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  1. Maspi N, Ghaffarifar F, Sharifi Z, Dalimi A, Khademi SZ
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):267-275.
    PMID: 29279589
    Vaccination would be the most important strategy for the prevention and elimination of leishmaniasis. The aim of the present study was to compare the immune responses induced following DNA vaccination with LACK (Leishmania analogue of the receptor kinase C), TSA (Thiol-specific-antioxidant) genes alone or LACK-TSA fusion against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated before and after challenge with Leishmania major (L. major). In addition, the mean lesion size was also measured from 3th week post-infection. All immunized mice showed a partial immunity characterized by higher interferon (IFN)-γ and Immunoglobulin G (IgG2a) levels compared to control groups (p<0.05). IFN-γ/ Interleukin (IL)-4 and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios demonstrated the highest IFN-γ and IgG2a levels in the group receiving LACK-TSA fusion. Mean lesion sizes reduced significantly in all immunized mice compared with control groups at 7th week post-infection (p<0.05). In addition, there was a significant reduction in mean lesion size of LACK-TSA and TSA groups than LACK group after challenge (p<0.05). In the present study, DNA immunization promoted Th1 immune response and confirmed the previous observations on immunogenicity of LACK and TSA antigens against CL. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that a bivalent vaccine can induce stronger immune responses and protection against infectious challenge with L. major.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  2. Ahmad ZA, Yeap SK, Ali AM, Ho WY, Alitheen NB, Hamid M
    Clin. Dev. Immunol., 2012;2012:980250.
    PMID: 22474489 DOI: 10.1155/2012/980250
    To date, generation of single-chain fragment variable (scFv) has become an established technique used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advances in antibody engineering have now facilitated a more efficient and generally applicable method to produce Fv fragments. Basically, scFv antibodies produced from phage display can be genetically fused to the marker proteins, such as fluorescent proteins or alkaline phosphatase. These bifunctional proteins having both antigen-binding capacity and marker activity can be obtained from transformed bacteria and used for one-step immunodetection of biological agents. Alternatively, antibody fragments could also be applied in the construction of immunotoxins, therapeutic gene delivery, and anticancer intrabodies for therapeutic purposes. This paper provides an overview of the current studies on the principle, generation, and application of scFv. The potential of scFv in breast cancer research is also discussed in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  3. AlMatar M, Makky EA, AlMandeal H, Eker E, Kayar B, Var I, et al.
    Curr Mol Pharmacol, 2019;12(2):83-104.
    PMID: 30474542 DOI: 10.2174/1874467212666181126151948
    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is considered as one of the most efficacious human pathogens. The global mortality rate of TB stands at approximately 2 million, while about 8 to 10 million active new cases are documented yearly. It is, therefore, a priority to develop vaccines that will prevent active TB. The vaccines currently used for the management of TB can only proffer a certain level of protection against meningitis, TB, and other forms of disseminated TB in children; however, their effectiveness against pulmonary TB varies and cannot provide life-long protective immunity. Based on these reasons, more efforts are channeled towards the development of new TB vaccines. During the development of TB vaccines, a major challenge has always been the lack of diversity in both the antigens contained in TB vaccines and the immune responses of the TB sufferers. Current efforts are channeled on widening both the range of antigens selection and the range of immune response elicited by the vaccines. The past two decades witnessed a significant progress in the development of TB vaccines; some of the discovered TB vaccines have recently even completed the third phase (phase III) of a clinical trial.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to discuss the recent progress in the development of new vaccines against TB; to provide an insight on the mechanism of vaccine-mediated specific immune response stimulation, and to debate on the interaction between vaccines and global interventions to end TB.

    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  4. Yap WB, Tey BT, Ng MY, Ong ST, Tan WS
    J Virol Methods, 2009 Sep;160(1-2):125-31.
