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  1. Al-Bayaty FH, Baharuddin N, Abdulla MA, Ali HM, Arkilla MB, ALBayaty MF
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:684154.
    PMID: 24286083 DOI: 10.1155/2013/684154
    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at α ≤ 0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 13.39 ± 5.75 cigarettes; the mean duration was 16.03 ± 8.78 years. Relatively low BOP values (26.05 ± 1.48) and moderate plaque indexes (51.35 ± 11.27) were found. The levels of serum cotinine (106.9 ± 30.71 ng/dL), haptoglobin (76.04 ± 52.48 mg/dL), and alpha 1-antitrypsin (141.90 ± 18.40 mg/dL) were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years) and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/blood*
  2. Foo LC, Roshidah I, Aimy MB
    Thromb. Haemost., 1991 Mar 4;65(3):317-9.
    PMID: 2048056 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1648142
    Platelet aggregation to collagen, and productions of 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1-alpha and thromboxane B2 during aggregation were measured after an overnight fast, involving both food and cigarettes, in 19 clinically healthy habitual smokers (10 or more cigarettes/day) and 23 non-smokers receiving the same diet. The subjects (all males; ages = 21-30 years) were residents of a school hostel. Mean platelet aggregation was significantly lower in smokers than non-smokers (23.2 ohms vs 31.5 ohms, p less than 0.005). Non-smokers had significantly higher mean concentration of 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1-alpha than smokers (109.8 pmol/l vs 92.3 pmol/l, p less than 0.05). The level of thromboxane B2 did not differ significantly between the two groups. These observations suggest that the role of smoking as a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease is unlikely to be related to a direct enhancement of aggregation. On the contrary, the observations seem to suggest that habitual smoking may directly reduce platelet aggregability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/blood*
  3. Ghazali WS, Romli AC, Mohamed M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Mar 28;17(1):175.
    PMID: 28351393 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1703-6
    BACKGROUND: Honey has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory property. This is a randomized, controlled, open-label trial to determine the effects of 12-week honey oral supplementation on plasma inflammatory markers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α among chronic smokers.
    METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 32 non-smokers and 64 chronic smokers from Quit Smoking Clinic and Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia participated in the study. Smokers were then randomized into 2 groups: smokers with honey group that received Malaysian Tualang honey (20 g/day daily for 12 weeks) and smokers without honey group. Blood was obtained from non-smokers and smokers at pre-intervention, and from smokers at post-intervention for measurement of the inflammatory markers.
    RESULTS: At pre-intervention, smokers had significantly higher high sensitive C-reactive protein than non-smokers. In smokers with honey group, tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly increased while high sensitive C-reactive protein was significantly reduced at post-intervention than at pre-intervention.
    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that honey supplementation has opposite effects on tumor necrosis factor-α and high sensitive C-reactive protein indicating the inconclusive effect of honey on inflammation among chronic smokers which needs further study on other inflammatory markers.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001236583 . Registered 11 November 2015 (Retrospectively Registered).
    Study site: Quit Smoking Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM); staff from health campus
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/blood
  4. Suhaimi MZ, Sanip Z, Jan HJ, Yusoff HM
    Ann Saudi Med, 2016;36(6):404-408.
    PMID: 27920412
    BACKGROUND: Exposure to nicotine via tobacco smoking may influence leptin release and decrease food intake among smokers. However, the effect of nicotine exposure on leptin and food intake among different nicotine dependent groups is unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure leptin and calorie intake among different nicotine dependent groups.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    SETTING: Research department in school of medical sciences.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subjects were selected by purposive (non-probability) sampling and categorized as having low, moderate and high nicotine dependency based on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score. Diet was recorded by interview. Anthropometry, blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile, and physical activity level were measured accordingly. Fasting serum leptin was measured using a commercial ELISA kit.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Nicotine dependency, 24-hour diet, clinical anthropometric and clinical measurements.

    RESULTS: In 107 Malay male smokers leptin concentration was inversely correlated with nicotine dependence. However, body weight, smoking period, blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile and physical activity level were not significantly different among low, moderately and highly dependent smoking groups. Leptin concentration and total calorie intake were also not significantly different among these groups.

    CONCLUSION: Leptin concentration was inversely correlated with nicotine dependence, but leptin concentration and total calorie intake status were not significantly different among our different nicotine dependency subjects.

