Introduction: Ectopic thymus is an uncommon cause of neck masses in children that frequently present as lateral cervical swelling especially on the right side.
Case Report: We report two cases with atypical clinical presentation of ectopic thymus and superior herniation of normal thymus. Both of the patients manifested as intermittent midline mass at the suprasternal region during Valsalva manuevre. Unique ultrasound features with the location along the thymic descent together with dynamic assessment of the organ movement were essential to reach the correct diagnosis. Conservative approach was considered in these patients considering the necessity of thymus in the process of puberty.
Conclusion: High index of suspicion is of utmost importance when encounter patient with similar clinical manifestation to avoid unnecessary diagnostic modalities and surgeries. Accurate diagnosis will also alleviate parents' anxiety.
Kaffir lime or “limau purut” (Citrus hystrix) is a popular traditional herbal plant with aromatic leaves. It produces fruits which are commonly used in Asian cuisines as a flavouring agent. Essential oil has been a popular and valuable product applicable in various industries, but its availability is scarce. Essential oil from the leaves of Citrus hystrix is a complex mixture of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. It is rich in bioactive molecules that act synergistically to improve the well-being of an individual. Essential oil is extracted from Citrus hystrix leaves using a few extraction methods; however, the most excellent extraction methods have yet to be ascertained. This review paper highlights several extraction methods that determined the final yield of Citrus hystrix leaves’ essential oil and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages between each method. Two types of methods are discussed, which are conventional and modern methods. Conventional methods include hydro-distillation, steam distillation, Soxhlet distillation and solvent extraction, while the modern method includes pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). In addition, pre- treatment processes are also included as they can significantly affect the performance of other important processes and production yield. This paper also found that the highest yield of 56.16% was obtained using PLE method. Essentially, each of the extraction and pre-treatment methods has its own pros and cons; hence choosing a suitable method depends heavily on the producer's demand and requirement.
The present study was conducted to detect the therapeutic effect of Moringa oleifera and Thymus vulgaris oils on hepatic coccidiosis in experimentally infected rabbits. Also, immunomodulatory effect of the two oils was detected. Twenty-four Newzealand rabbits were used in this study and divided into 4 groups; healthy rabbits, experimentally infected rabbits with Eimeria stiedae oocysts, and two infected treated groups (one with moringa (200 mg/kg) and the other with thyme (500 mg/kg) oils). The results showed highly significant reduction in oocysts shedding (P<0.001 and P<0.05) in the two infected and treated rabbits than the infected non-treated rabbits in almost all days post infection (PI). Thyme oil was more potent and stopped oocysts shedding earlier at the day 34 PI compared to moringa oil at the day 41 PI. Microscopically, there was a damage in the oocysts shed by treated rabbits. Macroscopically, the livers of thyme oil treated rabbits showed more enhancement with protection percentage 75% than those treated with moringa oil in which protection percentage was 55%. The highest titer of antibodies was detected in moringa oil treated rabbits. It was concluded that both moringa and thyme oils had an anti-coccidial effect with thyme oil superiority. So, thyme oil could be useful as an alternative product for the control of rabbit coccidiosis.
This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of Thymus capitatus L. (Lamiaceae) leaves and stems. Dried ground powder leaves and stems were extracted with water (aqueous extracts), ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane (Soxhlet extracts). The antibacterial activity of these extracts was evaluated against bacteria using disc diffusion method. The result obtained showed that the leaves had stronger antibacterial activity than the stems extracts. The ethanolic extract had the highest yield products and the high antibacterial activity than all other solvents. The results suggest that essential oil as non-polar organic compounds could be the main active compounds in this plant. Therefore the antibacterial activity of leaves ethanol extracts (LEE) was compared with essential oils leaves extracts (LEO) of T. capitatus. The LEO showed greater antibacterial activity than LEE. The LEO showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive bacteria.
With the growing interest in food safety and in environmental protection, it is more attractive to develop novel biodegradable packaging films. In this regard, one new blending film was prepared with curdlan (CD)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/thyme essential oil. Our results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the blending film were the best when the ratio of the CD and PVA was 4:1. Further, the barrier properties of the film were optimized by incorporating with thyme essential oil. It was proved that not only water vapor permeability was lower, but also the elongation at break was improved, when 2% (w/w) thyme essential oil used. The potential interactions of the film matrix were analyzed by FTIR, XRD and Cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Importantly, both the antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity were improved. Finally, the blending film was employed for the preservation of chilled meat, while the shelf life was extended up to 10 days.
Recently, increasing public concern about hygiene has been driving many studies to investigate antimicrobial and antiviral agents. However, the use of any antimicrobial agents must be limited due to their possible toxic or harmful effects. In recent years, due to previous antibiotics' lesser side effects, the use of herbal materials instead of synthetic or chemical drugs is increasing. Herbal materials are found in medicines. Herbs can be used in the form of plant extracts or as their active components. Furthermore, most of the world's populations used herbal materials due to their strong antimicrobial properties and primary healthcare benefits. For example, herbs are an excellent material to replace nanosilver as an antibiotic and antiviral agent. The use of nanosilver involves an ROS-mediated mechanism that might lead to oxidative stress-related cancer, cytotoxicity, and heart diseases. Oxidative stress further leads to increased ROS production and also delays the cellular processes involved in wound healing. Therefore, existing antibiotic drugs can be replaced with biomaterials such as herbal medicine with high antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activity. This review paper highlights the antibacterial, antiviral, and radical scavenger (antioxidant) properties of herbal materials. Antimicrobial activity, radical scavenger ability, the potential for antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents, and efficacy in eliminating bacteria and viruses and scavenging free radicals in herbal materials are discussed in this review. The presented herbal antimicrobial agents in this review include clove, portulaca, tribulus, eryngium, cinnamon, turmeric, ginger, thyme, pennyroyal, mint, fennel, chamomile, burdock, eucalyptus, primrose, lemon balm, mallow, and garlic, which are all summarized.