Suicide has become a serious matter in both developed and developing countries. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting suicidal behaviour among adults in Malaysia. A nationally representative data which consists of 10,141 respondents is used for analysis. A trivariate probit model is utilised to identify the probability of having suicide ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt. Results of the regression analysis show that to ensure unbiased estimates, a trivariate probit model should be used instead of three separate probit models. The determining factors of suicidal behaviour are income, age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, self-rated health and being diagnosed with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. The likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour is lower among higher income earners and older individuals. Being male and married significantly reduce the propensity to engage in suicidal behaviour. Of all the ethnic groups, Indian/others displays the highest likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour. There is a positive relationship between poor health condition and suicide. Policies targeted at individuals who are likely to adopt suicidal behaviour may be effective in lowering the prevalence of suicide.
The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths.
OBJECTIVE: Drug overdose exposures were compared with chemical poisoning in terms of demographics, associated factors and final outcomes.
METHOD: Deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) cases admitted to Penang General Hospital during the years 2000-2004 were studied. Chi-square, independent t-test and binary logistic were used whenever applicable.
RESULTS: Indian patients were more likely to use household products, whereas Malay and Chinese patients were more likely to take drug overdoses (P=.001). Drug overdose victims experienced more socioeconomic problems (P=.05) and were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (P=.052). Chemical poisoning patients presented earlier (P=.011), were hospitalized for shorter time (P=.001) and had a higher rate of mortality (P=.01).
CONCLUSION: The present study has identified a unique ethnic variation in the choice of suicide attempts from toxic substances. DSP associated with drug overdose showed significant morbidity, but increased mortality was seen in chemical poisoning.
There is a scarcity of research on suicidal phenomena in the Muslim world. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the self-reported prevalence of suicidal thoughts, attempts and motives in 12 Muslim countries. A total of 8417 (54.4% women) university students were surveyed by means of a self-report questionnaire. Overall, 22% of the participants reported suicidal ideation and 8.6% reported attempting suicide. The odds of suicidal thoughts were elevated in Azerbaijan, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia, while reduced ORs were recorded in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Malaysia. While odds of suicide attempts were high in Azerbaijan, Palestine and Saudi Arabia reduced odds ratios (OR) were detected in Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia and Tunisia. Taking drugs and using a sharp instrument were the two most frequently used methods to attempt suicide. Only 32.7% of attempts required medical attention. Escape motives were endorsed more than social motives by participants who attempted suicide. Suicidal behaviors were more frequent in women than in men. Compered to men, fewer attempts by women required medical attention. Moreover, our results show that making suicide illegal does not reduce the frequency of suicidal behavior. Results from this comparative study show that suicidal thoughts and attempts are frequent events in young adults in countries where religious scripture explicitly prohibit suicide and the frequencies of nonfatal suicidal behavior show large variation in nations adhering to the same religion.