    PMID: 19433111 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.04.038
    The core antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBcAg) has been used widely as a diagnostic reagent for the identification of the viral infection. However, purification using the conventional sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation is time consuming and costly. To overcome this, HBcAg particles displaying His-tag on their surface were constructed and produced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant His-tagged HBcAgs were purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the displayed His-tag did not impair the formation of the core particles and the antigenicity of HBcAg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  5. Lim SH, Jahanshiri F, Jalilian FA, Rahim RA, Sekawi Z, Yusoff K
    Acta Virol., 2010;54(3):181-7.
    PMID: 20822310
    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children worldwide. In line with the development of an effective vaccine against HRSV, a domain of the fusion (F) glycoprotein of HRSV was produced and its immunogenicity and antigenic properties, namely the effect of deficient glycosylation was examined. A His-tagged recombinant F (rF) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, solubilized with 8 mol/l urea, purified by the Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and used for the raising of a polyclonal antibody in rabbits. The non-glycosylated rF protein proved to be a strong immunogen that induced a polyclonal antibody that was able to recognize also the glycosylated F1 subunit of native HRSV. The other way around, a polyclonal antibody prepared against the native HRSV was able to react with the rF protein. These results indicated that glycosylation was not necessary for the F domain aa 212-574 in order to be recognized by the specific polyclonal antibody.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  6. Fang CM, Zainuddin ZF, Musa M, Thong KL
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2006 Jun;47(2):341-7.
    PMID: 16510294 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2005.12.007
    Tuberculosis remains a major infectious disease with over 8 million new cases and 2 million deaths annually. Therefore, a vaccine more potent than BCG is desperately needed. In this regard, an approximately 800 bp DNA encoding a mycobacterial synthetic gene designated as VacIII (containing ubiquitin gene UbGR and four immunogenic mycobacterial epitopes or genes of ESAT-6, Phos1, Hsp 16.3, and Mtb8.4) was sub-cloned into a bacterial expression vector of pRSET-B resulting in a 6 x His-VacIII fusion gene construction. This recombinant clone was over expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE-3). The expressed fusion protein was found almost entirely in the insoluble form (inclusion bodies) in cell lysate. The inclusion bodies were solubilized with 8M urea and the recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA column and dialyzed by urea gradient dialysis. This method produced a relatively high yield of recombinant VacIII protein and the cloned VacIII gene offers the potential development of other vaccine formats such as DNA vaccine and recombinant vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  7. Chan SW, Ong GI, Nathan S
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2004 Sep 30;37(5):556-64.
    PMID: 15479619
    A recombinant Fab monoclonal antibody (Fab) C37, previously obtained by phage display and biopanning of a random antibody fragment library against Burkholderia pseudomallei protease, was expressed in different strains of Escherichia coli. E. coli strain HB2151 was deemed a more suitable host for Fab expression than other E. coli strains when grown in media supplemented with 0.2 % glycerol. The expressed Fab fragment was purified by affinity chromatography on a Protein G-Sepharose column, and the specificity of the recombinant Fab C37 towards B. pseudomallei protease was proven by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by proteolytic activity neutralization. In addition, polyclonal antibodies against B. pseudomallei protease were produced in rabbits immunized with the protease. These were isolated from high titer serum by affinity chromatography on recombinant-Protein A-Sepharose. Purified polyclonal antibody specificity towards B. pseudomallei protease was proven by Western blotting and ELISA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  8. Nathan S, Li H, Mohamed R, Embi N
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Feb;6(1):45-53.
    PMID: 12186782
    We have used the phagemid pComb3H to construct recombinant phages displaying the single chain variable fragment (ScFv) towards exotoxin of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Variable heavy and light chain fragments were amplified from the hybridoma 6E6A8F3B line, with a wide spectrum of primers specific to mouse antibody genes. Through overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction, the heavy and light chain fragments were linked to form the ScFv which was subsequently cloned into the phage display vector and transformed into ER2537 cells to yield a complexity of 10(8) clones. The transformants were screened by four rounds of biopanning against the exotoxin and resulted in selective enrichment of exotoxin-binding antibodies by 301 fold. The phage pool from the final round of selection displayed antibodies of high-affinity to the exotoxin as demonstrated by ELISA. Several clones were selected randomly from this pool and analysed by restriction enzyme digestion, fingerprinting and sequencing. Restriction analysis confirmed that all clones carried a 700-800 bp insert whose sequences, in general, corresponded to that of mouse IgG. Fingerprinting profiles delineated the antibodies into two families with different CDR sequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  9. Yee SF, Chu CH, Poili E, Sum MSH
    J Virol Methods, 2017 02;240:69-72.
