Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 261 in total

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  1. Santiago C, Lim KH, Loh HS, Ting KN
    PMID: 25880167 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0615-6
    Formation of biofilm is known to enhance the virulence of methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with persistent infections in hospital settings. The biofilm layer essentially forms a protective barrier encapsulating the bacterial colony and thus reduces the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. We have isolated 9EA-FC-B bioactive fraction from Acalypha wilkesiana Müll. Arg. that reverses ampicillin resistant in MRSA through inhibition of the antibiotic resistant protein, penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 9EA-FC-B on MRSA biofilm forming capacity.
  2. Abdullah AS, Mohammed AS, Rasedee A, Mirghani ME, Al-Qubaisi MS
    PMID: 25881293 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0575-x
    In this study, the effect of mango kernel extract in the induction of apoptosis of the breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell line was examined. This is an attempt to discover alternatives to current therapeutic regimes in the treatment of breast cancers.
  3. Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Mamat SS, Mohtarrudin N, Kek TL, Salleh MZ
    PMID: 25927982 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0638-z
    Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the gastroprotective mechanisms of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) in rats.
  4. Ahmad S, Sukari MA, Ismail N, Ismail IS, Abdul AB, Abu Bakar MF, et al.
    PMID: 25887035 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0594-7
    Mangifera pajang Kosterm is a plant species from the mango family (Anacardiaceae). The fruits are edible and have been reported to have high antioxidant content. However, the detailed phytochemical studies of the plant have not been reported previously. This study investigates the phytochemicals and biological activities of different parts of Mangifera pajang.
  5. Mohd Zainudin M, Zakaria Z, Megat Mohd Nordin NA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Mar 10;15:54.
    PMID: 25887182 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0565-z
    BACKGROUND: The National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2011 estimated that 35.1% (5.7 million) of Malaysian adults aged 18 and older suffer from hypertension. Hypertension is still treated by conventional medicine despite its exact aetiology being unknown. Studies showed that oxidative stress and low availability of nitric oxide (NO) causes an increase in vascular wall tension and increase blood pressure. Piper sarmentosum (PS) a traditional Malay herbal plant is well known for its high antioxidant content. Antioxidant is useful in improving cardiovascular diseases particularly hypertension. Thus, it is beneficial to determine the effect of PS leaves aqueous extract (Kadukmy™) on the blood pressure, NO level, oxidative stress markers and serum cholesterol level of the Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR).

    METHODS: Rats were devided into five groups consisting of three treatment groups and two control groups. Baseline blood investigations were done before and following commencement of treatment. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were treated for 28 consecutive days and the blood pressure was measured weekly.

    RESULTS: Kadukmy™ administration showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P 

  6. Abdul Rahman Sazli F, Jubri Z, Abdul Rahman M, Karsani SA, Md Top AG, Wan Ngah WZ
    PMID: 25886747 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0590-y
    To determine the antiproliferative effect of gamma-tocotrienol (GTT) treatment on differential protein expression in HepG2 cells.
  7. Mohd Effendy N, Abdullah S, Yunoh MF, Shuid AN
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Mar 12;15:58.
    PMID: 25887391 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0567-x
    BACKGROUND: Post-menopausal osteoporosis has long been treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT is associated with serious adverse effects. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP) is a herb with potential as an alternative agent to ERT due to its phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on bone. This study aimed to determine the effects of LP supplementation on bone biomechanical strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model.

    METHODS: Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 4 to 5 months old were randomly divided into six groups; six rats in the baseline group (BL) and eighteen rats in each group of; Sham- operated (Sham), ovariectomised control (OVXC) and ovariectomised with daily oral gavages of Premarin at 64.5 μg/kg (ERT), LP at 20 mg/kg (LP20) and LP at 100 mg/kg (LP100) respectively. These groups were subdivided into three, six and nine weeks of treatment periods. Rats in BL group were euthanized before the start of the study, while other rats were euthanized after completion of their treatments. Femora were dissected out for biomechanical strength analysis using Instron Universal Model 5848 Micro Tester.

    RESULTS: OVXC group showed deterioration in the bone biomechanical strength with time. Both ERT and LP supplemented rats showed improvements in bone strength parameters such as maximum load, displacement, stiffness, stress, and Young Modulus. The most improved bone strength was seen in rats given LP at the dose of 100 mg/kg for nine weeks.

