Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan that infects nearly one-third of the world population. The present study was done to isolate and genotype T. gondii from wild boar from forests of Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 30 wild boars' blood, heads and hearts were obtained for this study and 30 (100.0%) were found to be seropositive when assayed with modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 6). The positive samples were inoculated into mice and T. gondii was only isolated from samples that had strong seropositivity (MAT ≥ 1:24).The isolates were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis and all the Peninsular Malaysia isolates of T. gondii are of clonal type I.
Spirochetes from the Borrelia genus are known to cause diseases in humans, namely Lyme disease and relapsing fever. These organisms are commonly transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors including ticks, mite, and lice. Here, we report the molecular detection of a Borrelia sp. from a Haemaphysalis hystricis Supino tick collected from wildlife in an Orang Asli settlement in Selangor, Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 16s rRNA and flaB gene sequences revealed that the Borrelia sp. is closely related to the relapsing fever group borreliae, Borrelia lonestari, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia theileri, as well as a number of uncharacterized Borrelia sp. from ticks in Portugal and Japan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Borrelia sp. detected in H. hystricis, and in Malaysia. The zoonotic potential of this Borrelia sp. merits further investigation.
This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.
Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous pathogen that infects nearly all warm-blooded animals and humans, can cause severe complications to the infected people and animals as well as serious economic losses and social problems. Here, one local strain (TgPIG-WH1) was isolated from an aborted pig fetus, and the genotype of this strain was identified as ToxoDB #3 by the PCR RFLP typing method using 10 molecular markers (SAG1, SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, C22-8, C29-2 and Apico). A comparison of the virulence of this isolate with other strains in both mice and piglets showed that TgPIG-WH1 was less virulent than type 1 strain RH and type 2 strain ME49 in mice, and caused similar symptoms to those of ME49 such as fever in piglets. Additionally, in piglet infection with both strains, the TgPIG-WH1 caused a higher IgG response and more severe pathological damages than ME49. Furthermore, TgPIG-WH1 caused one death in the 5 infected piglets, whereas ME49 did not, suggesting the higher virulence of TgPIG-WH1 than ME49 during piglet infection. Experimental infections indicate that the virulence of TgPIG-WH1 relative to ME49 is weaker in mice, but higher in pigs. This is probably the first report regarding a ToxoDB #3 strain from pigs in Hubei, China. These data will facilitate the understanding of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma strains in China as well as the prevention and control of porcine toxoplasmosis in the local region.
Zoonotic infections with Onchocerca species are uncommon, and to date only 25 clinical cases have been reported worldwide. In Japan, five previous zoonotic infections were concentrated in Oita, Kyushu (the southern island), with one previous case in Hiroshima in the western part of Honshu (the main island). The causative agent in Japan was identified as Onchocerca dewittei japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka, 2001 from Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax Temminck, 1842). Here we report two infections caused by a female and male O. dewittei japonica, respectively, among residents of Hiroshima and Shimane Prefectures in the western part of Honshu.
An 11-year-old boy living in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture, Kansai Region, Western Honshu, Japan had zoonotic onchocercosis. The patient developed a painful swelling on the little finger of his left hand. The worm detected in the excised mass had external transverse ridges but did not have inner striae in the cuticle. On the basis of the parasite's histopathological characteristics, the causative agent was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica (Spirurida: Onchocercidae). The species of the filarial parasite was confirmed by sequencing the cox1 gene of the parasite. The Japanese wild boar Sus scrofa leucomystax is a definitive host for O. dewittei japonica, which is then transmitted by blackflies as the vector to humans. The current case described occurred in the Kansai Region, Western Honshu, where such infections were previously not reported.
A 73-year-old man living in Kawamata-machi, Fukushima Prefecture, Northeastern Honshu, Japan, visited a hospital with complaints of a subcutaneous swelling that had developed on the back of his left hand. The nodule was surgically removed from the vagina fibrosa tendinis of his left forefinger. Based on the histopathological characteristics, the causative agent of this nodule was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica (Spirurida: Onchocercidae). The species identification was confirmed by cox1 gene sequencing of the worm tissues from paraffin-embedded sections of the nodule. Although 11 cases of zoonotic onchocercosis have previously been recorded in Kyushu and Western Honshu, Japan, the present findings represent the first human case of infection with O. dewittei japonica in Northeastern Honshu, Japan.
Previously, we reported the presence of imported trichinellosis in a Thai worker returning from Malaysia, who presented with progressive generalized muscle hypertrophy and weakness after eating wild boar meat. This work analyzed a partial small subunit of a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene of Trichinella larvae isolated from the patient. The results showed complete identity with a mitochondrial RNA gene of Trichinella papuae (GenBank accession no. EF517130). This is the first report of imported trichinellosis in Thailand caused by T. papuae. It is possible that T. papuae is widely distributed in the wildlife of Southeast Asia.