    PMID: 27923590 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.12.001
    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a recurring disease affecting rice farming especially in the South and Southeast Asia. The disease is commonly diagnosed by visual observation of the symptoms on diseased plants in paddy fields and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, visual observation is unreliable and PCR can be costly. High-throughput as well as relatively cheap detection methods are important for RTD management for screening large number of samples. Due to this, detection by serological assays such as immunoblotting assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are preferred. However, these serological assays are limited by lack of continuous supply of antibodies as reagents due to the difficulty in preparing sufficient purified virions as antigens. This study aimed to generate and evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) as alternative antigens to generate antibodies. The genes encoding the coat proteins of both viruses, RTBV (CP), and RTSV (CP1, CP2 and CP3) were cloned and expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. All of the recombinant fusion proteins, with the exception of the recombinant fusion protein of the CP2 of RTSV, were reactive against our in-house anti-tungro rabbit serum. In conclusion, our study showed the potential use of the recombinant fusion coat proteins of the tungro viruses as alternative antigens for production of antibodies for diagnostic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  10. Moeini H, Omar AR, Rahim RA, Yusoff K
    Virol J, 2011;8:119.
    PMID: 21401953 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-119
    Studies have shown that the VP22 gene of Marek's Disease Virus type-1 (MDV-1) has the property of movement between cells from the original cell of expression into the neighboring cells. The ability to facilitate the spreading of the linked proteins was used to improve the potency of the constructed DNA vaccines against chicken anemia virus (CAV).
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  11. Abd-Jamil J, Cheah CY, AbuBakar S
    Protein Eng. Des. Sel., 2008 Oct;21(10):605-11.
    PMID: 18669522 DOI: 10.1093/protein/gzn041
    A method to map the specific site on dengue virus envelope protein (E) that interacts with cells and a neutralizing antibody is developed using serially truncated dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) E displayed on M13 phages as recombinant E-g3p fusion proteins. Recombinant phages displaying the truncated E consisting of amino acids 297-423 (EB2) and amino acids 379-423 (EB4) were neutralized by DENV-2 patient sera and the DENV-2 E-specific 3H5-1 monoclonal antibodies suggesting that the phages retained the DENV-2 E antigenic properties. The EB4 followed by EB2 recombinant phages bound the most to human monocytes (THP-1), African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, mosquito (C6/36) cells, ScFv specific against E and C6/36 cell proteins. Two potential cell attachment sites were mapped to loop I (amino acids 297 to 312) and loop II (amino acids 379-385) of the DENV-2 E using the phage-displayed truncated DENV-2 E fragments and by the analysis of the E structure. Loop II was present only in EB4 recombinant phages. There was no competition for binding to C6/36 cell proteins between EB2 and EB4 phages. Loop I and loop II are similar to the sub-complex specific and type-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody binding sites, respectively. Hence, it is proposed that binding and entry of DENV involves the interaction of loop I to cell surface glycosaminoglycan-motif and a subsequent highly specific interaction involving loop II with other cell proteins. The phage displayed truncated DENV-2 E is a powerful and useful method for the direct determination of DENV-2 E cell binding sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  12. Mohamud R, Azlan M, Yero D, Alvarez N, Sarmiento ME, Acosta A, et al.
    BMC Immunol., 2013;14 Suppl 1:S5.
