQOL questionnaire was designed and administrated to 164 multi-ethnic Malaysian HF patients. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to determine internal consistency.
Results: A total of 33 out of 75 items were retained in the final tool. The HFQOL questionnaire had three common factors-psychological, physical-social and spiritual wellbeing-resulting in a cumulative percentage of total variance of 44.3%. The factor loading ranges were 0.450-0.718 for psychological wellbeing (12 items), 0.394-0.740 for physical-social wellbeing (14 items) and 0.449-0.727 for spiritual wellbeing (seven items). The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.82, with coefficients of 0.86, 0.88 and 0.79 for the psychological, physical-social and spiritual wellbeing subdomains, respectively.
Conclusion: The HFQOL questionnaire was found to be a valid and reliable measure of QOL among Malaysian HF patients from various ethnic groups. Such tools may facilitate cardiac care management planning among multi-ethnic patients with HF.
METHOD: A total of 386 participants from an urban area, aged between 8 and 17, completed the 41-item SCARED. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to investigate the factor structure of the SCARED.
RESULTS: Internal consistency ratings for the SCARED's total and subscale scores were good, except for School Avoidance. The validity of the SCARED was further demonstrated through a significant correlation with the Internalizing subscale of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In contrast with the five-factor structure proposed for primarily Caucasian samples, factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure for this Malaysian sample.
CONCLUSIONS: These research findings support the validity of the SCARED and its utility as a screening tool in a community sample of Malaysian children and adolescents.
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to translate, adapt, and evaluate the Malay-language version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS) and to measure the psychometric properties of the Malay-version CRBS to justify its use in Sarawak.
METHODS: A forward and back-translation method was used. Content validity was assessed by three experts. Psychometric testing was conducted on a sample of 283 patients who were eligible to participate in cardiac rehabilitation. A construct validity test was performed using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine the internal consistency. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient on 22 participants. Independent-samples t test and analysis of variance were conducted to assess the criterion validity. Mean scores for total barriers of the scale and each individual factor were compared among the different patient characteristics.
RESULTS: The Malay-version CRBS showed an item level of content validity index of 1.00 for all of the items after improvements were made based on the experts' suggestions. The factor analysis, using principal component analysis with direct oblimin rotation, extracted four factors that differed from the original study. These four factors explained 52.50% of the cumulative percentage of variance. The Cronbach's alphas ranged from .74 to .81 for the obtained factors. Test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient value of .78. Criterion validity was supported using the significant differences in the mean score for total barriers among educational level, driving distance, travel time to the hospital, and cardiac rehabilitation attendance.
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study found the Malay-version CRBS to be a valid and reliable instrument. It may be used with inpatients to identify barriers to participation in cardiac rehabilitation to promote rehabilitation attendance and improve patient care.
METHODS: We analysed 350 items used in 7 professional examinations and determined their distractor efficiency and the number of functional distractors per item. The items were sorted into five groups - excellent, good, fair, remediable and discarded based on their discrimination index. We studied how the distractor efficiency and functional distractors per item correlated with these five groups.
RESULTS: Correlation of distractor efficiency with psychometric indices was significant but far from perfect. The excellent group topped in distractor efficiency in 3 tests, the good group in one test, the remediable group equalled excellent group in one test, and the discarded group topped in 2 tests.
CONCLUSIONS: The distractor efficiency did not correlate in a consistent pattern with the discrimination index. Fifty per cent or higher distractor efficiency, not hundred percent, was found to be the optimum.