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  1. Heo CC, Mohamad AR, Rosli H, Nurul Ashikin A, Chen CD, John J, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Apr;26(1):106-9.
    PMID: 19696735
    An observational study was conducted in an oil palm plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia on August until September 2007 to note the decomposition process of pigs and their related faunal succession. We collected six species of ants (Formicidae) from 3 subfamilies: Formicinae (Oecophylla smaragdina and Anoplolepis gracilipes), Myrmicinae (Tetramorium sp. and Pheidologeton sp.) and Ponerinae (Odontoponera sp. and Diacamma sp.) that were associated with pig carcasses placed on the ground. Oecophylla smaragdina, Pheidologeton sp. and Tetramorium sp. were found on a partially burnt pig carcass whereas the other species were recovered from unburned pig carcass. These ants predated on fly eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. Ants could be found at all stages of decomposition starting from fresh until dry stage. Predatory ants can reduce fly population and thus may affect the rate of carcass decomposition but this was not seen in our study. Even though O. smaragdina was seen at all stages of decomposition of the burnt pig, this did not alter much the decomposition process by fly larvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/parasitology*
  2. Bain O, Ramachandran CP, Petter F, Mak JW
    Ann Parasitol Hum Comp, 1977 7 1;52(4):471-9.
    PMID: 931324
    Onchocerca dewittei n. sp. was collected from a wild Boar at the metatarse level (tendons and subcutaneous connective tissue); it can be differentiated from other species by the female cuticle showing straight ridges which overlap in the lateral fields, and by its relatively thick microfilaria (length 228-247 mu and width 6-7 mu). This suidean Onchocerca displays some primitive characters such as straight ridges and persistency of ten pairs of caudal papillae in the male; but as a whole this species is undoubtedly more highly evolved than O. raillieti Bain, Müller and coll., 1976, a parasite of Equidae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/parasitology*
  3. Chandrawathani P, Nurulaini R, Zanin CM, Premaalatha B, Adnan M, Jamnah O, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Dec;25(3):257-8.
    PMID: 19287367
    Antibodies to the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii were assayed in sera of 200 goats, 100 pigs, 126 cattle from various states of Malaysia, and 135 dogs and 55 cats around Ipoh region using an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, cut-off titer 1:200); antibodies were found in 35.5% of goats, 14.5% cats, 9.6% dogs, 7.9% local cattle and 4% yellow cattle but not in pigs. Results indicate that infection is most prevalent in goats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/parasitology*
  4. Uni S, Bain O, Takaoka H, Miyashita M, Suzuki Y
    Parasite, 2001 Sep;8(3):215-22.
    PMID: 11584751
    We describe Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the Japanese wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax, in Oita, Kyushu Island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. This study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. Compared with Onchocerca dewittei dewittei from Sus scrofa jubatus in Malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. In addition, its microfilariae (from uteri) are shorter (192-210 microns compared with 228-247 microns), and only the posterior third of the microfilarial body is coiled, instead of the entire body. The Onchocerca species parasitic in suids (these two subspecies and O. ramachandrini from the warthog in the Ethiopian region) form a group sharing several characters. Among the most unusual characters are the body swellings (a specialized apparatus for mating, known in only a few other genera). In addition, longitudinal cuticular crests were found on males of both subspecies from wild boar and on females of O. ramachandrini.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/parasitology*
  5. Uni S, Mat Udin AS, Agatsuma T, Junker K, Saijuntha W, Bunchom N, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2020 Feb 06;13(1):50.
    PMID: 32028994 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-020-3907-8
    BACKGROUND: The genus Onchocerca Diesing, 1841 includes species of medical importance, such as O. volvulus (Leuckart, 1893), which causes river blindness in the tropics. Recently, zoonotic onchocercosis has been reported in humans worldwide. In Japan, O. dewittei japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka, 2001 from wild boars is a causative agent for this zoonosis. Many filarioid nematodes are infected with Wolbachia endosymbionts which exhibit various evolutionary relationships with their hosts. While investigating the filarial fauna of Borneo, we discovered an undescribed Onchocerca species in the bearded pig Sus barbatus Müller (Cetartiodactyla: Suidae).

    METHODS: We isolated Onchocerca specimens from bearded pigs and examined their morphology. For comparative material, we collected fresh specimens of O. d. dewittei Bain, Ramachandran, Petter & Mak, 1977 from banded pigs (S. scrofa vittatus Boie) in Peninsular Malaysia. Partial sequences of three different genes (two mitochondrial genes, cox1 and 12S rRNA, and one nuclear ITS region) of these filarioids were analysed. By multi-locus sequence analyses based on six genes (16S rDNA, ftsZ, dnaA, coxA, fbpA and gatB) of Wolbachia, we determined the supergroups in the specimens from bearded pigs and those of O. d. dewittei.

    RESULTS: Onchocerca borneensis Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka n. sp. is described on the basis of morphological characteristics and its genetic divergence from congeners. Molecular characteristics of the new species revealed its close evolutionary relationship with O. d. dewittei. Calculated p-distance for the cox1 gene sequences between O. borneensis n. sp. and O. d. dewittei was 5.9%, while that between O. d. dewittei and O. d. japonica was 7.6%. No intraspecific genetic variation was found for the new species. Wolbachia strains identified in the new species and O. d. dewittei belonged to supergroup C and are closely related.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular analyses of filarioids from Asian suids indicate that the new species is sister to O. d. dewittei. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, we propose to elevate O. d. japonica to species level as O. japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka, 2001. Coevolutionary relationships exist between the Wolbachia strains and their filarial hosts in Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/parasitology*
  6. Ruviniyia K, Abdullah DA, Sumita S, Lim YAL, Ooi PT, Sharma RSK
    Parasitol Res, 2020 May;119(5):1663-1674.
    PMID: 32219552 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-020-06648-w
    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging opportunistic pathogen infecting humans, and both domestic and wild pigs are known to harbour zoonotic genotypes. There remains a paucity of information on the prevalence and epidemiology of this enteropathogen in Southeast Asia. The present study was undertaken to determine the molecular prevalence and risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection among commercially farmed pigs in Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 450 pigs from 15 different farms and subjected to nested PCR amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of E. bieneusi. Phylogenetic analysis involved 28 nucleotide sequences of the ITS region of E. bieneusi. An interviewer-administered questionnaire provided information on the animal hosts, farm management systems and environmental factors and was statistically analysed to determine the risk factors for infection. The prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was relatively high (40.7%). The highest prevalence (51.3%) was recorded among the piglets, while the adults showed the lowest level of infection (31.3%). Multivariate analysis indicated that age of the pigs, distance of the farm from human settlement and farm management system were significant risk factors of infection. Three genotypes (EbpA, EbpC and Henan-III) detected among the pigs are potentially zoonotic. The high prevalence of E. bieneusi among locally reared pigs, the presence of zoonotic genotypes and the spatial distribution of pig farms and human settlements warrant further investigation on the possibility of zoonotic transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Swine/parasitology*
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