    PMID: 23458635 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-14-S1-S5
    Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guèrin (rBCG) expressing three T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Ag85B antigen (P1, P2, P3) fused to the Mtb8.4 protein (rBCG018) or a combination of these antigens fused to B cell epitopes from ESAT-6, CFP-10 and MTP40 proteins (rBCG032) were used to immunize Balb/c mice. Total IgG responses were determined against Mtb8.4 antigen and ESAT-6 and CFP-10 B cell epitopes after immunization with rBCG032. Mice immunized with rBCG032 showed a significant increase in IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies against ESAT-6 and MTP40 (P1) B cell epitopes and IgG3 against both P1 and P2 B cell epitopes of MPT40. Splenocytes from mice immunized with rBCG018 proliferated against Ag85B P2 and P3 T cell epitopes and Mtb8.4 protein whereas those from mice-immunized with rBCG032 responded against all Ag85B epitopes and the ESAT-6 B cell epitope. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ lymphocytes from mice immunized with rBCG018 produced primarily Th1 type cytokines in response to the T cell epitopes. Similar pattern of recognition against the T cell epitopes were obtained with rBCG032 with the additional recognition of ESAT-6, CFP-10 and one of the MTP40 B cell epitopes with the same pattern of cytokines. This study demonstrates that rBCG constructs expressing either T or T and B cell epitopes of MTB induced appropriate immunogenicity against MTB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  13. Rabu A, Tan WS, Kho CL, Omar AR, Yusoff K
    Acta Virol., 2002;46(4):211-7.
    PMID: 12693857
    The nucleocapsid (NP) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) self-assembled in Escherichia coli as ring-like and herringbone-like particles. Several chimeric NP proteins were constructed in which the antigenic regions of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of NDV, myc epitope, and six histidines (a hexa-His tag) were linked to the C-terminus of the NP monomer. These chimeric proteins were expressed efficiently in soluble form in E. coli as detected by Western blot analysis. Electron microscopy of the purified products revealed that they self-assembled into ring-like particles. These chimeric particles exhibited antigenicity of the myc epitope, suggesting that the foreign sequences were exposed on the surface of the particles. Chickens inoculated with the chimeric particles mounted an immune response against NDV, suggesting the possibility of use of the ring-like particle as a carrier of immunogens in subunit vaccines and immunological reagents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  14. Mohd-Lila MA, Yee LK, Cen LS, Bala JA, Balakrishnan KN, Allaudin ZN, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2019 Sep;134:103572.
    PMID: 31163251 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103572
    The common physical and chemical methods for controlling rat pest are less than satisfactory and inhumane. Immunocontraception approach has been considered more humane and it can be accomplished by inducing the relevant host immune response that block further development of reproductive gametes. ZP3 proteins are known to play very important role during sperm-ovum fertilization. It is a self-antigen and only localized in female ovaries. Therefore, an immunization with ZP3 protein elsewhere will induce a generalize host immune response against ZP3 protein. This study employed rat ZP3 (rZP3) gene prepared from its cDNA of Rattus rattus diardii. It was delivered and expressed in vivo by naked plamid DNA (DrZP3) or recombinant ZP3-Adenovirus (Ad-rZP3). Expression studies in vitro with DrZP3 or Ad-ZP3 showed rZP3 proteins were successfully expressed in Vero cells. Hyperimmune serum against rZP3 that were prepared by immunizing several rats with purified rZP3-pichia yeast fusion protein showed it blocked sperms from binding DrZP3-transfected Vero cells. Female Sprague Dawley rats immunized with DrZP3 demonstrated a long-term effect for significant reduction of fertility up to 92.6%. Ovaries from rats immunized with DrZP3 were severely atrophied with disappearance of primordial follicles from ovarian cortex with an increased in the amount of oocyte-free cell clusters. Female rats immunized with Ad-rZP3 demonstrated 27% reduction of fertility. The infertility induced by Ad-rZP3 is comparatively low and ineffective. This could be due to a strong host immune response that suppresses the recombinant virus itself resulted in minimum rZP3 protein presentation to the host immune system. As a result, low antibody titers produced against rZP3 is insufficient to block oocytes from maturity and fertilization. Therefore, immunization with DrZP3 for immunocontraception is more effective than Ad-rZP3 recombinant adenovirus. It is proposed to explore further on the use of adenovirus or other alternative viruses to deliver ZP3 protein and for the development of enhanced expression of rZP3 in target host.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  15. Wagner B, Krebitz M, Buck D, Niggemann B, Yeang HY, Han KH, et al.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1999 Nov;104(5):1084-92.
