Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 403 in total

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  1. Govindasamy P, Del Carmen Salazar M, Lerner J, Green KE
    Front Psychol, 2019;10:1363.
    PMID: 31258502 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01363
    This manuscript reports results of an empirical assessment of a newly developed measure designed to assess apprentice teaching proficiency. In this study, Many Facets Rasch model software was used to evaluate the psychometric quality of the Framework for Equitable and Effective Teaching (FEET), a rater-mediated assessment. The analysis focused on examining variability in (1) supervisor severity in ratings, (2) level of item difficulty, (3) time of assessment, and (4) teacher apprentice proficiency. Added validity evidence showed moderate correlation with self-reports of apprentice teaching. The findings showed support for the FEET as yielding reliable ratings with a need for added rater training.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics
  2. Yaghoobzadeh A, Pahlevan Sharif S, Ong FS, Soundy A, Sharif Nia H, Moradi Bagloee M, et al.
    Int J Aging Hum Dev, 2019 12;89(4):356-371.
    PMID: 30569732 DOI: 10.1177/0091415018815239
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation*; Psychometrics/standards*
  3. Saini SM, Hoffmann CR, Pantelis C, Everall IP, Bousman CA
    Psychiatry Res, 2019 02;272:106-113.
    PMID: 30580133 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.068
    Child abuse is a major public health concern and a strong predictor of adult psychopathology. However, a consensus on how best to measure child abuse is not evident. This review aimed to critically appraise the methodological quality and measurement properties of published child abuse measures, examined the strength of evidence of these instruments for research use using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement InstrumeNts (COSMIN) checklist and determined which measures were capable of providing information on the developmental timing of abuse. Systematic search of electronic databases identified 52 eligible instruments from 2095 studies. Only 15% (n = 8) of the instruments had strong to moderate levels of evidence for three or more of the nine COSMIN criteria. No instrument had adequate levels of evidence for all criteria, and no criteria were met by all instruments. Our results indicate there is no single instrument that is superior to all others across settings and populations. The availability of measures capable of capturing the effects of child abuse on brain development and associated behavioral phenotypes are limited. Refined instruments with a focus on capturing abuse events during development are warranted in addition to further evaluation of the psychometric properties of these instruments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/standards*
  4. Soleimani MA, Sharif SP, Yaghoobzadeh A, Panarello B
    Nursing ethics, 2019 Jun;26(4):1226-1242.
    PMID: 27315824 DOI: 10.1177/0969733016651129
    BACKGROUND: Experiencing moral distress is traumatic for nurses. Ignoring moral distress can lead to job dissatisfaction, improper handling in the care of patients, or even leaving the job. Thus, it is crucial to use valid and reliable instruments to measure moral distress.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and the validity of the Persian version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised among a sample of Iranian nurses.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: In this methodological study, 310 nurses were recruited from all hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin University of Medical Sciences from February 2014 to April 2015. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Moral Distress Scale-Revised. The construct validity of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised was evaluated using principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach's alpha.

    ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered.

    FINDINGS: The construct validity of the scale showed four factors with eigenvalues greater than one. The model had a good fit (χ2(162) = 307.561, χ2/df = 1.899, goodness-of-fit index = .904, comparative fit index = .927, incremental fit index = .929, and root mean square error of approximation (90% confidence interval) = .049 (.040-.057)) with all factor loadings greater than .5 and statistically significant. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .853, .686, .685, and .711for the four factors. Moreover, the model structure was invariant across different income groups.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The Persian version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised demonstrated suitable validity and reliability among nurses. The factor analysis also revealed that the Moral Distress Scale-Revised has a multidimensional structure. Regarding the proper psychometric characteristics, the validated scale can be used to further research about moral distress in this population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation; Psychometrics/methods; Psychometrics/standards*
  5. Ng CG, Amer Siddiq AN, Aida SA, Zainal NZ, Koh OH
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2010 Mar;3(1):3-6.
    PMID: 23051129 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2009.12.001
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate the Malay version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-M) among a group of medical students in Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya.
    METHODS: 237 students participated in the study. They were given the Malay version of MSPSS, medical outcome study (MOS) social support survey, Malay version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Malay version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and English version of MSPSS. A week later, these students were again given the Malay version of MSPSS.
    RESULTS: The instrument displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.89), parallel form reliability (0.94) and test-retest reliability (0.77) (Spearman's rho, p<0.01). The negative correlation of the total and subscales of the instrument with the Malay version of GHQ and BDI confirmed its validity. Extraction method of the 12 items MSPSS using principle axis factoring with direct oblimin rotation converged into three factors of perceived social support (Family, Friends and Significant Others) with reliability coefficients of 0.88, 0.82 and 0.94, respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The Malay version of the MSPSS demonstrated good psychometric properties in measuring social support among a group of medical students from Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya and it could be used as a simple instrument on young educated Malaysian adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics
  6. Shariat A, Cleland JA, Danaee M, Alizadeh R, Sangelaji B, Kargarfard M, et al.
    Work, 2018;60(4):549-554.
    PMID: 30103362 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182762
    BACKGROUND: There are many potential training exercises for office workers in an attempt to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. However, to date a suitable tool to monitor the perceived exertion of those exercises does not exist.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Borg CR-10 scale to monitor the perceived exertion of office exercise training.

