METHODS: We analysed 350 items used in 7 professional examinations and determined their distractor efficiency and the number of functional distractors per item. The items were sorted into five groups - excellent, good, fair, remediable and discarded based on their discrimination index. We studied how the distractor efficiency and functional distractors per item correlated with these five groups.
RESULTS: Correlation of distractor efficiency with psychometric indices was significant but far from perfect. The excellent group topped in distractor efficiency in 3 tests, the good group in one test, the remediable group equalled excellent group in one test, and the discarded group topped in 2 tests.
CONCLUSIONS: The distractor efficiency did not correlate in a consistent pattern with the discrimination index. Fifty per cent or higher distractor efficiency, not hundred percent, was found to be the optimum.
METHOD: Upon adhering to five-step scoping review, this study combed through articles that looked into sadness regulation retrieved from eight databases.
RESULTS: As a result of reviewing 40 selected articles, 110 strategies were identified to regulate emotions, particularly sadness. Some of the most commonly reported strategies include expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, distraction, seeking social or emotional support, and rumination. The four types of measures emerged from the review are self-reported, informant report (parents or peers), open-ended questions, and emotion regulation instructions. Notably, most studies had tested psychometric properties using Cronbach's alpha alone, while only a handful had assessed validity (construct and factorial validity) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha or test-retest) based on responses captured from questionnaire survey.
CONCLUSION: Several sadness regulation strategies appeared to vary based on gender, age, and use of strategy. Despite the general measurement of emotion regulation, only one measure was developed to measure sadness regulation exclusively for children. Future studies may develop a comprehensive battery of measures to assess sadness regulation using multi-component method.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Borg CR-10 scale to monitor the perceived exertion of office exercise training.
METHODS: The study involved 105 staff members employed in a government office with an age range from 25 to 50 years. The Borg CR-10 scale was self-administered two times, with an interval of two weeks in order to evaluate the accuracy of the original findings with a retest. Face validity and content validity were also examined.
RESULTS: Reliability was found to be high for the Borg CR-10 scale (0.898). Additionally a high correlation between the Borg CR-10 scale and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was identified (rs = 0.754, P
METHOD: After translating all 39 items of the questionnaire into Bangla, it was administered on 206 children, aged 3 to 6 years, recruited randomly from ten preschools in Dhaka. The schools were selected randomly from the official list of preschools prepared by the Dhaka City Corporation. Class teachers of the respective children completed the questionnaire with the assistant of research assistants.
RESULTS: The Bangla version of the questionnaire retained all 39 items, with seven factors as they were in the English version. The Bangla version shows sufficient reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87; test-retest reliability = 0.89 for whole questionnaire and .79-.89 for sub-scales; inter-rater reliability = 0.88 for whole questionnaire and .79-.88 for sub-scales), and validity (correlated positively with the English version; r = 0.85).
CONCLUSION: Due to its robust psychometric properties, the Bangla DMQ-18 is suggested to be used for Bangladeshi preschool children to assess their mastery motivation.
Methods: This study took place at the National Heart Institute and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between March 2013 and March 2014. A self-administered 75-item HFQOL questionnaire was designed and administrated to 164 multi-ethnic Malaysian HF patients. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to determine internal consistency.
Results: A total of 33 out of 75 items were retained in the final tool. The HFQOL questionnaire had three common factors-psychological, physical-social and spiritual wellbeing-resulting in a cumulative percentage of total variance of 44.3%. The factor loading ranges were 0.450-0.718 for psychological wellbeing (12 items), 0.394-0.740 for physical-social wellbeing (14 items) and 0.449-0.727 for spiritual wellbeing (seven items). The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.82, with coefficients of 0.86, 0.88 and 0.79 for the psychological, physical-social and spiritual wellbeing subdomains, respectively.
Conclusion: The HFQOL questionnaire was found to be a valid and reliable measure of QOL among Malaysian HF patients from various ethnic groups. Such tools may facilitate cardiac care management planning among multi-ethnic patients with HF.
METHODS: Three hundred patients treated for uncomplicated malaria in selected primary healthcare facilities of Plateau state, Nigeria, completed the EQ-5D-5L scale. Classical test theory was used to establish validity and Cronbach's alpha reliability of the scale. Rasch analysis was used to confirm the unidimensionality, item fitness, item and person separations and reliabilities, and targeting of item difficulty to patient ability levels and presentation on Wright map (item-person map).
