Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 261 in total

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  1. Razali N, Mat Junit S, Ariffin A, Ramli NS, Abdul Aziz A
    PMID: 26683054 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0963-2
    Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) or locally known as "asam jawa" belongs to the family Leguminosae. T. indica seeds as by-products from the fruits were previously reported to contain high polyphenolic content. However, identification of their bioactive polyphenols using recent technologies is less well researched but nonetheless important. Hence, it was the aim of this study to provide further information on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities as well as to identify and quantify its bioactive polyphenols.
  2. Firouzi S, Mohd-Yusof BN, Majid HA, Ismail A, Kamaruddin NA
    PMID: 26654906 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0952-5
    The beneficial effect of probiotics on renal profile and liver function has been reported among patients with chronic kidney disease and fatty liver respectively. However, its effect on renal profile and liver function among type 2 diabetic individuals has not been fully understood. To investigate the effect of microbial cell preparation on renal profile and liver function tests among type 2 diabetic individuals.
  3. Al-Henhena N, Khalifa SA, Ying RP, Ismail S, Hamadi R, Shawter AN, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015;15(1):419.
    PMID: 26608653 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0926-7
    With cancer being one of the major causes of death around the world, studies are ongoing to find new chemotherapeutic leads. There are common mechanisms for colorectal cancer (CRC) formation. Several are connected with oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis and others are related to imbalanced homeostasis or intake of drugs/toxins. Plants that have been used for decades in folk and traditional medicine have been accepted as one of the commonest sources of discovered natural agents of cancer chemotherapy and chemoprevention. The aim was to study the antioxidant and chemopreventive effects of Strobilanthes crispus on colorectal cancer formation.
  4. Yeong LT, Abdul Hamid R, Saiful Yazan L, Khaza'ai H, Mohtarrudin N
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015;15(1):431.
    PMID: 26638207 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0954-3
    Drastic increment of skin cancer incidence has driven natural product-based chemoprevention as a promising approach in anticancer drug development. Apart from its traditional usages against various ailments, Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) specifically its triterpene-quinone fraction (TQF) which was isolated from the root hexane extract (ACRH) was recently reported to exert antitumor promoting activity in vitro. This study aimed at determining chemopreventive effect of TQF against chemically-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis as well as elucidating its possible pathway(s).
  5. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015;15(1):422.
    PMID: 26613959 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0873-3
    Strobilanthes crispus is a well-known herb in Malaysia with various pharmaceutical properties. S. crispus is known to contain several biologically active chemical constituents which are responsible for its pharmaceutical quality.
  6. Yida Z, Imam MU, Ismail M
    PMID: 25475744 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-468
    Edible birds' nest (EBN) is reported to be antioxidant-rich. However, the fate of its antioxidants after oral consumption is not yet reported. To explore this, we hypothesized that EBN antioxidants are released from their matrix when subjected to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion.
  7. Ismail N, Ismail M, Imam MU, Azmi NH, Fathy SF, Foo JB, et al.
    PMID: 25475556 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-467
    Apoptosis is often the end result of oxidative damage to neurons. Due to shared pathways between oxidative stress, apoptosis and antioxidant defence systems, an oxidative insult could end up causing cellular apoptosis or survival depending on the severity of the insult and cellular responses. Plant bioresources have received close attention in recent years for their potential role in regulating the pathways involved in apoptosis and oxidative stress in favour of cell survival. Rice bran is a bioactive-rich by-product of rice milling process. It possesses antioxidant properties, making it a promising source of antioxidants that could potentially prevent oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative diseases.
  8. Tay ST, Lim SL, Tan HW
    PMID: 25380692 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-439
    The increasing resistance of Candida yeasts towards antifungal compounds and the limited choice of therapeutic drugs have spurred great interest amongst the scientific community to search for alternative anti-Candida compounds. Mycocins and fungal metabolites have been reported to have the potential for treatment of fungal infections. In this study, the growth inhibition of Candida species by a mycocin produced by Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactone compound from Aureobasidium pullulans were investigated.
  9. Dhanoa A, Yong TL, Yeap SJ, Lee IS, Singh VA
    PMID: 25324121 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-404
    Although studies have shown that a large proportion of cancer patients use CAM, no study on CAM use amongst orthopaedic oncology patients has been published. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence, characteristics and factors associated with CAM use amongst orthopaedic oncology patients.
  10. Othman AR, Abdullah N, Ahmad S, Ismail IS, Zakaria MP
    PMID: 25652309 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0528-4
    BACKGROUND: The Jatropha curcas plant or locally known as "Pokok Jarak" has been widely used in traditional medical applications. This plant is used to treat various conditions such as arthritis, gout, jaundice, wound and inflammation. However, the nature of compounds involved has not been well documented. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of different parts of J. curcas plant and to identify the active compounds involved.
    METHODS: In this study, methanol (80%) extraction of four different parts (leaves, fruits, stem and root) of J. curcas plant was carried out. Phenolic content of each part was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as the phenol standard. Each plant part was screened for anti-inflammatory activity using cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The active plant part was then partitioned with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. Each partition was again screened for anti-inflammatory activity. The active partition was then fractionated using an open column chromatography system. Single spots isolated from column chromatography were assayed for anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities. Spots that showed activity were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis for identification of active metabolites.
    RESULTS: The hexane partition from root extract showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. However, it also showed high cytotoxicity towards RAW 264.7 cells at 1 mg/mL. Fractionation process using column chromatography showed five spots. Two spots labeled as H-4 and H-5 possessed anti-inflammatory activity, without cytotoxicity activity. Analysis of both spots by GC-MS showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid.
    CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the J. curcas root extract.
  11. Rouhollahi E, Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Paydar M, Fadaeinasab M, Zahedifard M, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    PMID: 25652758 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0534-6
    BACKGROUND: Curcuma purpurascens BI. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as 'Koneng Tinggang' and 'Temu Tis' is a Javanese medicinal plant which has been used for numerous ailments and diseases in rural Javanese communities. In the present study, the apoptogenic activity of dichloromethane extract of Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) was investigated against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
    METHODS: Acute toxicity study of DECPR was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds of DECPR were analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-time of flight (GC-MS-TOF) analysis. Cytotoxic effect of DECPR on HT-29 cells was analyzed by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Effects of DECPR on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial-initiated events were investigated using a high content screening system. The activities of the caspases were also measured using a fluorometric assay. The quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to examine the gene expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl proteins.
    RESULTS: The in vivo acute toxicity study of DECPR on rats showed the safety of this extract at the highest dose of 5 g/kg. The GC-MS-TOF analysis of DECPR detected turmerone as the major compound in dichloromethane extract. IC50 value of DECPR towards HT-29 cells after 24 h treatment was found to be 7.79 ± 0.54 μg/mL. In addition, DECPR induced LDH release and ROS generation in HT-29 cells through a mechanism involving nuclear fragmentation and cytoskeletal rearrangement. The mitochondrial-initiated events, including collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c leakage was also triggered by DECPR treatment. Initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3 was dose-dependently activated by DECPR. The quantitative PCR analysis on the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 family of proteins showed a significant up-regulation of Bax associated with down-regulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNA expression.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in the current study showed that DECP suppressed the proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and triggered the induction of apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
  12. Chui PL, Abdullah KL, Wong LP, Taib NA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Oct 30;14:425.
    PMID: 25358688 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-425
    BACKGROUND: The inclusion of prayer-for-health (PFH) in the definition of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) has resulted in higher levels of CAM use. The objective of this study was to assess PFH and CAM use among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at two chemotherapy providers. Patients were questioned about use of three categories of CAM, mind-body practices (MBPs), natural products (NPs) and traditional medicine (TM). PFH was also examined separately from CAM to better characterise the patterns of CAM and PFH used during chemotherapy.