    METHODS: The study involved 105 staff members employed in a government office with an age range from 25 to 50 years. The Borg CR-10 scale was self-administered two times, with an interval of two weeks in order to evaluate the accuracy of the original findings with a retest. Face validity and content validity were also examined.

    RESULTS: Reliability was found to be high for the Borg CR-10 scale (0.898). Additionally a high correlation between the Borg CR-10 scale and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was identified (rs = 0.754, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation; Psychometrics/methods; Psychometrics/standards*
  7. Aazami S, Shamsuddin K, Akmal S
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):606-612.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Family satisfaction is referred to the extent in which family members feel happy and fulfilled with each other. However, there has been lack of evidences on the family satisfaction scale within the Malaysian context. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess validity of the Malay version of the Olson’s Family Satisfaction Scale. This is to allow Malaysian researchers to bring family satisfaction in line with the different field of studies.
    Methods This study was conducted among 567 Malaysian working women. Data were collected using self-administrated questionnaires. This study conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity and internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha.
    Results The findings of this study support the uni-dimensionality of the Malay version of the family satisfaction scale. The 10 items of the scale account for 68.1% of the total variance and the un-rotated factor loadings ranged from 0.76 to 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis was run and supported the structure of family satisfaction scale. The results of confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS 21 in the current study reported the following indices: RMSEA= 0.06, CFI= 0.94, NFI= 0.94, TLI= 0.93. The convergent validity (average variance extracted= 0.65) and the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= 0.94) of this construct were adequately supported.
    Conclusions The findings support the factor structure, convergent validity and the internal consistency of the examined construct. Therefore, Malay version of the family satisfaction scale is a valid and reliable instrument among Malaysian working women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics
  8. Swami V, Mohd Khatib NA, Toh E, Zahari HS, Todd J, Barron D
    Body Image, 2019 Mar;28:66-75.
    PMID: 30594001 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.12.006
    The 10-item Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely-used measure of a facet of positive body image. Here, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the BAS-2 in a community sample of Malaysian Malay and Chinese adults (N = 781). Participants completed the Malay BAS-2 alongside demographic items and measures of subjective happiness, life satisfaction, actual-ideal weight discrepancy (women only), drive for muscularity (men only), and internalisation of appearance ideals. Exploratory factor analyses with a Malay subsample indicated that BAS-2 scores reduced to a single dimension with all 10 items in women and men, although the factor structure was similar but not identical across sex. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the one-dimensional factor structure had adequate fit following modifications. BAS-2 scores were partially scalar invariant across sex (with no significant sex differences) and ethnicity (Malay participants had significantly higher body appreciation than Chinese participants), as well as had adequate internal consistency. Evidence of construct and incremental validity was also provided through associations with additional measures and the prediction of subjective happiness over-and-above other variables, respectively. The availability of the Malay BAS-2 should help advance research on the body appreciation construct in Malay-speaking populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation*; Psychometrics/methods; Psychometrics/standards
  9. Shaoli SS, Islam S, Haque S, Islam A
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2019 Aug;44:143-149.
    PMID: 31376798 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2019.07.044
    BACKGROUND: The Preschool version of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ-18) is a popular instrument to assess children's ability to master the environment through action or activity to explore, influence, or control the physical atmosphere. Although this instrument was originally developed in English, it has now been translated and validated in five other languages: Hungarian, Turkish, Chinese, Spanish, and Persian. As we notice a growing interest in research on the mastery motivation among Bangladeshi preschoolers, we have taken this effort to translate and validate the DMQ-18 and explore the factor structure of the Bangla version of this questionnaire.