    PMID: 10550757
    BACKGROUND: Two natural rubber latex proteins, Hev b 1 and Hev b 3, have been described in spina bifida (SB)-associated latex allergy.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clone and express Hev b 3 and to obtain the immunologic active and soluble recombinant allergen for diagnosis of SB-associated latex allergy.

    METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) coding for Hev b 3 was amplified from RNA of fresh latex collected from Malaysian rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis). PCR primers were designed according to sequences of internal peptide fragments of natural (n) Hev b 3. The 5'-end sequence was obtained by specific amplification of cDNA ends. The recombinant (r) Hev b 3 was produced in Escherichia coli as a 6xHis tagged protein. Immunoblotting and inhibition assays were performed to characterize the recombinant allergen.

    RESULTS: An Hev b 3 cDNA clone of 922 bp encoding a protein of 204 amino acid residues corresponding to a molecular weight of 22.3 kd was obtained. In immunoblots 29/35, latex-allergic patients with SB revealed IgE binding to rHev b 3, as did 4 of 15 of the latex-sensitized group. The presence of all IgE epitopes on rHev b 3 was shown by its ability to abolish all IgE binding to nHev b 3. Hev b 3 is related to Hev b 1 by a sequence identity of 47%. Cross-reactivity between these 2 latex allergens was illustrated by the large extent of inhibition of IgE binding to nHev b 1 by rHev b 3.

    CONCLUSION: rHev b 3 constitutes a suitable in vitro reagent for the diagnosis of latex allergy in patients with SB. The determination of the full sequence of Hev b 3 and the production of the recombinant allergen will allow the epitope mapping and improve diagnostic reagents for latex allergy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology*
  16. Moeini H, Rahim RA, Omar AR, Shafee N, Yusoff K
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2011 Apr;90(1):77-88.
    PMID: 21181148 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-010-3050-0
    The AcmA binding domains of Lactococcus lactis were used to display the VP1 protein of chicken anemia virus (CAV) on Lactobacillus acidophilus. One and two repeats of the cell wall binding domain of acmA gene were amplified from L. lactis MG1363 genome and then inserted into co-expression vector, pBudCE4.1. The VP1 gene of CAV was then fused to the acmA sequences and the VP2 gene was cloned into the second MCS of the same vector before transformation into Escherichia coli. The expressed recombinant proteins were purified using a His-tag affinity column and mixed with a culture of L. acidophilus. Whole cell ELISA and immunofluorescence assay showed the binding of the recombinant VP1 protein on the surface of the bacterial cells. The lactobacilli cells carrying the CAV VP1 protein were used to immunize specific pathogen-free chickens through the oral route. A moderate level of neutralizing antibody to CAV was detected in the serum of the immunized chickens. A VP1-specific proliferative response was observed in splenocytes of the chickens after oral immunization. The vaccinated groups also showed increased levels of Th1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ. These observations suggest that L. acidophilus can be used in the delivery of vaccines to chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
  17. Eshaghi M, Tan WS, Chin WK, Yusoff K
    J Biotechnol, 2005 Mar 30;116(3):221-6.
    PMID: 15707682
    The glycoprotein (G) of Nipah virus (NiV) is important for virus infectivity and induction of the protective immunity. In this study, the extra-cellular domain of NiV G protein was fused with hexahistidine residues at its N-terminal end and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression under transcriptional regulation of T7 promoter yielded insoluble protein aggregates in the form of inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were solubilized with 8 M urea and the protein was purified to homogeneity under denaturing conditions using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. The denatured protein was renatured by gradual removal of the urea. Light scattering analysis of the purified protein showed primarily monodispersity. The purified protein showed significant reactivity with the antibodies present in the sera of NiV-infected swine, as demonstrated in Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Taken together, the data indicate the potential usefulness of the purified G protein for structural or functional studies and the development of immunoassay for detection of the NiV antibodies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology
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