    CONCLUSION: LP supplementation at 100 mg/kg was more effective than ERT in reversing ovariectomy-induced bone biomechanical changes.
  8. Duraipandi S, Selvakumar V, Er NY
    PMID: 25885542 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0568-9
    Ghritas are ayurvedic lipid based preparations in which oil or ghee is boiled with prescribed kasaya (polyherbal decoction) and kalka (fine paste of herbs) until the evaporation of aqueous phase transfers the contents into oily phase. The polyherbal decoction used in the preparation predominantly contains water soluble Active Botanical Ingredients (ABIs).
  9. Tay ST, Lim SL, Tan HW
    PMID: 25380692 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-439
    The increasing resistance of Candida yeasts towards antifungal compounds and the limited choice of therapeutic drugs have spurred great interest amongst the scientific community to search for alternative anti-Candida compounds. Mycocins and fungal metabolites have been reported to have the potential for treatment of fungal infections. In this study, the growth inhibition of Candida species by a mycocin produced by Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactone compound from Aureobasidium pullulans were investigated.
  10. Mohd Abd Razak MR, Afzan A, Ali R, Amir Jalaluddin NF, Wasiman MI, Shiekh Zahari SH, et al.
    PMID: 25510573 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-492
    The development of resistant to current antimalarial drugs is a major challenge in achieving malaria elimination status in many countries. Therefore there is a need for new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the major source for the search of new antimalarial drugs. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial properties.
  11. Atangwho IJ, Yin KB, Umar MI, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ
    PMID: 25358757 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-426
    This study evaluated the impact of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on the transcription of key enzymes involved in cellular modulation of glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in a bid to understand the possible anti-diabetic mechanism of VA.
  12. Chui PL, Abdullah KL, Wong LP, Taib NA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Oct 30;14:425.
    PMID: 25358688 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-425
    BACKGROUND: The inclusion of prayer-for-health (PFH) in the definition of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) has resulted in higher levels of CAM use. The objective of this study was to assess PFH and CAM use among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at two chemotherapy providers. Patients were questioned about use of three categories of CAM, mind-body practices (MBPs), natural products (NPs) and traditional medicine (TM). PFH was also examined separately from CAM to better characterise the patterns of CAM and PFH used during chemotherapy.

    RESULTS: A total of 546 eligible patients participated in the study; 70.7% (n = 386) reported using some form of CAM, and 29.3% (n = 160) were non-CAM users. When PFH was excluded as a CAM, fewer patients reported the use of CAM (66.1%; n = 361). The total number of patients who used MBPs decreased from 342 to 183. The most common CAM use category was NPs (82.8%), followed by MBPs (50.7%), and TM (35.7%). CAM users were more likely to have a tertiary education (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.15-3.89 vs. primary/lower), have household incomes > RM 3,000 (≈944 USD) per month (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.40-3.84 vs. ≤RM 3,000 (≈944 USD)), and have advanced cancer (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.59 vs. early stage cancer), compared with non-CAM users. The CAM users were less likely to have their chemotherapy on schedule (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58 vs. chemotherapy postponed) than non-CAM users. Most MBPs were perceived to be more helpful by their users, compared with the users of NPs and TM.

    CONCLUSION: CAM use was prevalent among breast cancer patients. Excluding PFH from the definition of CAM reduced the prevalence of overall CAM use. Overall, CAM use was associated with higher education levels and household incomes, advanced cancer and lower chemotherapy schedule compliance. Many patients perceived MBP to be beneficial for improving overall well-being during chemotherapy. These findings, while preliminary, clearly indicate the differences in CAM use when PFH is included in, and excluded from, the definition of CAM.