    LIMITATIONS: Purposive sampling for subject recruitment and inaccurate information in the self-administered questionnaire.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/blood
  5. Hughes K, New AL, Lee BL, Ong CN
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1998 Mar;27(2):149-53.
    PMID: 9663300
    The National University of Singapore Heart Study measured cardiovascular risk factors, including selected plasma vitamins, on a random sample of the general population aged 30 to 69 years. Plasma vitamins A and E were normal and similar by ethnic group. Mean plasma vitamin A levels were: Chinese (males 0.68 and females 0.52 mg/L), Malays (males 0.67 and females 0.54 mg/L), and Indians (males 0.66 and females 0.51 mg/L). Mean plasma vitamin E levels were: Chinese (males 12.6 and females 12.6 mg/L), Malays (males 13.6 and females 13.3 mg/L), and Indians (males 12.9 and females 12.8 mg/L). No person had plasma vitamin A deficiency (< 0.01 mg/L) and only 0.1% had vitamin E deficiency (< 5.0 mg/L). In contrast, plasma vitamin C was on the low side and higher in Chinese than Malays and Indians. Mean plasma vitamin C levels were: Chinese (males 6.3 and females 8.4 mg/L), Malays (males 5.1 and females 6.4 mg/L), and Indians (males 5.7 and females 6.9 mg/L). Likewise, the proportions with plasma vitamin C deficiency (< 2.0 mg/L) were lower in Chinese (males 14.4 and females 0.7%), than Malays (males 19.7 and females 7.2%), and Indians (males 17.8 and females 11.0%). Relatively low levels of plasma vitamin C may contribute to the high rates of coronary heart disease and cancer in Singapore. In particular, lower plasma vitamin C in Malays and Indians than Chinese may contribute to their higher rates of coronary heart disease. However, plasma vitamin C does not seem to be involved in the higher rates of cancer in Chinese than Malays and Indians. The findings suggest a relatively low intake of fresh fruits and a higher intake is recommended. Also, food sources of vitamin C may be destroyed by the high cooking temperatures of local cuisines, especially the Malay and Indian ones.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/blood
  6. Vrieling A, Bueno-De-Mesquita HB, Ros MM, Kampman E, Aben KK, Büchner FL, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2019 11 01;145(9):2349-2359.
    PMID: 30694528 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32165
    Published associations between dietary folate and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. This nested case-control analysis within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigated associations between pre-diagnostic serum folate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC). A total of 824 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 824 cohort members. Serum folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total, aggressive, and non-aggressive UCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, and other potential confounders. Additionally, statistical interaction with smoking status was assessed. A halving in serum folate concentrations was moderately associated with risk of UCC (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98-1.43), in particular aggressive UCC (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.75; p-heterogeneity = 0.19). Compared to never smokers in the highest quartile of folate concentrations, this association seemed only apparent among current smokers in the lowest quartile of folate concentrations (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 3.62-10.81, p-interaction = 0.07). Dietary folate was not associated with aggressive UCC (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; p-heterogeneity = 0.14). No association was observed between serum homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and risk of UCC. This study suggests that lower serum folate concentrations are associated with increased UCC risk, in particular aggressive UCC. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out and these findings require confirmation in future studies with multiple measurements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/blood
  7. van Roekel EH, Trijsburg L, Assi N, Carayol M, Achaintre D, Murphy N, et al.
    Nutrients, 2018 May 22;10(5).
    PMID: 29789452 DOI: 10.3390/nu10050654
    Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit). Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3) and replication (1/3) sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05) were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05). Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/blood
  8. Jubri Z, Latif AA, Top AG, Ngah WZ
    Nutr J, 2013;12:2.
    PMID: 23286246 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-2
    BACKGROUND:
    Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and an have adverse effect to the immune system. Supplementation of palm oil vitamin E (palmvitee), is known has antioxidant properties is thought to be beneficial for system immune protection against free radicals activity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of palmvitee supplementation on immune response in smokers.

    METHODS:
    This study involved a group of smokers and nonsmokers who received 200 mg/day palmvitee and placebo for the control group. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12 and 24 weeks of supplementation. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were determined by HPLC, lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and enumeration of lymphocytes T and B cells by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric data distribution and correlation among the variables was examined by Spearman.

    RESULTS:
    Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were increased in vitamin E supplemented group as compared to placebo group. Urine cotinine levels and serum α1-antitrypsin were significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Lymphocyte proliferation induced by PHA showed an increasing trend with palmvitee supplementation in both smokers and nonsmokers. Natural killer cells were decreased; CD4+ cells and B cells were increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers but were unaffected with vitamin E supplementation except in the percentage of B cells which were increased in nonsmokers supplemented palmvitee compared to placebo. CD4+/CD8+ ratio was increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The high TWBC count observed in smokers correlated with the increased CD4+ and B cells.

    CONCLUSIONS:
    Smoking caused alterations in certain immune parameters and palmvitee supplementation tended to cause an increase in lymphocytes transformation test but had no effect on CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells and B cells except B cells percentage in nonsmokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/blood
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