    METHOD: After translating all 39 items of the questionnaire into Bangla, it was administered on 206 children, aged 3 to 6 years, recruited randomly from ten preschools in Dhaka. The schools were selected randomly from the official list of preschools prepared by the Dhaka City Corporation. Class teachers of the respective children completed the questionnaire with the assistant of research assistants.

    RESULTS: The Bangla version of the questionnaire retained all 39 items, with seven factors as they were in the English version. The Bangla version shows sufficient reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87; test-retest reliability = 0.89 for whole questionnaire and .79-.89 for sub-scales; inter-rater reliability = 0.88 for whole questionnaire and .79-.88 for sub-scales), and validity (correlated positively with the English version; r = 0.85).

    CONCLUSION: Due to its robust psychometric properties, the Bangla DMQ-18 is suggested to be used for Bangladeshi preschool children to assess their mastery motivation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation; Psychometrics/methods; Psychometrics/standards*
  10. Jannoo Z, Yap BW, Khan NM, Farcomeni A
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2019 May;18:159-164.
    PMID: 31082796 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2019.03.004
    OBJECTIVES: To validate, from a psychometric perspective, the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 497 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from public hospitals in the state of Selangor through convenience sampling. Construct validity was evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of the instrument was tested by Cronbach α. Criterion validity and discriminant validity were also used.

    RESULTS: The PAID instrument consisted of 3 factors: social support problem, food-related problem, and emotional distress problem. The Cronbach α values of the 3 factors showed adequate internal consistency with α values greater than 0.90. The present confirmatory factor analysis model achieved a good fit with a comparative fit index value of 0.923. Satisfactory criterion validity was also demonstrated because there existed positive significant association between glycated hemoglobin A1c and diabetes duration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The PAID questionnaire in Malaysia was found to be a reliable and valid instrument exhibiting good psychometric properties.

    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation; Psychometrics/methods; Psychometrics/standards*
  11. Spasenoska M, Costello S, Williams B
    Adv Med Educ Pract, 2016;7:331-9.
    PMID: 27350763 DOI: 10.2147/AMEP.S96591
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - student version (JSPE-S).

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study recruited 193 Malaysian medical students enrolled in year one and year two studies. A principal-component analysis with Varimax rotation was conducted. Procrustes rotation was used to confirm the item to model fit, which allows for a comparison of actual structure against an ideal hypothesized structure. Items were systematically removed based on low communalities of < 0.3 and poor loading of items onto components.

    RESULTS: A two-component solution was found, comprised of "perspective taking" and "compassionate care". Following item removal, eleven items remained. A Procrustes analysis revealed that this eleven-item measure demonstrated an excellent model fit. A possible third component was identified, though is not recommended for use, due to construct underrepresentation.

    CONCLUSION: This study found the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy fitted best to a two-component model using eleven items. Item, component, and overall congruence were very high, and scale reliabilities were adequate. The results of this study suggest that the eleven-item, two-component solution demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and structural validity in a Malaysian medical student population. Future research could consider using the short eleven-item measure in both student and health care profession samples to investigate the role of empathy in health care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics
  12. Mohamed NF, Ghazali SR, Yaacob NA, Rahim AAA, Maskon O
    Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J, 2018 Nov;18(4):e494-e500.
    PMID: 30988969 DOI: 10.18295/squmj.2018.18.04.011
    Objectives: Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical syndrome with an enormous impact on prognosis and lifestyle. Accordingly, rehabilitation measures need to be patient-specific and consider various sociocultural factors so as to improve the patient's quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to develop and validate a HF-specific QOL (HFQOL) questionnaire within a multicultural setting.

    Methods: This study took place at the National Heart Institute and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between March 2013 and March 2014. A self-administered 75-item HFQOL questionnaire was designed and administrated to 164 multi-ethnic Malaysian HF patients. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to determine internal consistency.

    Results: A total of 33 out of 75 items were retained in the final tool. The HFQOL questionnaire had three common factors-psychological, physical-social and spiritual wellbeing-resulting in a cumulative percentage of total variance of 44.3%. The factor loading ranges were 0.450-0.718 for psychological wellbeing (12 items), 0.394-0.740 for physical-social wellbeing (14 items) and 0.449-0.727 for spiritual wellbeing (seven items). The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.82, with coefficients of 0.86, 0.88 and 0.79 for the psychological, physical-social and spiritual wellbeing subdomains, respectively.