  13. Rouhollahi E, Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Paydar M, Fadaeinasab M, Zahedifard M, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    PMID: 25652758 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0534-6
    BACKGROUND: Curcuma purpurascens BI. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as 'Koneng Tinggang' and 'Temu Tis' is a Javanese medicinal plant which has been used for numerous ailments and diseases in rural Javanese communities. In the present study, the apoptogenic activity of dichloromethane extract of Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) was investigated against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
    METHODS: Acute toxicity study of DECPR was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds of DECPR were analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-time of flight (GC-MS-TOF) analysis. Cytotoxic effect of DECPR on HT-29 cells was analyzed by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Effects of DECPR on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial-initiated events were investigated using a high content screening system. The activities of the caspases were also measured using a fluorometric assay. The quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to examine the gene expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl proteins.
    RESULTS: The in vivo acute toxicity study of DECPR on rats showed the safety of this extract at the highest dose of 5 g/kg. The GC-MS-TOF analysis of DECPR detected turmerone as the major compound in dichloromethane extract. IC50 value of DECPR towards HT-29 cells after 24 h treatment was found to be 7.79 ± 0.54 μg/mL. In addition, DECPR induced LDH release and ROS generation in HT-29 cells through a mechanism involving nuclear fragmentation and cytoskeletal rearrangement. The mitochondrial-initiated events, including collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c leakage was also triggered by DECPR treatment. Initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3 was dose-dependently activated by DECPR. The quantitative PCR analysis on the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 family of proteins showed a significant up-regulation of Bax associated with down-regulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNA expression.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in the current study showed that DECP suppressed the proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and triggered the induction of apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
  14. Ariffin SH, Yeen WW, Abidin IZ, Abdul Wahab RM, Ariffin ZZ, Senafi S
    PMID: 25519220 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-508
    Carrageenan is a linear sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed of the Rhodophyceae family. It has broad spectrum of applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical field. In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity of degraded and undegraded carrageenan in human intestine (Caco-2; cancer and FHs 74 Int; normal) and liver (HepG2; cancer and Fa2N-4; normal) cell lines.
  15. Zaid SS, Othman S, Kassim NM
    PMID: 25519484 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-509
    To investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against the toxicity effects induced by Bisphenol A (BPA) on pubertal development of ovaries.
  16. Lim SW, Loh HS, Ting KN, Bradshaw TD, Zeenathul NA
    PMID: 25480449 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-469
    Tocotrienols, especially the gamma isomer was discovered to possess cytotoxic effects associated with the induction of apoptosis in numerous cancers. Individual tocotrienol isomers are believed to induce dissimilar apoptotic mechanisms in different cancer types. This study was aimed to compare the cytotoxic potency of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols, and to explore their resultant apoptotic mechanisms in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and glioblastoma U87MG cells which are scarcely researched.
  17. Othman AR, Abdullah N, Ahmad S, Ismail IS, Zakaria MP
    PMID: 25652309 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0528-4
    BACKGROUND: The Jatropha curcas plant or locally known as "Pokok Jarak" has been widely used in traditional medical applications. This plant is used to treat various conditions such as arthritis, gout, jaundice, wound and inflammation. However, the nature of compounds involved has not been well documented. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of different parts of J. curcas plant and to identify the active compounds involved.
    METHODS: In this study, methanol (80%) extraction of four different parts (leaves, fruits, stem and root) of J. curcas plant was carried out. Phenolic content of each part was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as the phenol standard. Each plant part was screened for anti-inflammatory activity using cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The active plant part was then partitioned with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. Each partition was again screened for anti-inflammatory activity. The active partition was then fractionated using an open column chromatography system. Single spots isolated from column chromatography were assayed for anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities. Spots that showed activity were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis for identification of active metabolites.
    RESULTS: The hexane partition from root extract showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. However, it also showed high cytotoxicity towards RAW 264.7 cells at 1 mg/mL. Fractionation process using column chromatography showed five spots. Two spots labeled as H-4 and H-5 possessed anti-inflammatory activity, without cytotoxicity activity. Analysis of both spots by GC-MS showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid.
    CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the J. curcas root extract.
  18. Ismail N, Ismail M, Imam MU, Azmi NH, Fathy SF, Foo JB, et al.
    PMID: 25475556 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-467
    Apoptosis is often the end result of oxidative damage to neurons. Due to shared pathways between oxidative stress, apoptosis and antioxidant defence systems, an oxidative insult could end up causing cellular apoptosis or survival depending on the severity of the insult and cellular responses. Plant bioresources have received close attention in recent years for their potential role in regulating the pathways involved in apoptosis and oxidative stress in favour of cell survival. Rice bran is a bioactive-rich by-product of rice milling process. It possesses antioxidant properties, making it a promising source of antioxidants that could potentially prevent oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative diseases.
  19. Yida Z, Imam MU, Ismail M
    PMID: 25475744 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-468
    Edible birds' nest (EBN) is reported to be antioxidant-rich. However, the fate of its antioxidants after oral consumption is not yet reported. To explore this, we hypothesized that EBN antioxidants are released from their matrix when subjected to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion.
  20. Yen HK, Fauzi AR, Din LB, McKelvey-Martin VJ, Meng CK, Inayat-Hussain SH, et al.
    PMID: 25107315 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-295
    Selective Alzheimer Disease Indicator-1 (or Seladin-1) is a multifunctional protein first discovered by downregulation of its expression in Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, the expression of this protein is upregulated in several cancers, including primary bladder cancer. However, its role in cancer formation has yet to be discovered. Goniothalamin is a natural product that has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In this study, we have elucidated the role of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity towards human urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4.
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