    RESULTS: A total of 546 eligible patients participated in the study; 70.7% (n = 386) reported using some form of CAM, and 29.3% (n = 160) were non-CAM users. When PFH was excluded as a CAM, fewer patients reported the use of CAM (66.1%; n = 361). The total number of patients who used MBPs decreased from 342 to 183. The most common CAM use category was NPs (82.8%), followed by MBPs (50.7%), and TM (35.7%). CAM users were more likely to have a tertiary education (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.15-3.89 vs. primary/lower), have household incomes > RM 3,000 (≈944 USD) per month (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.40-3.84 vs. ≤RM 3,000 (≈944 USD)), and have advanced cancer (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.59 vs. early stage cancer), compared with non-CAM users. The CAM users were less likely to have their chemotherapy on schedule (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58 vs. chemotherapy postponed) than non-CAM users. Most MBPs were perceived to be more helpful by their users, compared with the users of NPs and TM.

    CONCLUSION: CAM use was prevalent among breast cancer patients. Excluding PFH from the definition of CAM reduced the prevalence of overall CAM use. Overall, CAM use was associated with higher education levels and household incomes, advanced cancer and lower chemotherapy schedule compliance. Many patients perceived MBP to be beneficial for improving overall well-being during chemotherapy. These findings, while preliminary, clearly indicate the differences in CAM use when PFH is included in, and excluded from, the definition of CAM.

