A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for the detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. panLF Rapid kit is suitable for this purpose since it can detect all species of lymphatic filaria. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant B. malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. There is an increase demand for the test due to its attributes of being rapid, sensitive and specific results, as well as its field-applicability. The main aim of this paper is to obtain high recovery and purity of recombinant antigen BmSXP via a modified method of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The highest product yield of 11.82 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) was obtained when IMAC was performed using the optimized protocol of 10 mM imidazole concentration in lysis buffer, 30 mM imidazole concentration in wash buffer, and 10 column volume wash buffer containing 300 mM salt concentration. This gave a 54% protein recovery improvement over the manufacturer's protocol which recorded a product yield of only 7.68 mg/g DCW. The recovered BmSXP recombinant antigen showed good western blot reactivity, high sensitivity (31/32, 97%) and specificity (32/32, 100%) in ELISA, thus attesting to its good purity and quality.
This study described the isolation of the coding region of human topoisomerase I (TopoI) from MDA-MB-231 and the expression of multiple copy recombinant genes in four Pichia pastoris strains. First, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplification of the enzyme coding region was performed. The PCR fragment was cloned into pPICZ-α-A vector and sequenced. It was then transformed into X33, GS115, SMD1168H and KM71H strains of Pichia. PCR-screening for positive clones was performed, and estimation of multiple copy integrants in each Pichia strain was carried out using agar plates containing increasing concentrations of Zeocin(®). The selected clones of multiple copy recombinant genes were then induced for TopoI expression in shaker flasks. GS115 and SMD1168 were found to be better Pichia strains to accommodate the recombinant gene for the expression of TopoI extracellularly. However, the DNA relaxation activity revealed that only the target enzyme in the culture supernatants of GS115-pPICZ-α-A-TopoI exhibited consistent enzyme activity over the cultivation time-points. Active enzyme activity was inhibited by Camptothecin. The enzyme produced can be used for in-house gel-based DNA relaxation assay development in performing high throughput screening for target-specific growth inhibitors that display similar effect as the TopoI inhibitors. These inhibitors may contribute to the improvement of the treatment of cancer patients.
Researchers frequently use two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) prior to mass spectrometric analysis in a proteomics approach. The i2D-PAGE method, which 'inverts' the dimension of protein separation of the conventional 2D-PAGE, is presented in this publication. Protein lysate of Channa striata, a freshwater snakehead fish, was separated based on its molecular weight in the first dimension and its isoelectric point in the second dimension. The first-dimension separation was conducted on a gel-free separation device, and the protein mixture was fractionated into 12 fractions in chronological order of increasing molecular weight. The second-dimension separation featured isoelectric focusing, which further separated the proteins within the same fraction according to their respective isoelectric point. Advantages of i2D-PAGE include better visualisation of the isolated protein, easy identification on protein isoforms, shorter running time, customisability and reproducibility. Erythropoietin standard was applied to i2D-PAGE to show its effectiveness for separating protein isoforms. Various staining methods such as Coomassie blue staining and silver staining are also applicable to i2D-PAGE. Overall, the i2D-PAGE separation method effectively separates protein lysate and is suitable for application in proteomics research.
An intensified process was developed that enables high level production of recombinant core streptavidin (cSAV), a non-glycosylated tetrameric protein utilised in a wide range of applications. A pH-stat fed-batch feeding strategy was employed to achieve high-cell-density and improve volumetric yield of cSAV which was expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs). The effect of induction at different cell densities (OD 20, 60 and 100) on volumetric and specific yield were then studied. Highest volumetric yield of cSAV (1550 mg L-1) was obtained from induction at OD 100 without significant reductions in specific yield. To recover active cSAV from IBs, the possibility of refolding using a temperature-based refolding method was investigated. Refolded cSAV obtained from temperature-based refolding were then compared against cSAV refolded with conventional dialysis and dilution methods using quantitative and qualitative metrics. The temperature-based refolding method was found to improve the yield of cSAV by 6-18% in comparison to conventional methods without compromising quality. Intensification was achieved by reductions in process volumes and a more concentrated product stream. Using the newly developed process, the volumetric yield of cSAV IBs was improved by thirty-six fold in comparison to low-cell-density shake flask cultivation, and 33% of cSAV can be recovered from IBs at 90% purity.
Recombinant human epidermal growth factor (EGF) was successfully expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli system. This system was used OmpA signal sequence to produce soluble protein into the periplasm of E. coli. Human EGF (hEGF) synthesized in bacterial cell was found to be similar in size with the original protein and molecular weight approximately at 6.8 kDa. Cell proliferation assay was conducted to characterize the biological activity of hEGF on human dermal fibroblasts. The synthesized hEGF was found to be functional as compared with authentic hEGF in stimulating cell proliferation and promoting growth of cell. In comparison of biological activity between synthesized and commercial hEGF on cell proliferation, the results showed there was no significant different. This finding indicates the synthesized hEGF in E. coli system is fully bioactive in vitro.
In this study, recombinant proteins that encompassed the AD I-AD III regions of 56 kDa immunodominant gene of 2 Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) serotypes; Gilliam and TA763 were expressed in Escherichia coli. Both recombinant proteins exhibited serologic cross-reactivity with the rabbit antisera against various OT serotypes, as evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but not against other rickettsial species, including Rickettsia typhi, R. prowazekii and TT118 SFG rickettsiae. The feasibility of using the recombinant proteins as a diagnostic reagent was further evaluated by ELISA using sera from blood donors and scrub typhus patients. The results suggested a higher affinity of the antihuman IgM than IgG with both recombinant proteins. The IgM ELISA findings were agreeable with the results of indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) assay especially with sera of high antibody (1:1600). However, more than one antigen are probably needed for development of an effective assay for serodiagnosis of scrub typhus in endemic areas.
Transgenic malaria parasites expressing fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins are valuable tools to interrogate malaria-parasite biology and to evaluate drugs and vaccines. Using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology a transgenic Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) NF54 line was generated that expresses a fusion of mCherry and luciferase genes under the control of the Pf etramp10.3 gene promoter (line mCherryemail@example.com). Pf etramp10.3 is related to rodent Plasmodium uis4 and the uis4 promoter has been used to drive high transgene expression in rodent parasite sporozoites and liver-stages. We examined transgene expression throughout the complete life cycle and compared this expression to transgenic lines expressing mCherry-luciferase and GFP-luciferase under control of the constitutive gapdh and eef1a promoters. The mCherryfirstname.lastname@example.org parasites express mCherry in gametocytes, sporozoites, and liver-stages. While no mCherry signal was detected in asexual blood-stage parasites above background levels, luciferase expression was detected in asexual blood-stages, as well as in gametocytes, sporozoites and liver-stages, with the highest levels of reporter expression detected in stage III-V gametocytes and in sporozoites. The expression of mCherry and luciferase in gametocytes and sporozoites makes this transgenic parasite line suitable to use in in vitro assays that examine the effect of transmission blocking inhibitors and to analyse gametocyte and sporozoite biology.