    Conclusion: The HFQOL questionnaire was found to be a valid and reliable measure of QOL among Malaysian HF patients from various ethnic groups. Such tools may facilitate cardiac care management planning among multi-ethnic patients with HF.

    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation; Psychometrics/methods; Psychometrics/standards*
  13. Ang CS
    Trends Psychiatry Psychother, 2020 4 23;42(1):7-15.
    PMID: 32321081 DOI: 10.1590/2237-6089-2018-0109
    OBJECTIVE: Use of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) has increased significantly since its publication. Although the validity of the SCARED is well established, most of the samples investigated primarily comprised Caucasian children and, where available, people from Asian cultures such as China. Furthermore, the instrument's utility for screening use in community samples has yet to be validated, although it is commonly advocated for this use. The present study addressed the psychometric properties of the SCARED in a community sample of Malaysian children and adolescents.

    METHOD: A total of 386 participants from an urban area, aged between 8 and 17, completed the 41-item SCARED. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to investigate the factor structure of the SCARED.

    RESULTS: Internal consistency ratings for the SCARED's total and subscale scores were good, except for School Avoidance. The validity of the SCARED was further demonstrated through a significant correlation with the Internalizing subscale of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In contrast with the five-factor structure proposed for primarily Caucasian samples, factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure for this Malaysian sample.

    CONCLUSIONS: These research findings support the validity of the SCARED and its utility as a screening tool in a community sample of Malaysian children and adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation; Psychometrics/methods; Psychometrics/standards*
  14. Chai LS, Siop S, Putit Z, Lim L, Gunggu A, Tie SF
    J Nurs Res, 2020 Feb;28(1):e64.
    PMID: 31107774 DOI: 10.1097/jnr.0000000000000328
    BACKGROUND: The rate of cardiac rehabilitation attendance at the Sarawak Heart Centre was identified as very low, and the reason has not been investigated. A scale is needed to identify barriers to participation in cardiac rehabilitation among patients with heart disease in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to translate, adapt, and evaluate the Malay-language version of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS) and to measure the psychometric properties of the Malay-version CRBS to justify its use in Sarawak.

    METHODS: A forward and back-translation method was used. Content validity was assessed by three experts. Psychometric testing was conducted on a sample of 283 patients who were eligible to participate in cardiac rehabilitation. A construct validity test was performed using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine the internal consistency. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient on 22 participants. Independent-samples t test and analysis of variance were conducted to assess the criterion validity. Mean scores for total barriers of the scale and each individual factor were compared among the different patient characteristics.

    RESULTS: The Malay-version CRBS showed an item level of content validity index of 1.00 for all of the items after improvements were made based on the experts' suggestions. The factor analysis, using principal component analysis with direct oblimin rotation, extracted four factors that differed from the original study. These four factors explained 52.50% of the cumulative percentage of variance. The Cronbach's alphas ranged from .74 to .81 for the obtained factors. Test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient value of .78. Criterion validity was supported using the significant differences in the mean score for total barriers among educational level, driving distance, travel time to the hospital, and cardiac rehabilitation attendance.

    CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study found the Malay-version CRBS to be a valid and reliable instrument. It may be used with inpatients to identify barriers to participation in cardiac rehabilitation to promote rehabilitation attendance and improve patient care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics/instrumentation; Psychometrics/methods; Psychometrics/standards*
  15. Al-Dubai SA, Alshagga MA, Rampal KG, Sulaiman NA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jul;19(3):43-9.
    PMID: 23785249 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) is a validated and reliable instrument to measure global levels of perceived stress. This study aims to assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the Malay version of the PSS-10 for use among medical students.
    METHODS: The original English version of the PSS-10 was translated and back-translated into Malay language. The Malay version was distributed to 242 Bachelor of Medical Science students in a private university in Malaysia. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 70 students. An exploratory principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Reliability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
    RESULTS: All 242 students participated in the initial questionnaire study (validity and factor structure), and 70 students participated in the test-retest reliability of the study. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors that accounted for 57.8% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the 2 factors were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. The reliability test showed an ICC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89).
    CONCLUSION: The Malay version of the PSS-10 showed adequate psychometric properties. It is a useful instrument for measuring stress among medical students in Malaysia.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; medical; psychological; reliability and validity; stress; students
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics
  16. Romli MH, Wan Yunus F
    Occup Ther Int, 2020;2020:2490519.
    PMID: 32821250 DOI: 10.1155/2020/2490519
    Play is considered the main occupation for children. Pediatric occupational therapists utilize play either for evaluation or intervention purpose. However, play is not properly measured by occupational therapists, and the use of play instrument is limited. This systematic review was aimed at identifying play instruments relevant to occupational therapy practice and its clinimetric properties. A systematic search was conducted on six databases (Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, Scopus, and ASEAN Citation Index) in January 2020. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using Law and MacDermid's Appraisal for Clinical Measurement Research Reports, and psychometric properties of play instruments were evaluated using Terwee's checklist while the clinical utility is extracted from each instrument. Initial search identifies 1,098 articles, and only 30 articles were included in the final analysis, extracting 8 play instruments. These instruments were predominantly practiced in the Western culture, which consists of several psychometric evidences. The Revised Knox Preschool Play Scale is considered the most extensive and comprehensive play instrument for extrinsic aspect, whereas the Test of Playfulness + Test of Environmental Supportiveness Unifying Measure is a promising play instrument for intrinsic aspect on play, where both instruments utilize observation. My Child's Play is a potential questionnaire-based play instrument. However, the current development of play instruments in the occupational therapy field is immature and constantly evolving, and occupational therapists should exercise good clinical reasoning when selecting a play instrument to use in practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics
  17. Puthiaparampil T, Rahman M
    BMC Med Educ, 2021 Jan 07;21(1):29.
    PMID: 33413332 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-020-02463-0
    BACKGROUND: Distractor efficiency and the optimum number of functional distractors per item in One Best Answer Questions have been debated. The prevalence of non-functional distractors has led to a reduction in the number of distractors per item with the advantage of adding more items in the test. The existing literature eludes a definite answer to the question of what distractor efficiency best matches excellent psychometric indices. We examined the relationship between distractor efficiency and the psychometric indices of One Best Answer Questions in search of an answer.

    METHODS: We analysed 350 items used in 7 professional examinations and determined their distractor efficiency and the number of functional distractors per item. The items were sorted into five groups - excellent, good, fair, remediable and discarded based on their discrimination index. We studied how the distractor efficiency and functional distractors per item correlated with these five groups.

    RESULTS: Correlation of distractor efficiency with psychometric indices was significant but far from perfect. The excellent group topped in distractor efficiency in 3 tests, the good group in one test, the remediable group equalled excellent group in one test, and the discarded group topped in 2 tests.

    CONCLUSIONS: The distractor efficiency did not correlate in a consistent pattern with the discrimination index. Fifty per cent or higher distractor efficiency, not hundred percent, was found to be the optimum.

    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics
  18. Abdulghani HM, Sattar K, Ahmad T, Akram A, Khalil MS
    PLoS One, 2021;16(3):e0249319.
    PMID: 33780493 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249319
    Faculty development programs (FD) prepare the faculty for their educational role and career tasks. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of FDP in advancing the quality of short-answer questions (SAQs). This was a quasi-experimental study, comprising 37 new faculty. The SAQs were examined on psychometric analysis and Bloom's cognitive levels for the two educational blocks of 1st medical year (i.e. Musculoskeletal (MSK) and Renal blocks). We found substantial improvement in the discrimination index values of SAQs prepared after the workshop (p = 0.04). A higher number of SAQs with moderate difficulty and higher discrimination were also observed. Flaws within the post-workshop questions were reduced (3.0%) when compared with pre-workshop (12.5%). The major incline was also reported within Bloom's cognitive levels when pre-workshop K2 questions (30%) were compared with post-workshop (45.5%) with a p-value = 0.05. The SAQs constructed by the faculty member without participating in FDP are generally of unsatisfactory quality. After the FDP the assessment items of two blocks improved for various parameters of student assessment. The current study advocates that newly joined faculty shall be provided with the FDP to be guided, trained and supported for improving the quality of assessment through SAQs items writing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics
  19. Kamaluddin M, Shariff NS, Nurfarliza S, Othman A, Ismail KH, Mat Saat GA
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Apr;36(1):41-50.
    PMID: 24763234 MyJurnal
    Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or slashing also displayed a higher level of minimisation traits. Despite its limitations, this study has provided some light on the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods which is useful in the field of criminology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psychometrics*
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