  13. Atangwho IJ, Yin KB, Umar MI, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ
    PMID: 25358757 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-426
    This study evaluated the impact of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on the transcription of key enzymes involved in cellular modulation of glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in a bid to understand the possible anti-diabetic mechanism of VA.
  14. Mohd Abd Razak MR, Afzan A, Ali R, Amir Jalaluddin NF, Wasiman MI, Shiekh Zahari SH, et al.
    PMID: 25510573 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-492
    The development of resistant to current antimalarial drugs is a major challenge in achieving malaria elimination status in many countries. Therefore there is a need for new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the major source for the search of new antimalarial drugs. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial properties.
  15. Lim SW, Loh HS, Ting KN, Bradshaw TD, Zeenathul NA
    PMID: 25480449 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-469
    Tocotrienols, especially the gamma isomer was discovered to possess cytotoxic effects associated with the induction of apoptosis in numerous cancers. Individual tocotrienol isomers are believed to induce dissimilar apoptotic mechanisms in different cancer types. This study was aimed to compare the cytotoxic potency of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols, and to explore their resultant apoptotic mechanisms in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and glioblastoma U87MG cells which are scarcely researched.
  16. Hassan LE, Ahamed MB, Majid AS, Baharetha HM, Muslim NS, Nassar ZD, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Oct 20;14:406.
    PMID: 25331269 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-406
    BACKGROUND: Consumption of medicinal plants to overcome diseases is traditionally belongs to the characteristics of most cultures on this earth. Sudan has been a host and cradle to various ancient civilizations and developed a vast knowledge on traditional medicinal plants. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant, antiangiogenic and cytotoxic activities of six Sudanese medicinal plants which have been traditionally used to treat neoplasia. Further the biological activities were correlated with phytochemical contents of the plant extracts.

    METHODS: Different parts of the plants were subjected to sequential extraction method. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined by dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on 2 human cancer (colon and breast) and normal (endothelial and colon fibroblast) cells. Anti-angiogenic potential was tested using ex vivo rat aortic ring assay. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay was conducted to screen the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts. Finally, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated in the extracts using colorimetric assays.

    RESULTS: The results indicated that out of 6 plants tested, 4 plants (Nicotiana glauca, Tephrosia apollinea, Combretum hartmannianum and Tamarix nilotica) exhibited remarkable anti-angiogenic activity by inhibiting the sprouting of microvessels more than 60%. However, the most potent antiangiogenic effect was recorded by ethanol extract of T. apollinea (94.62%). In addition, the plants exhibited significant antiproliferative effects against human breast (MCF-7) and colon (HCT 116) cancer cells while being non-cytotoxic to the tested normal cells. The IC50 values determined for C. hartmannianum, N. gluaca and T. apollinea against MCF-7 cells were 8.48, 10.78 and 29.36 μg/ml, respectively. Whereas, the IC50 values estimated for N. gluaca, T. apollinea and C. hartmannianum against HCT 116 cells were 5.4, 20.2 and 27.2 μg/ml, respectively. These results were more or less equal to the standard reference drugs, tamoxifen (IC50 = 6.67 μg/ml) and 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 3.9 μg/ml) tested against MCF-7 and HCT 116, respectively. Extracts of C. hartmannianum bark and N. glauca leaves demonstrated potent antioxidant effect with IC50s range from 9.4-22.4 and 13.4-30 μg/ml, respectively. Extracts of N. glauca leaves and T apollinea aerial parts demonstrated high amount of flavonoids range from 57.6-88.1 and 10.7-78 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results are in good agreement with the ethnobotanical uses of the plants (N. glauca, T. apollinea, C. hartmannianum and T. nilotica) to cure the oxidative stress and paraneoplastic symptoms caused by the cancer. These findings endorse further investigations on these plants to determine the active principles and their mode of action.

  17. Ariffin SH, Yeen WW, Abidin IZ, Abdul Wahab RM, Ariffin ZZ, Senafi S
    PMID: 25519220 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-508
    Carrageenan is a linear sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed of the Rhodophyceae family. It has broad spectrum of applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical field. In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity of degraded and undegraded carrageenan in human intestine (Caco-2; cancer and FHs 74 Int; normal) and liver (HepG2; cancer and Fa2N-4; normal) cell lines.
  18. Zaid SS, Othman S, Kassim NM
    PMID: 25519484 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-509
    To investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against the toxicity effects induced by Bisphenol A (BPA) on pubertal development of ovaries.
  19. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Idrus Z, Ebrahimi M, Goh YM, Shakeri M, et al.
    PMID: 25273634 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-368
    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens.
  20. Karim AA, Azlan A, Ismail A, Hashim P, Abd Gani SS, Zainudin BH, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Oct 07;14:381.
    PMID: 25292439 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-381
    BACKGROUND: Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient.

    METHODS: Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength).

    RESULTS: LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent.

    CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

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