RESULTS: The outcome of classical test theory revealed unidimensional scale with average variance extracted values > 0.5, and the square root of the average variance extracted for construct was greater than the correlation coefficients, indicating convergent and discriminant validities of the scale whose Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α) was 0.87. Rasch analysis indicated variance explained values of 88.3% and the eigenvalues of the first contrast was 1.3, further confirming the unidimensionality of the scale, whose fit index values were within accepted ranges. The high item and person separation and reliability values indicated the instrument's strength in detecting and evenly spreading items and persons on the Wright map based on item difficulty and the respondents' ability levels, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The EQ-5D-5L scale performed well in uncomplicated malaria, hence, it is recommended for use in the assessment of health-related quality of life in this patient population.
METHODS: A total of 497 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from public hospitals in the state of Selangor through convenience sampling. Construct validity was evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of the instrument was tested by Cronbach α. Criterion validity and discriminant validity were also used.
RESULTS: The PAID instrument consisted of 3 factors: social support problem, food-related problem, and emotional distress problem. The Cronbach α values of the 3 factors showed adequate internal consistency with α values greater than 0.90. The present confirmatory factor analysis model achieved a good fit with a comparative fit index value of 0.923. Satisfactory criterion validity was also demonstrated because there existed positive significant association between glycated hemoglobin A1c and diabetes duration.
CONCLUSIONS: The PAID questionnaire in Malaysia was found to be a reliable and valid instrument exhibiting good psychometric properties.
METHOD: A total of 386 participants from an urban area, aged between 8 and 17, completed the 41-item SCARED. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to investigate the factor structure of the SCARED.
RESULTS: Internal consistency ratings for the SCARED's total and subscale scores were good, except for School Avoidance. The validity of the SCARED was further demonstrated through a significant correlation with the Internalizing subscale of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In contrast with the five-factor structure proposed for primarily Caucasian samples, factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure for this Malaysian sample.
CONCLUSIONS: These research findings support the validity of the SCARED and its utility as a screening tool in a community sample of Malaysian children and adolescents.
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to translate, adapt, and evaluate the Malay-language version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS) and to measure the psychometric properties of the Malay-version CRBS to justify its use in Sarawak.
METHODS: A forward and back-translation method was used. Content validity was assessed by three experts. Psychometric testing was conducted on a sample of 283 patients who were eligible to participate in cardiac rehabilitation. A construct validity test was performed using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine the internal consistency. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient on 22 participants. Independent-samples t test and analysis of variance were conducted to assess the criterion validity. Mean scores for total barriers of the scale and each individual factor were compared among the different patient characteristics.
RESULTS: The Malay-version CRBS showed an item level of content validity index of 1.00 for all of the items after improvements were made based on the experts' suggestions. The factor analysis, using principal component analysis with direct oblimin rotation, extracted four factors that differed from the original study. These four factors explained 52.50% of the cumulative percentage of variance. The Cronbach's alphas ranged from .74 to .81 for the obtained factors. Test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient value of .78. Criterion validity was supported using the significant differences in the mean score for total barriers among educational level, driving distance, travel time to the hospital, and cardiac rehabilitation attendance.
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study found the Malay-version CRBS to be a valid and reliable instrument. It may be used with inpatients to identify barriers to participation in cardiac rehabilitation to promote rehabilitation attendance and improve patient care.
PURPOSE: In this study, a framework comprising equivalence and cognition models was used to assess and finalize the Heart Quality-of-Life (HeartQoL)-Bahasa Malaysia (BM) questionnaire, which was derived from both forward-backward (FB) and dual-panel (DP) translation methods.
METHODS: Investigation and finalization of two initial versions of the questionnaire were conducted based on findings from an expert assessment (n = 3 sociolinguists blinded to translation methods) and cognitive interviews with purposively sampled patients (FB: n = 11; DP: n = 11). The equivalence model of Herdman et al. and the question-and-answer model of Collins were adapted to form a "cognition-and-equivalence" model to guide data collection and analysis through modified cognitive interviews. The final HeartQoL-BM was completed by 373 patients with ischemic heart disease from two medical centers, and the data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis to assess the evidence of equivalence.
RESULTS: Findings from the expert assessment and cognitive interview showed the existence of semantic and item equivalence on almost all of the FB and DP items, identified some subtle potential equivalence gaps, and guided the process of item finalization. Confirmatory factor analysis, including tests of factorial invariance on the final two-factor model of HeartQoL-BM, confirmed conceptual, item, measurement, and operational equivalence, which supports functional equivalence.
CONCLUSIONS: The potential use of the cognition-and-equivalence model for modified cognitive interviewing and the application of the six equivalence types of Herdman et al. were supported by the HeartQoL-BM showing functional equivalence with its source. HeartQoL-BM is a potentially valid measure of health-related quality of life for patients with ischemic heart disease independent of conditions such as angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure.