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  1. Yung LC, Fei CC, Mandeep J, Binti Abdullah H, Wee LK
    PLoS One, 2014;9(5):e97484.
    PMID: 24830317 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097484
    The success of printing technology in the electronics industry primarily depends on the availability of metal printing ink. Various types of commercially available metal ink are widely used in different industries such as the solar cell, radio frequency identification (RFID) and light emitting diode (LED) industries, with limited usage in semiconductor packaging. The use of printed ink in semiconductor IC packaging is limited by several factors such as poor electrical performance and mechanical strength. Poor adhesion of the printed metal track to the epoxy molding compound is another critical factor that has caused a decline in interest in the application of printing technology to the semiconductor industry. In this study, two different groups of adhesion promoters, based on metal and polymer groups, were used to promote adhesion between the printed ink and the epoxy molding substrate. The experimental data show that silver ink with a metal oxide adhesion promoter adheres better than silver ink with a polymer adhesion promoter. This result can be explained by the hydroxyl bonding between the metal oxide promoter and the silane grouping agent on the epoxy substrate, which contributes a greater adhesion strength compared to the polymer adhesion promoter. Hypotheses of the physical and chemical functions of both adhesion promoters are described in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Silver Compounds/chemistry*
  2. Syahir A, Kajikawa K, Mihara H
    Protein Pept Lett, 2018;25(1):34-41.
    PMID: 29237369 DOI: 10.2174/0929866525666171214111957
    BACKGROUND: Direct bio-monitoring essentially involves optical means since photon has insignificant effects over biomolecules. Over the years, laser induced surface Plasmon resonance method with various modifications as well as versatile localized Plasmon excited by incoherent light have facilitated in recording many nanobiological activities. Yet, monitoring interactions of small molecules including drugs requires signal amplification and improvement on signal-to-noise ratio.

    OBJECTIVES: This paper focused on how the refractive index based nanobio-sensoring gold platform can produce more efficient, adaptable and more practical detection techniques to observe molecular interactions at high degree of sensitivity. It discusses surface chemistry approach, optimisation of the refractive index of gold platform and manipulation of gold geometry augmenting signal quality.

    METHODS: In a normal-incidence reflectivity, r0 can be calculated using the Fresnel equation. Particularly at λ = 470 nm the ratio of r / r0 showed significant amplitude reduction mainly stemmed from the imaginary part of the Au refractive index. Hence, the fraction of reduction, Δr = 1 - r / r0. Experimentally, in a common reference frame reflectivity of a bare gold surface, R0 is compared with the reflectivity of gold surface in the presence of biolayer, R. The reduction rate (%) of reflectivity, ΔR = 1 - R / R0 is denoted as the AR signal. The method therefore enables quantitative measurement of the surface-bound protein by converting ΔR to the thickness, d, and subsequently the protein mass. We discussed four strategies to improve the AR signal by changing the effective refractive index of the biosensing platform. They are; a) Thickness optimisation of Au thin layer, b) Au / Ag bimetallic layer, c) composing alloy or Au composite, and d) Au thinlayer with nano or micro holes.

    RESULTS: As the result we successfully 'move' the refractive index, ε of the AR platform (gold only) to ε = -0.948 + 3.455i, a higher sensitivity platform. This was done by composing Au-Ag2O composite with ratio = 1:1. The results were compared to the potential sensitivity improvement of the AR substrate using other that could be done by further tailoring the ε advanced method.

    CONCLUSION: We suggested four strategies in order to realize this purpose. It is apparent that sensitivity has been improved through Au/Ag bimetallic layer or Au-Ag2O composite thin layer, This study is an important step towards fabrication of sensitive surface for detection of biomolecular interactions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Silver Compounds/chemistry
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